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Chile - Page Text Content

S: The Chilean Revolution

FC: The Chilean Revolution

1: Table of Contents Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 2-9 Sammi C -Govt. Official . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 10-15 Mason A -Male Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 16-21 Monica N -Disenfran. Person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 22-27 Brianna M -Govt. Official . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 28-33 Kevin M -Male Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pgs 34-39 Courtney C -Female Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 40-45 Sam V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs. 64-73 Henry L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs. 52-57 Blaire C -Female Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 58-63 Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pgs 5-51

2: PROLOGUE : Jose Miguel Carrera was born on Oct. 15,1785. Jose was born into a wealthy family. He then was sent to Spain to continue his education. He then joined the army when the french invaded Spain. When the fight was over and he went back to Santiago and joined up with a local but loud patriot group. He later became a military leader with his impressive military record and family connections . Later on, with the help of his brothers who were in the army, Luis and Juan Jose and the support of the street mobs, Jose accomplished a coup on September 4, 1811. With congress watching, they would be intimidated by his unknown strength. Jose would now lead as a dictator. He then released a constitution that had a form of republican but Chile was still under the Spanish king. All reform efforts were ceased when Spanish troops landed and quickly conquered almost half of the country by March 1813. Carrera was named commander in chief of the Chilean armies. Several defeats lessened his popularity, he was deprived of command, and Bernado O'Higgins was named to replace him. Carrera was captured by the Spanish. In the early 1814, both royalist and patriot forces were run down, and in May a truce was signed called the Treaty of Lircay. Carrera was released, regained his popularity in Santiago, seized control of the government, and vowed to continue the war. On Sept. 30, 1814, a disastrous defeat was imposed on the patriots at Rancagua, and Carrera was blamed for not devoting reserves to aid the besieged O'Higgins.

3: Later Spanish troops were sent in and took Santiago. Carrera and some refugees fled to Argentina. He then sailed to the United States to get assistance, he then managed to find help, and returned in February 1817. The head of the Buenos Aires government,wouldn't allow him to land. Carrera's two brothers, tried to start up a revolution to throw out O'Higgins. They were captured, tried, and shot in April 1818. Carrera claimed that San Martín and O'Higgins had ordered the executions and he promised revenge. With carrera deeply involved in plots to destroy his enemies, he was captured by the governor of Mendoza and executed on Sept. 4, 1821.

4: Prologue: Summary of Revolution The Chilean Revolution was a result of Chilean Creoles rebelling against the royalists and Spain because of high taxes, and they wanted their independence. In February, 1818 Bernardo O’Higgins and the Chilean Creoles joined forces with Jose de San Martin and the Argentine Creoles at the Battle of Chacabuco. Together, they defeated the Spanish army. With this victory, they were able to occupy the capital of Chile, Santiago and establish their own government. This also allowed San Martin to use Chile as a base for liberating Peru and other South American Countries. In Chile, the rebels made changes to the government. First off, they replaced the royalist governor with a junta. They also opened Chilean ports to free trade and began to administer the colony in hopes to achieve its own goals. However, the royalists tried to gain back Santiago shortly after the rebels declared their independence. The Spanish sent an army to Santiago under General Mariano Osorio, which defeated San Martin at the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada. However, on April 2, at the Battle of Maipu, under San Martin the Patriot army emerged organized in three infantry divisions with a total of 396 chiefs and little more of 5,000 sub officers and soldiers, where they defeated the Spanish. The battle left 2,000 Spaniards dead and 3,000 captured; the patriots lost about 1,000 men. The victory ended the struggle for Chilean independence and San Martin was then able to free Peru.

7: Battle of Rancagua, occurred October 1, 1814. Wanted to prevent expeditionaires from taking Santiago. Eventually led to reconquista rule of the Spanish. | Battle of Chacabuco, occurred February 12, 1817. Rebel army, led by Josede San Martin, defeated Spanish force. Established division of Peru. | Battle of Maipu, occurred on April 5, 1818. Between South American rebels and Spanish royalists. Rebel victory, which completed the independence of Chile from Spanish domination.

8: Crane Brinton's Anatomy of a Revolution v.s. Chilean Revolution There are many similarities between Crane Brinton's Anatomy of a Revolution and Chile's revolution. In the Anatomy of a Revolution,Crane Brinton states that people feel restless and tired by the unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government. He also states that people are hopeful of the future, though the government does not respond to the needs of sociey. These conditions resemble the revolution in Chile. The people were quite tired and upset with Spain's influence, though were strong in there hope for change. The Spaniards also did not care about the peoples need. The Spaniards took native people's land, and made incomplete promises of giving education and bettering the people. Though there are some differences between Crane Brinton's Anatomy of a Revolution, and the Chilean revolution. The Anatomy of a Revolution states that social classes closest to one another are the most hostile. Though in Chile's case, most of the hostility was driven between the people of Chile, and the Spaniards and missionaries who tried to conflict their culture.

9: There are also many comparisons and differences with the outcomes of a revolution between The Anatomy of a Revolution, and Chile's revolution. Crane Brinton states that revolutionaries gain power and seem united, though the unity is dissolved, and a strong man emerges and assumes great power. Much like The Anatomy of a Revolution, Chile's revolutionaries did unite between battles and protests to form a bond strong enough to defeat Spain. This bond did not entirely dissolve, for the people of Chile continued to find ways to better themselves and the country, gain their rights. A new leader, Bernardo O'Higgins, emerged from the revolution. He continuously helped Chile gain its independence from Spain, and later became the Supreme Dictator of Chile, head of the first Chilean government. These are just a few comparisons and differences between Crane Brinton's Anatomy of a Revolution, and Chile's own revolution.

10: Timeline of Major Events During Chile Revolution: 1810: Criollo leaders of Santiago declare independence from Spain 1811: National Congress is established 1814: Spanish troops from Peru reconquer Chile at Battle of Rancagua 1817: Troops led by Bernardo O'Higgins and General José de San Martín defeat the Spanish in the Battle of Chacabuco 1818: Declaration of Independence from Spain 1818-1830: Period of civil wars 1823: Slavery is abolished 1833: The Portales Constitution is adopted

11: Internal Source Acknowledgment of others' work: McNair, Sylvia. Chile. New York: Children’s Press, 2000. Print. "Anatomy of a Revolution by Crane Brinton." History Teacher. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. http://www.historyteacher.net

12: September 20th, 1810 Dear Diary, There's been a lot of talk lately about the never ending dispute over independence. But may I ask whats wrong with the way our government is right now, I get everything I could ask for and who cares about those pesky Creole's. Why do they feel the need to cause riots and arguments throughout our town, they need to learn how to live with what they've got. Then again they have probably been influenced by that Napoleon and his invasions of Spain giving them hope. Why do they want independence anyway? We have a stable government, if we were to even consider changing it, it would jeopardize the political and economic status of our current government. If they are complaining about the life they are living now, just wait until all of their riots put me into a position where I can take them all out. If I had a choice, everyone in our society should be involved in our government, instead of fighting against it. Fighting will only cause more problems, if they would all just shut their mouths and help then they would have nothing to complain about. They have no idea how hard it is to work with people who are constantly criticizing you, watching your every move. If I don't play things out correctly or if things don't go as planned by my superiors, I'm out. Thats why those pesky Creole's should quite whining because they are gonna run me out of my position in the government, and then I would have no place to go, there would be no order, things would start to fall apart and I'm sure a war would emerge. When I say war

