FC: Cells | By: Danielle Blandford And Micah Heller
1: Cell Theory | 1. All living things are made of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms 3. All cells arise from existing cells
2: Scientists | Robert Hooke was the to observe cork cells under a microscope. They looked like little bricks or cells in a jail, which is where the name cells came from. | Mattias Schleiden helped determine that all living things are made of cells. | Robert Hooke | Mattias Schleiden
3: Theador Schwann was dtermined that all plants are made of cells. | Rudolph Virchow was determined that cells reproduce by cells. He also hypothesized that cells divide to form new cells. He proposed that every cell came from a cell that already existed. | Rudolph Virchow | Theador Schwann
4: Have a nucleus, organelles, and membranes around them. DNA is in the nucleus. | No membrane-bound nucleus, few internal structures that are distinguishable under a microscope, instead of chromosomal DNA, theirs is in the plasmid. | Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic | Eukaryote Cells | Prokaryotic Cells
5: What it does: Decide what goes in and out of the cell. Parts: mostly proteins and phospholipids. | Cell membrane
6: Plant Cell | Chloroplast: Animal cells don't have chloroplasts, Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food. Vacuole: One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells)in animal cells, one large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume in plant cells. | Plastids: Absent in animal, Present in plant. Cell wall: Absent in animal, Present in plant. | VS.
7: Animal Cell | Centrioles: Present in all animal cells, Only present in lower plant forms. | Plasma Membrane: only cell membrane in animal, cell wall and a cell membrane in plant. | Lysosomes: Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm in animal, usually not in plant cells. | Cilia: Present in animal, It is very rare in plant. Shape: Round (irregular shape) in animal, Rectangular (fixed shape)in plant. | VS.
8: 10 organelles: | Nucleus: a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters. | Cell Wall: the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of a plant cell. | Chloroplast: a plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments, occurring in plants and algae that carry out photosynthesis. | Mitochondria: An organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production. | Lysosomes: a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.
9: Flagella: a long, lash-like appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa, sperm cells, etc. | Cilia: minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals. | Central Vacuole: A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste. | Golgi Apparatus: an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell. | Smooth E.R: A part of endoplasmic reticulum that is tubular in form, rather than sheet-like, and lacks ribosomes
10: Homeostasis | Definition: A state in which everything within the cell is in equilibrium and functioning properly.
11: How a cell maintains homeostasis: The main part of the cell that works to maintain homeostasis is the cell membrane. The cell membrane acts as the gatekeeper to what goes into and leaves the cell. When there is too much of a certain molecule inside the cell, the cell membrane allows some of the molecules to permeate the membrane and leave the cell. Conversely, when there is too much of a molecule outside the cell and not enough inside the cell, the cell membrane will allow enough of the molecule to permeate to maintain homeostasis.