13: I don't mean a series of riots over a short period of time, I was thinking more like how the French are being slaughtered now against the Spanish, it has already been 2 years since the invasion and battles are still being fought and it doesn't seem to be ending any time soon. If I lose my position in government because of those damn Creole's there is no doubt that a war will egress and our whole society will slowly drift into chaos. So Creole's this is what I have to say to you, without me your all dead because I and the rest of the government officials are the only ones who know what we are doing around here and if you are willing to risk chaos for independence then so be it, but know that you will have to fight for it, and it will be a battle with blood shed, don't expect anything else. And yet I wonder, if they even do manage to achieve independence what will they do with it if they have no government left. These are the questions that make me laugh. Sincerely A government official

14: December 17th 1811 Dear Diary, Remember when I wrote to you last? How I knew that chaos would break lose and those damn Creole's would cause our whole society problems...well I was right. Those riots and progressing issues have turned into a civil war. To top it all off even after 3 years of fighting that war of French being brutally slaughtered against the Spanish is still going on and still there is no light at the end of the tunnel for a way out of the war still. Can our society handle that? The amount of soldiers and volunteers it would take, the number of labor intensive hours, the number of lives lost, to fight a battle that only Creole's see to be necessary. The civil war really has no purpose apart from the fact of achieving independence and where does that get us to? More rights? More freedom? Well maybe to them that would be a plus, but then think about the negatives, loss of lives through battles, loss of hope if things don't go as planned, even loss of jobs, more importantly my job.I'm part of the government and I like where I stand, or at least I did, now on top of everything else I had to worry about, now I have to be concerned about the Creole's and how what

15: actions they make affects my current position/status. This is what it has come to fighting over everything, and now Jose Miguel Carrero has named himself dictator of Chile! Hasn't anyone learned that dictators are no good, I mean look what Napoleon did the only reason he made if anything, some, progress was because everyone feared him. And still even with being feared people still hated him because of his lack of compassion for other people and he is still going to get himself killed I promise you that. If this is what our society has come to then maybe I shouldn't be part of it, maybe I should quit the government and run away. NO. what am I saying, I am not a coward. I will not run from problems, and I will not present a problem without a solution. But what more can I do but sit back and watch what happens, I know its hard for anyone to understand, but in my case my safest bet is to be a bystander, I cant change anything now, if I get involved now I will only end up dead. Sincerely A government Official

16: February 12th 1818 Dear Diary, Looks like things are finally coming to a close, O'Higgins is currently and formally declaring independence, full diplomatic relations are being established, looks like those pesky Creole's have finally gotten what they wanted. With help from me of course, yes I admit I stepped out and got involved, barely but I had a moment of panic, impulse, fear. I joined in the battle of Chacabuco and it was a clear and set victory for independent forces, and I know I stated myself pretty clear that I had no intension of getting involved in all this ruckus, but maybe my life would be better with more freedom and rights, maybe I wouldn't have to constantly be worrying about other people and if I am doing that they tell me to do correctly and at their highest standards. Maybe I wouldn't have to be part of a government that pushes me to my limits, just maybe. That was my motivation and although I did not partake in much of the battle I feel that the new independence will be good for my life, I am going to start over, become a better man, a man who cares about other people and what they want. In all honesty I did not like who I was before, I was a hypocrite, I objected Napoleon because he did not care about what other people thought, which is exactly what I was doing, I did not care about what the Creole's wanted, I just thought they were moaning and threatened my position in the government. Well there will be no more of that, this revolution has changed my life, my ways, and view upon life

17: and now it is my time to become a better man. Napoleon ended up dead for his selfish desires and I want to have no similar ending. Changing sides has not been easy everyone I have worked with in the government is out to get me, even though they cannot change the fact that independence is indeed being established, they just want revenge, and I..... | He was a good man, he chose the wrong side, revenge was out to get him, and so was I. Screw independence a strong government was all we needed, and he gave that up. Poor boy. Sure the establishment was going to happen eventually, but he shouldn't have been apart of making that happen, he could have had a better life, and not gotten involved and maybe he would have been alive right now. Maybe its for the best, let the weak die, he used to be strong, but they got to him turned his strong morals and virtues into a bunch of lies, he wanted a better life, well that's what he got because where we are going now there is no positive outlook, the weak should die... Sincerely A Government Official and the man who kills the weak.

18: September 18, 1810 Dear Diary, The mother country has fallen. Napoleon Bonaparte has taken the Spanish throne from king Ferdinand, and placed his brother Joseph on the throne. I don't know how this is going to affect us, but I do know that things are going to start changing in the colonies. But, I am getting ahead of myself; I am a Creole living in Santiago Chili. I fear for the future, for I know not who is going to govern the colony, or whom we are supposed to trade with now that Spain has fallen to the French. I have already heard talk of revolution and an autonomous Chilean government. In fact today, I have attended a cabildo abierto, to discuss what will become of Chili. People from many privileged groups attended this meeting (including myself). Everyone has spoken, and we all want an autonomous Chili. We have vaguely defined the objectives of our revolt. Also, we have taken the liberty and set up the new government of Chili, right here in Santiago. The new government has also opened the ports to free trade, enabling us to trade with whomever we want, not just Spain!

19: However, I fear that I am getting ahead of myself. But, at the risk of jeopardizing the movement, I must say, I feel thing are going to turn out for the better in all of this. The last thing I want is for this revolution to become a huge bloody ordeal. But I know better, and I know that Spain will not give up her colonies so easily; we have a long road ahead of us. Although, seeing the success of the American and French Revolutions, I am confident that we can win. After all, France and America have proved that the underdog can win. I have also heard that there are other colonies doing the same thing we are. All I hope is that I don't get killed. Long live Chili! Sincerely, A Creole Rebel Inspired by: John, Johnson. Drake, Paul. “Chile.” Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111326/Chile/129478/History?anchor=ref137209 (1 Nov 2010).

20: October 1, 1814 Dear Diary, It has been about four years since I last wrote to you. Much has happened since then. When I wrote to you last, the Creoles of Chili (including myself) had just decided to take advantage of Spain’s preoccupation with Napoleon, and turn the colony into its own independent state. We had even started reforming the government, at least temporarily. We were afraid to drive Spain away from us because we thought we would lose our most valuable trading partner. So we remained hopeful that the royal family would return to power. Unfortunately, Napoleon is stronger than we originally thought. Since then the people of Chili, not the royalists, but the true Chilean people, have no problem and fear with standing alone against the mother country. Aside from that, since I wrote to you last, I have become a part of the revolution and joined the rebel army. A number of my friends are here with me; the sense of comradeship is exhilarating. After that things were quite peaceful, and going very smoothly.

21: The rebellion was able to maintain itself without any formal ties to the viceroyalty of Lima. Also, most of the trade restrictions were relaxed; steps were taken to ensure the eventual abolition of slavery; and a newspaper was established to inform the people of Chili about the beliefs of our cause. New members join the cause every day. However, fear looms over the heads of many patriots. Sooner or later, Spain will see what is happening in her colonies. And she will most definitely, take every step to ensure her survival in the Americas. We have already seen Spain take steps to reassert its control over the colony. I am worried. I am not sure if(explosion) sorry, it sounded like a cannon had gone off. Must be just drills. Anyway, I am sorry I have to see what's going on outside. Good Lord! The Spanish, they're attacking! I must go, I will write to you soon, provided I live through the night. Sincerely, A Creole Rebel Inspired by: “Chile.” Culture Grams. http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php?contid=7&wmn=South_America&cid=33&cn=Chile&sname=History&snid=2 (1 Nov 2010).

22: January 10, 1817 Dear Diary, It has been seven years since the independence movement started. Many things have changed. It has also been about three years since I last wrote to you. Let me see, where did I leave off? Oh yes, thank God that I survived what is now known as “The Battle of Rancagua.” Musket balls and cannon fire were shooting by my body the entire time. A dear, dear friend of mine didn't make it out with us however. Rest in peace my friend for you will be missed. Anyway, we survived the battle, along with our leader Bernardo O’Higgins. He is truly a great leader; he was one of the ones who started the whole movement. He has led us through many battles, and we've won most of them. Except for Rancagua, the Spanish took us completely by surprise, we were lucky that we even got out of there alive, as I said earlier, a number of good men didn't make it out alive. But we've recovered since then and we've been annihilating the Spanish left and right.

23: Although, at this point in time, we have been unsuccessful in taking Santiago, the Spanish just don't seem to want to let go of the capital. Actually, that's not true; Santiago has been changing hands constantly. Half the time, the capital belongs to us, then it belongs to Spain, and then back to us, I have stopped keeping track. In fact, I am beginning to wonder if we'll ever gain control of Santiago, but we've been successful so far so we're bound to get control of the city eventually. Great news though, O’Higgins army has merged with the army of Jose de San Martin. He's also fighting for independence from Spain in a number of countries, which now includes Chili. I have heard stories of his army too, he drills his soldiers everyday, and they say that by now he has the best fighting force in all of the Americas. I should bring this to an end soon; our combined forces are beginning our passage across the Andes Mountains today. The commanders say that we'll cross the Andes and come out near Chacabuco, where there is a garrison of Spanish troops. Once we take the hill, the pathway to Santiago will be wide open, and we can finally end this war. Long Live Chili! Sincerely, A Creole Rebel Inspired by: “Chile.” Gale Virtual Reference Library. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&isETOC=true&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&userGroupName=new11256&resultListType=RELATED_DOCUMENT&contentSegment=&docId=GALE|CX3078901400 (1 Nov 2010).

24: November 23rd, 1805 Dear Diary, So much has happened since the Spaniards have landed. Colonists and members of the Roman Catholic Church have come, supporting the Spaniards and eager to bring Christianity into Chile. Though, It is not the religion that I oppose, but the power Spain has gained, that no one has a say any longer, not even the natives. I miss my home; back in Africa things were different. My family, friends, they are all gone. The days here in Spain seem longer than ever before. From sunrise to sunset I work endlessly on my landowner’s fields, though it has gotten to a point where freedom and having the chance to escape are impossible. My master treats me well, not as bad as what other slaves at the market tell me. Though lately my master has grown upset with these Spaniards’ ways. The Spaniards, as well as the Catholic people have granted themselves the right to large parcels of land, creating a system of estates. Though as for the people of Chile, they are losing their right to any land. I remember last spring my master was thinking of moving us to a bigger field, though it would be more work, I would have better living quarters. Now, he does not think it will be possible. His friend, who used to come once or twice each year to our farm, has been coming more frequently, due to the fact that he lost his own land and is in need of crops and goods to survive. Other natives that have lived here for years have no chance to gain any property as well. This sweet family at the market place, who owns a grand piece of land in Santiago, now has to work for the landlords of Spain, though in turn, are supposed to have the chance to give their children education from the Spaniards.

25: I told them they were quite lucky, that where I come from education is impossible to have. They told me that they have yet to receive any education or learning for their children, and that they do not trust these Spaniards. As for me, I do not know whether to trust them or not. They seemed understanding at first, as though they wanted to help Chile, make it as grand as the places in Europe. But ever since they have arrived, they have ignored their promises to the people here, making me wonder what their intentions are. I’ve been living here for ten years now, and have seen less and less native people. Lately, I feel everyone is fed up with Spain. I have heard revolts beginning, and I am worried that Chile may never gain its goodness and culture back. My master has become upset with these Spaniards as well, though I try to convince to him that things will get better. I cannot have him protest against them as well, What if the Spaniards take him away, and then what will happen to the farm? What will happen to me? With so many worries I do not know how I will sleep tonight. All I can do is wait for some change to happen before I decide to help fight against the Spaniards as well. It is getting late; I must say my goodbyes for tonight, though I promise to keep an update if anything changes. - Mabili Bello Disenfranchised Person ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Work Cited: McNair, Sylvia. Chile. New York: Children’s Press, 2000. Print.

26: August 28th, 1811 Dear Diary, Much has happened in the past years. I have seen no change in Spain’s promise of bettering Chile. They have made no changes to help or benefit Chile. I have begun to support some of the revolutionary movements. One of the greatest leaders to help support and help strengthen Chile is Bernardo O’Higgins. Bernardo O’Higgins has shown to be a great supporter in helping Chile. The natives call him El Libertador, meaning The Liberator. He is an Irish immigrant, and was a colonial governor in Chile under Spain’s rule. He has led many revolts and protests in wanting to help overthrow Spanish control in Chile. He has been recruiting troops to take part in numerous battles/skirmishes against the Spaniards. I am eager to help overthrow the Spaniard people, though my master, needy for me to work on the fields, does not want me to fight. Whenever I go to the market, the native people explain to me that things are bad, worse then ever, but at least they are trying to improve Chile. They know the only way things will improve is by fighting for their rights. Even with Spain being as powerful as it is, it cannot compare to the strength and devotion Chileans have to protect their rights. I wish now that my people back home had that type of patriotism and bravery for their rights and country. I hope that one day, I will be able to go back to my county, and have the chance to see my beloved ones.

27: Though I know it is an impossible desire to have. Visiting the market, I have seen many of the merchants furnish weapons and ammunition to help the rebels. I am hopeful that everything will work out, that Chile will be given its independence. My master has started to help a revolt, and has become an important leader of a protest group, eager to get rid of the Spaniard people. Many of the natives never thought of having national independence, simply wanting to elect local governmental authorities. Though, last year, the natives demanded the resignation of the governor appointed from Spain, and have chosen their own authorities. They are in the process of establishing a National Congress, and hopefully this longing battle will come to an end in our favor. I am determined, as well as the rest of Chile, that we will be successful, that Spain will have to step down. I hear the master calling me now to serve dinner; I will continue to keep you informed with what is happening. Goodbye for now. - Mabili Bello Disenfranchised Person ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Work Cited: Clissold, Stephen. Bernardo O’ Higgins and the Independence of Chile. New York: Praeger, 1969. Print. McNair, Sylvia. Chile. New York: Children’s Press, 2000. Print.

28: March 16th, 1836 Dear Diary, It has been twenty-five years since we have last spoke, and much has changed. I am sad and devastated to say that my master was killed two winters ago. He was revolting with a group of others, and the Spanish authorities murdered him, along with many other leaders of the revolution. I was fearful of hearing that the Spaniards would take me away, but luckily my master’s son, Demetrio, took over the land. Demetrio has treated me very well over the past years, though I am no longer a slave to his family. In 1817, after many battles and revolts led, Bernardo O’Higgins was made the supreme director of Chile, the head of the first Chilean government. In a newspaper Demetrio read to me, it described O’Higgins intentions with Chile. In the article, O’Higgins wrote to the Supreme Director of the Provinces of La Plata, he explained, “My wishes are all for the general good and happiness of America: if they prove fruitless, it shall not be for the want of labor and vigilance on my part. I have determined to devote myself entirely to that object, and the pattern of your excellency presents me a great example of imitation. May God preserve you many years”. He shows that he wants, and has always wanted better chances for Chile. He formally declared, on February 12th, 1818, Chile’s Independence from Spain. At the time, the country was very small and compact. Because of the greatness Bernardo O’Higgins has done for the country, many call him the father of Chile. In 1823, Chile abolished its Slavery, and is the first South American country to do so.We were still having difficulties with our government though. There had been various systems of governments tried, under several political leaders. Though, three years ago, in 1833, Chile created its very own Constitution. The Portales Constitution, as it’s called, was named under the government of minister Diego Portales. It has provided orderly elections for the natives, though, only educated men who owned land are able to vote.

29: The Constitution has also proclaimed Roman Catholicism as our official religion. This is the first Constitution that has ever been created in any South American country, and I am very proud with the progress Chile has made. If you are wondering why I haven’t gone back home after slavery was abolished, it is because I have found Chile to be my new home. Though I was not born here, and did not grow up in their culture; I feel as though, with everything Chile has gone through, it has made me feel that I must devote myself to the country. It has freed me, and allowed me to live a more peaceful life. And although not much has changed (I still work on the land, and some days I still find to be endless), I am happy with Chile’s success. After my previous master passed away, and the independence was announced, Demetrio decided to purchase a new piece of land. The property is much bigger than the one before, though I am much happier with the living conditions. I am hopeful that the government in Chile will be better, and that again the country will grow strong. It is time for me to go tend to the animals in the barn, but I will continue to send updates and inform you of Chile’s growth and successes. - Mabili Bello Disenfranchised Person ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Work Cited: “The Supreme Director of the State of Chili to the Supreme Director of the Provinces of La Plata.” Bernardo O’Higgins. 13 May 1817: 1. Connecticut Courant (1791-1837). ProQuest Information & Learning, 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2010. "Battle of Chacabuco: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 01 Nov. 2010

30: September 18, 1810 Dear Diary, Who do those Criollos think they are, seeking political and economic independence from Spain?! Ever since Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, they’ve all been trying to move toward independence. Why? What’s wrong with our political and economic aspects right now? Why do they feel like they need independence from us? This is all just going to lead to a war and this country is going to be in horrible condition until everything passes over. And, it’s all just going to be because the Criollos are selfish and needy. They don’t realize that if they seek independence from us, they will just end up failing, they are nothing without our government! All this is going to do, is put me out of a job until they realize that they will be lost without us, those selfish Criollos. All of this makes me so angry, can’t people just be happy with what they have? Everyone is doing just fine right now, not being independent. Also, why is it Napoleon’s invasion that has sparked all of this?! It amazes me that these Criollos think they have the authority to do such a thing as rebel, against the rest of Spain. There is no way that they should be able to potentially put Spain in such a bad position. If this all leads to war, bad things will happen, and I will be very angry. I don’t want to be punished for other people’s bad decisions, that’s so unfair! I am very concerned that if these Criollos do get what they want, and receive independence, what will happen to me and the rest of our government? Will our

31: government not have as much of a say in things? This worries me, not just anybody can be making decisions for this country. Us government officials know what this country needs, and if we lose our authority, I couldn’t even tell you what would happen to this country, but it would be bad for sure! If I wouldn’t be affected this much by the Criollos, I would say go for it! Go ahead and ruin everything this country has become, go ahead and be independent. But, all of this would affect me which is the problem. I have more power than these people! How can I allow my life to be affected by people with less authority than me?! I must figure out a way to put an end to all of this independence talk. We have a strong government that is helping the country very much right now and nothing needs to change. This all has to stop. Sincerely, a government official Diary Entry inspired by information from: ABC-CLIO "Chile." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010., "The Powers of South America." ProQuest Historical Newspapers Hartford Courant. Hatford Daily Courant. 2 Aug. 1867. Web. 17 Nov. 2010.

32: November 20, 1811 Dear Diary, Was I not right about what I said before?! What started as a political movement has now turned into a civil war. I knew this was going to happen! This is rediculous! Already, some man named Jose Miguel Carrero has taken military power of Chile and has now created a dictatorship. That is not okay, dictatorships never do well in the long run, don’t people realize that? Apparently not, these people are too focused on getting their independence. I have lost so much say in everything already, I can’t even imagine what it will be like if these people get what they want! I am miserable, I wish everything could just go back to the way it was before all of this started! There is also talk of a constitution to be written. What kinds of laws, etc. it will contain is beyond me! To be honest, at this point it doesn’t look good for us government officials and royalists. Things seem to be leaning towards the Criollos end, more and more people seem to be siding with them and more and more little things seem to be happening in favor of them. As much as I hate all of this, there is nothing I can do about it right now, other than just watch it happen. It’s hard to just sit back and watch now, but there is nothing I can do. I can’t even imagine what it will be

33: like with a new constitution with laws for me! I am very concerned still, with how the country will turn out with all of the new points of view. I am scared that things will go badly and we will go into a period of decline! This whole situation is just frightening and I don’t know what to do about it, I can’t do anything about it to be honest! This is all just so frustrating, a country needs a strong government and we all need to be one unit, no independent. Having separate independent states and countries will just cause us to have more wars later on! All of these revolutionary forces are just creating problems for this country in the future, we are being led in the wrong direction! If there was anything I could do about all of this I would do it, but there’s nothing to do, so all I can do is watch this country fall to pieces. Sincerely, a government official Diary entry inspired by information from: Collier, Simon. "Blanco Encalada, Manuel (1790–1876)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Erick Langer and Jay Kinsbruner. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 587-588. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Nov. 2010., "Wars of Independence,1810-18." Country Studies. US Library of Congress. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.

34: February 12, 1818 Dear Diary, Well, it’s all over. The Criollos have gotten what they wanted. Josede San Martin led a rebellion recently that has liberated Chile completely. And today a Chilean Declaration of Independence was issued. Not only does this state that Chile has it’s own independent rights,but it allows Chile to obtain indefinite independence. I don’t know how all of this is going to play out in the long run, but I have a feeling it is not going to end well. Things never get better when you split up, Chile is going to have a hard time adjusting to not having our strong government. Oh, and did I mention that shortly after my last diary entry the constitution of 1812 came into effect? Well it did, and it promised elections every 8 years. Why do we need that?! If the government is doing a good job, why should we be forced to have an election?! Since then there have been many reforms to this constitution, of course, none of them good for me! This is all just so confusing for me, I don’t understand how some people think! Nothing has gone my way ever since this revolution began. It just keeps getting worse and worse! If I could say anything to all those people in

35: Chile, I would say good luck! Good luck having a stable economy and having strong politics! I couldn’t even predict the future for those people in Chile. I just hope, for their sake, that it is not too bad. I hope for Spain’s sake that its not too bad. If things go bad for Chile they could ruin other parts of Spain! They could start wars with us, they could try to expand! There’s so much that Chile could do now that they are independent, I just hope it doesn’t have negative affects for Spain and other parts of the country. I hope for everyone’s sake, that this revolution will have positive affects on Spain. I’m past the point of being angry, there is nothing I can do anymore, it’s over. When it first began, I thought there was something I could do to put an end to this revolution, but I now realize that it was going to happen no matter what. I just hope it was for the better. Sincerely, a government official Diary entry inspired by information from: "History of Chile." emayzine. Microsoft Encarta. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

36: March 19, 1811 Dear Abuela Espanoza, It has been awhile since I have last written to you . Yesterday as I walked with my fellow fighters of Spain’s army, I start to recall my earlier days and how I got here in the first place. My childhood was filled with luxurious things and there wasn't much to worry about. But when I came here to Spain to complete my education, it is from this moment I hope to complete my education to the fullest and have a long and successful career in the army. Yesterday the French invaded, and to be completely honest I was determined to prove myself. This would be my first fight and since our family knows very important people back home, I wanted to not only prove myself to those important people but to my family. Though when I was fighting I was nervous for what would happen when I would go back home.

37: While I was back home, I ended up joining a small patriot group that was well heard. In my mind this would be close to practice for what I would need to know how to be a leader someday, something that I think I am fit for. But when I talked with my family about taking the next level in my military career, after a couple of days, mama and papa must of pulled a couple of strings and my used my impressing military record because I now am the leader of the military. Also I was able to get help from my brothers and the local street mobs, and with that I achieved a coup on the fourth of September. The members of the congress were intimidated and scared that I had more power than they anticipated which later led to the abolition of slavery. Hopefully with the way things have been going I really hope that I convince the people of Chile that I would make a good leader. When I become leader I want to be the leader that creates the firsts of things, that way they can remember me. Well wish me luck! Sincerely, Jose | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Source Citation "José Miguel Carrera." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 323-324. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3404701151&v=2.1&u=new11256&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w

38: April 27 , 1813 Dear Abuela Espanoza, As a child, I remember how all of mama and papa’s important friends would come over and they would end up being military leaders that I just found out about. But when I was little I remember thinking when I become leader of the military, I want to be the most remembered person. I wanted statues of me and be most recognized for being such a good leader and how much everybody would love me. Things change I guess but my same motive is to fight for what I believe in. Since I have last written, things have changed for the better. I have become leader of Chile. Some people would say that I rule as a dictator but I just use my leadership to its fullest. Also since the 1812 new year has come, it was looking good . I made a constitution that catered a republican form of government but Chile is still loyal to the Spanish king. Remember when I told you about how I wanted to be the first for things, well the first national newspaper was sent out last week. Also, no one knows but the final designs for the flag went out several days ago, I am very excited. When I was recalling my memories something made me think of Spain and how I went there for my education but I think everyone should be able to have the choice of education so i'm working on encouraging it.

39: I don't know where things were starting to go down hill. It first started with the Spanish troops coming onto our land and won because they surprised us,I feel like this is my fault, I should of prepared us for this. The Spanish destroyed nearly half of Chile by the beginning of this year. But since this happened I made it an effort to prepare for this and people saw, then I was named the commander in chief of the Chilean Armies. I was so excited and thrilled to prove myself worthy for this job. I can't say enough how sorry I am for not writing sooner but I have just been so involved in my new job andI just had no time. I plan to bring things up and make everything somewhat better. Sincerely, Jose | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Source Citation "José Miguel Carrera." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 323-324. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3404701151&v=2.1&u=new11256&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w

40: December 8, 1813 Dear Abuela Espanoza, I write to you again and hopefully try to keep you up on things that happen more recently. Unfortunately I don't have good news, things haven't gotten any better since I have last written but I still have hope. I had several battles and lost them all and those defeats have ruined my popularity and even deprived me of my command. They sent Bernando O’Higgins to replace me.I can't even tell you how much I wanted to just breakdown and cry. But I couldn't so I just stuck it out and waited for something positive to come into my life. Then your never going to believe this, I was captured by the Spanish. Fortunately in the beginning of 1814, the Treaty of Lircay was established and I was released to Santiago. I then seized control over the government and vowed to continue the war.I tried very hard to gain my reputation back. But in the end I don't think i did.

41: Later that year on September 30, another,yet bad, defeat brought down hard on the patriots at Rancagua. I was blamed for not committing reserves to aid the beleaguered O’Higgins. Disappointingly after the defeat, Spanish troops took over Santiago. Once I got news of this I fled with some refugees across the Andes to get to Mendoza, Argentina. I know that must sound reckless but I needed to insure my freedom. Being captured by the Spanish changed me.But once I realized they didn't want me, I decided to take the chance and lead the Chilean Exiles but San Martin( the governor of the province), threw out these pretensions and made O’Higgins commander. Life is just not fair. It only gets better, I was then ordered out of the providence so I decided to travel to Buenos Aires to get support but was later refused. So I sailed to the United States looking for help and I found some assistance and returned in February of 1817. I know I traveled everywhere for something that could be let go of easily but I just won't let go if it. I wont let O’Higgins get away with it, Sincerely, Jose | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Source Citation "José Miguel Carrera." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 323-324. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3404701151&v=2.1&u=new11256&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w

42: February 8, 1817 Dear Diary, We are finally getting ready for battle. Being one of the few women in this group, life has been pretty difficult. As a woman in Latin America, I am expected to be taking care of the family and running the household. But, when I’m out here, I feel completely different. I feel like I am really bonding with the others, seeming as we all have one goal: freedom. Just think about it. If we actually win this war for independence, my life could change completely! Maybe I could go to school and get an education, or get a real job instead of running the house like all of the other poor women do. I’m sick and tired of everyone telling me how to run MY life. This revolution could be the start of something new! Life here is so much different than back at home. Theres thousands of us, led by Bernardo O’Higgins. There are few women here, but I have gotten very close with a women named Claudia, another house wife as well. All of this, it is hard to even describe how lucky I am to be here. We haven’t started fighting the Spanish yet, but I’m ready to. The cold, anxious nights are starting to get unbearable. We are hiking great distances every day because we’re supposed to be joining forces with the Argentine creoles led by Jose de San Martin. I really should not be complaining about all of the walking that we have to do because San Martin’s army has to cross the Andes Mountains to get over here! This new addition to our group will make us unstoppable. Those Spaniards have no idea what is coming for them.

43: Right now as I am writing, we have set up camp in a nearby woods off of the path that we are all taking. It is so cold out, almost -25 degrees! All we have is one blanket and a fire, which is being overtaken by at least 20 people each. I just spent hours trying to dig all this snow out so I can find a patch of ground to sleep on. I really am not enjoying this snow as much as I thought I would. Back at home, snow is very rare and it is just too weird being exposed to all of this. Nevertheless, I am very confident in our men/women. If we want this bad enough, I believe that we can overcome the Spanish and finally claim our independence. Well, my hands are getting frost bitten right now so I should probably be going. I’will write as soon as I figure out our next move! -Emilia Fernandez Female Rebel

44: February 12, 1817 Dear Diary, We’ve done it! Our forces defeated the Spanish in battle earlier today in the Chacabuco Valley in Santiago, Chile. With excellent tactics and plans, we were able to take the Spanish by force along with the help of San Martin’s army that crossed the Andes. At dawn, San Martin sent his troops to start fighting, and our troops, led by Bernardo O’Higgins then came and secured the victory. Over 500 of the Spanish were killed, and 600 taken in as captives, whereas only 12 of our troops were killed in battle. We still have over 100 wounded at the campsite right now. The battle itself was an experience like nothing else. The adrenaline, anxiety, and the fear we all faced today was unforgettable. As we entered the battle, my entire body turned numb. My heart was telling me to have no fear but my legs refused to carry me. While I stood frozen on the path, my best friend Claudia grabbed me by the hands, looked me straight in the eyes and told me, "Emilia, tell me why you're here." I replied with a shaky voice, "F-for freedom...".

45: "YES," she shouted, "You are here because you want freedom. You are here to overcome those Spaniards that are right down there. If they see you like this, shell-shocked, and weak, they’ll laugh at us. They’ll take us as a joke. You’re a strong woman, Emilia. Now go out there and show them why you’re here!” With that, we charged the valley, side by side. With Bernardo leading the way, fire burning in his ambitious eyes, we were an unstoppable force. With my rifle and bayonet grasped tightly in my hands, I was ready to fight. We all split up into groups, Claudia and I were put into the group at the side of the field, along with the rest of the women. There, we shot arrows and fired our rifles at the vulnerable Spaniards. To be quite honest, I was not upset that I was not able to be fighting out on the battle field. The fact that I am a woman, able to be here fighting for what I believe in, and making a difference for my country, is just simply amazing. Hours and hours later, in what seemed like forever, the Spanish numbers were dwindling and we continued to fight until every last one was either dead or captured. With this victory, I have a good feeling that we are coming very close to claiming our independence. With O’Higgins leading us, I am certain that we all can accomplish anything. As we mourn the loss of our fellow soldiers, we also rejoice at the fact that we have annihilated the Spanish, rekindling the dream of freedom. I will write soon! -Emilia Fernandez Female Rebel

46: Feb. 12, 1818 Dear Diary, We have finally done it. It has been over a year since our first victory over the Spanish at the Battle of Chacabuco, and on this day, Bernardo O’Higgins and the patriots of Chile have declared our independence from Spain. Words cannot describe the happiness that filled up inside of me, when he announced those words we all had been longing to hear for so long: “Today, on February 12, 1818, we, the nation of Chile, are free from the tyrannical grasp of Spain!” It wasn’t easy gaining all of this, I have to say. After the Battle of Chacabuco, we advanced into Santiago, where O’Higgins declared our liberty. Just think of the new life I could live now that we are an independent country. Without all of the ridiculous taxes the Spanish enforced, I can save money for things that my family and I would never be able to afford before. As a poor peasant family, us Fernandez’s have been eating rice and beans and stews for breakfast, lunch, and dinner for as long as I can remember. Maybe we can even afford to buy some asada! There are so many new opportunities that we can take for ourselves, and hopefully the creoles and mulattoes will finally stop living in poverty and live like the mestizos and peninsulares.

47: As eager I am for new changes in the government and society, I don’t think that the fight is over yet. The royalists are just as persistent as our rebels, and they will not hand over the power just like that, even though we have declared Chile’s independence. Claudia tells me not to worry, and that the royalists and the Spanish would not dare try to come across our people again, especially after our tremendous victory over them. Really, I should not be worrying, not at a time like this. All of our fellow soldiers are celebrating our independence, dancing and singing, drinking celebratory beverages, and rejoicing together. There is no way to describe the feeling of accomplishment that I possess right now. I mean, if you think about it, we overthrew the Spanish! It’s quite amazing, considering a small country like Chile winning a battle against the successful, extremely powerful army of Spain. This just goes to show that if you believe in a cause enough, anything can be acheived. Well, I think I am going to join in on the celebrations -Emilia Fernandez Female Rebel

48: Juan Gutierrez- December 6, 1814 Dear Diary, I have left my family, my wife Adela, My son Salvador, and my beautiful baby girl Catalina. I miss them with such a passion however in order to give them what they deserve I must help my fellow creoles create an Independent nation in which my family will be able to have a say in their ruler and be treated equally to the families of greater wealth. I know that i will not get the opportunity to help raise my children with my beloved wife Adela and i would much rather stay with them, but this is something i must do. It is because of my love for my family that i must leave for Argentina with many other Chilean rebels, some friends, some strangers. The reason for my venture is in order to support the rebellion lead by Bernardo O’Higgins. The rebellion has suffered major blows, but needs my support now more than ever. A lot has happened in recent years that has placed our country in a huge disposition and now it has become our only option to fight for independence. Recently the war has not been in my favor, but this stands only as a reason for me to work harder to help my country become independent.

49: I had fought in the battle of Raquanga nearly two months ago and this terrible loss has not been good for our troops, along with my own, morale. I know now that the only way to win this war and eventually see the happy faces of my family once again is to grow stronger. Our leader Bernardo O’Higgins gave us the order to flee the horrifying bloodbath at the battle of Raquanga after watching so many comrades die, however the war is not over and that is why we have headed towards Argentina. In time after are troops are trained and our morale is boosted, we will return to Chile and take back Santiago and eventually gain our deserved Independence. Sincerely, Juan Gutierrez | Bernardo O'Higgins

50: Juan Gutierrez-March 3, 1817 Dear Diary, I am currently in the city of Santiago and it is a glorious day for creole rebel fighting for Chilean Independence from its motherland. I have helped fight the royalist soldiers, who were under the command of general Rafael Manoto, for some time now and finally we have succeeded in what is sure to be a turning point for this glorious revolution. We have finally regained control of Chile and this victory has shown to be a great motivational boost for all of my allies who have seen the terrors of necessary war. This victory is majestic and I believe that without the leadership of Bernardo O’Higgins and the incredible support of Jose de San Martin none of this would be possible. | Jose de San Martin

51: It has been almost a decade now since Bernardo started to help us fight for our god given rights against the Spanish royalists and as each day passes I can see the strength of his leadership growing especially now i can tell hiss tactics for war have grown much better. One of the greatest military feats that i have ever seen took place when we were trying to capture this incredible city of Santiago. Despite the fact that Bernardo O’Higgins and Jose de San Martin had nearly 5,000 rebels, including myself, under their command, yet they still managed to maneuver us through the most massive mountain range I had ever seen. My two leaders managed to do this by organizing us into two very large divisions that ended up regrouping in the Chilean Plains. My division followed Bernardo O’Higgins and with his leadership, me along with many of my closest comrades ended up keeping the morale necessary to make it through the mountains. Once we regrouped the battle of Chacabuco was a fierce one, however with our divisions combined once again and our incredible rebel army the battle was ours. | I am happy to say that i think we might actually be able to pull this off. There is a chance that Chile may one day become its own nation and my family can receive the rights they deserve. Just knowing that this is a possibility for the future will keep me fighting to the very end that is within our grasps. Sincerely, Juan Gutierrez

52: Juan Gutierrez-January 18, 1820 Dear Diary, I have not written in some time but my life has become very busy ever since 1818. After we took back Santiago at the battle of Chacabuco in 1817 we went through a lot of changes. On February 12, 1818, exactly one year after we took back Santiago, we declared the Independence of Chile. After this declaration we also aided Jose San Martin in the liberating of Peru and many other colonies that were in need of his support. Even after all of those colonies including our own became independent nations, the war was not close to ending and royalist soldiers still attempted to retake Santiago. | Dear mi famillia, I miss you so much, but i do see the possibility of an independent a nation in our future. How are you guys, i bet Catalina and Salvadore have grown a lot. I can't wait to see you guys again in our independent nation! Love, Juan

53: After many battles these past years with the royalist soldiers still unwilling to given to our demands for independence there was one final battle that ended them all. On April 5th, 1818 a victorious battle took place over the course of less than half a day, the Royalist soldiers wanted to regain Santiago yet again. This was a big mistake on their part for we had motives to end these battles once and for all. The battle was a fierce one, but we came out victorious, we had lost many honorable men, many of them were friends of mine who had seen the triumphs and downfalls of war and died for a worthy victory. We lost many men, but nothing compared to the vast amount of royalists killed or captured. This battle impacted the soldiers of the motherland in such a way that they stopped trying to regain Santiago. On some occasions we will be attacked by foolish royalist soldiers, but those occasions are rare, and when they do attack the results of the battles are aways in our favor. I know that at this point in time i have not completely reached the independence that my family deserves, and I have missed most of Catalina and Salvador's lives, but we are very close to our goal and I hope that in time they will come to forgive, and even thank me. Sincerely, Juan Gutierrez

54: February 12th, 1817 Dear Diary, Today we have engaged the enemy in Chile and have defeated the Spaniards. This location was called Chacabuco, near the city of Santiago. We first had to cross the Andes Mountains. Are army of patriots has been nicknamed the Army of the Andes. We crossed the mountains in the beginning of the month. When we finished crossing the Andes we had one thought on our minds, to liberate the Chilean people and to crush the Spanish. Crossing the Andes was brutal. We lost over 1/3 of our men and 1/2 of our horses. Our major plan was to have the Spanish fight a two front battle. Soler took the flanks and O'Higgins would go right up the middle. At about midnight we led are troops down the mountain. O’Higgins charged along with 1500 men. After O’Higgins made the first charge, Soler saw the advancement and proceeded to take the Spanish flanks. The fighting was fierce but eventually we took a key artillery point at around noon.

55: After we took this point the Spanish fell back into a ranch. O’Higgins charged them right up the middle while Soler snuck around the Spanish to cut off their retreat. Hand to hand combat was a big theme while we were fighting in the ranch. We kept fighting until every Spaniard was dead or taken captive. The Spanish had lost 500 men and 600 were taken captive. We lost 12 men and 120 more men from wounds that had been suffered during the engagement. Are losses were necessary to take this objective. We had lost 132 patriots in total and the Spanish had lost 500 men. The families of the 132 dead men will know that their husbands and fathers had fought greatly and their loss was for the liberation from Spain in South America. Spain must fall Jose de San Martin

56: March 16th, 1818 Dear Diary, We know that the Spanish have about 5000 men in Talca, Chile. We are out numbered by 2000 men. We took position in the Cancha Rayada plains. The Spanish could have attacked us at anytime and we would still have lost. We were sitting in a field while they were protected in Talca. We had no use for cannons as it would be a waste shooting into a protected area. I wanted to move my men because I had feared the very thing the the Spanish did. I felt weak in my flanks so I began to add more troops to the flanks as the Spanish attacked. This was the one thing I feared.

57: They timed it perfectly as we began to move they made a bold but smart move. They had surprised attacked us just before our men could get into position. They targeted O’Higgins brigade. I saw his horse get shot down and he was wounded in his arm. I told my men to hold their ground which was a huge mistake. Many men fled from getting shot at. I don't blame them they attacked us when we weren’t ready. Finally we retreated. On our way back to headquarters we wanted to save as much equipment as possible. We had only lost 150 men and 200 were taking captives. About 150 also fled. This was devastating to our army. It marked the only defeat in our campaign. After we began to reunite and began gathering soldiers again. We reached around 4000 new men. I look to keep pressing the Spanish. Spain must fall Jose de San Martin

58: April 5th, 1818 Dear Diary, Today again we fight near Santiago. General Higgins and myself have created an army for this battle consisting of 400 officers and 1000 sub officers and soldiers. We have established are headquarters at opposite ends of the town. Are scouts estimate that they are about 7 kilometers away from our headquarters. We have established 2 artillery points on hills looking over the town. We also have 3 divisions at the foot of these hills as reserve soldiers. We began shelling early in the morning. The Spanish were also sending artillery strikes are way as well. After a long shelling period we realized that it was doing very little and we marched are men towards the town.

59: We were fighting hard against the Spanish royalist Calvary when we sent in a reserve infantry division. We forced the Calvary to the foot of a hill were are artillery had a clear round of sights and we ordered them to open fire. After this great battle we had only lost about 1000 men. The Spanish had lost around 2000 men and we had captured about 3000 royalists. This was a major battle in our quest to gain complete Independence from Spain. Our Declaration of Independence was drafted in February and we are continuing to work for complete Independence. We had made a huge dent in the Spanish army. Know we have no fear. We now look to the North where our neighbor Peru seeks Independence from our common enemy, the Spanish! Spain must fall Jose de San Martin

60: October 20, 1813 Dear Diary, War is something I never hoped to come in contact with. Unfortunately, the Bonaparte’s have mad that impossible. In result, life at home is not so great. Times have been lonely with all the boys gone. Not much to keep myself busy with since all the jobs worth doing have been given to the men. I might try to find a job as a tailor or cooking for the army. I’m afraid that cooking for the army would send me away from home though, and my little girl needs me. However, it would bring me closer to my sons and little Claudia is always working at the Fernando Plantations anyway. She works as a maid; it’s her first job since she’s only eight. Luckily, the army seems to be doing well. At first we had José Miguel Carrera in charge of the army, because of him I wasn’t very for the revolution. As of a couple of days ago, Bernardo O’Higgins is the commander and people seem to favor him more. My son Antonio wrote me a letter describing their victory at El Roble. He told me how Carrera acted like a coward and immediately retreated when royalist forces launched a surprise attack, but Bernardo O’Higgins showed no sign of backing down. He gathered about 200 men, including my sons, and formed a resistance. It was constant fighting with no one winning or losing. Until O’Higgins charged forward and drove the royalists to retreat. O’Higgins shouted a powerful quote, which my son said he’ll never forget

61: till the day he dies. He said, “Lads! To me! Live with honor, or die with glory! The one who is brave is the one who follows me!” Although, this is only our first victory against the enemies, I am very confident in our new commander and armies. I hope life here eventually becomes easier and fairer. I also pray to God that he will keep my boys safe. Hopefully, my son’s letters never stop. Love, Elena Female Rebel _______________________________________________________________ Diary entry based on information gathered from: -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_War_of_Independence -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernardo_O'Higgins -"Women in Latin America." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Nov. 2010.

62: October 27, 1813 Dear Diary, In my last entry, I wrote about the great victory against the royalist at El Roble. Unfortunately, that victory didn’t change much in our every day life. My cousin, who lives more the rural life, used to have his own sheep ranch, but a couple of days ago the government took it away from him. He was devastated, and now the only way he can make any money is working on the lands of a landlord! A man should be allowed his own piece of land. The government is stripping the pride away from all their people. A French man should not be allowed to govern anything but a French country. This is not his country! I also haven’t had much success in making any money. Just like I expected, the tailor job I was interested in I didn’t get. They told me they had no available jobs and I did not have the skills required for the job. That was all a lie, I am highly qualified for the job. All they were looking at was my gender. My last option is still cooking for the army. Right now the only income my family has is my daughter’s money she receives from being a maid. It’s not right for me to have to use my own child’s money, but these taxes are just as wrong. We would be starving if it weren’t for this kind lady who started a communal soup kitchen for my town. It’s the only meal Claudia and I can have. I haven’t received any more letters from Antonio, but I bet he is doing just fine. I haven’t heard about anything important he would be writing me about so everything is probably just inactive right now.

63: Even though, I do not enjoy war, I enjoy the results from the victories. I’m hoping soon they get rid of the taxes because it is causing chaos. Since people have no money there has been countless burglaries and our town is becoming dangerous. I do not want my daughter to live in a town like that. We cannot survive if there is no peace and justice. Love, Elena Female Rebel __________________________________________________________________ Diary entry based on information gathered from: -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bonaparte -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_War_of_Independence

64: February 22, 1818 Dear Diary, I am deeply sorry that I have disconnected myself for the past couple years, but I didn’t think there was anything worth writing about. As I look back in my journal it makes me cry the way I talked so highly about my sons and the war. Two weeks after my last entry I still had not received any letters from Antonio, I started to worry about him a great deal. Then a couple days later a letter came in the mail for me and my heart jumped. I was in shock when I saw it was not from Antonio, but instead from Alejandro. As I read the first sentence I knew something was not right, and my heart broke as I read the words that followed. Antonio had died in a harsh battle that resulted in defeat. Alejandro refused to tell me any details as of where, when, or how because he believed it would worry me too much, and it was also too hard for him to write. After this, I became bitter about the war. I considered it unjust, and I couldn’t bear to watch another mother go through the misery I did for the past couple years. My daughter had to maintain her same maid job for all this time because I was too weak to put in any effort towards anything. But I digress; about a year and one week ago our independent forces had their final and greatest victory against the Spaniards. It was the Battle of Chacabuco lead by the three patriot leaders that included San Martin, Soler, and O’Higgins, who I have written about before. Although, I am still grieving the death of Antonio, I do not feel as depressed and

65: resentful towards the war. Ever since the Battle of Chacabuco my only living son has returned home and the goals of the war have almost been completed. We finally declared independence against the Spaniards and February 12 will forever be known as our independence day. My country celebrated our first anniversary of Independence last week and festivities are still going on. Sadly, our honorable Ferdinand has not been placed back on the throne yet, but having O’Higgins rule is better than having a French man. I have a gut feeling O’Higgins will become an absolute ruler after all. The Spaniards have not been completely expelled from our country yet, but the positive point is they are not in power. Life has become easier and my only hope for the future is still that Ferdinand is eventually in charge, I am certain he will be. Love, Elena Female Rebel __________________________________________________________________ Diary entry based on information gathered from: -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_Independence -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chacabuco -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Miguel_Carrera -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernardo_O'Higgins -http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/Histor~5.htm -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_VII_of_Spain

66: Dear Diary, September 5th, 1808 This is my first entry I will be making about my life as a disenfranchised Chilean. My name is Santiago Martini and I will be writing these responses to help take me from the work that my master forces upon me. My master is constantly yelling at me to work harder and to complete various tasks at a dizzying pace. My master is one of the few wealthy nobles who reside in chili who made his way to the top by managing several mines in the Nearby mountains which is the only reason I am glad I work at the house because of the stories I hear from the mines about collapses crushing miners and temperatures in excess of 120 degrees. However my master while employing me at one of his better positions as a house servant still has been reluctant to hire more servants and thus the workload is never ending. However enough about me I really created this diary to write about the events that have been occurring recently in my home country. A few months ago in July of 1808 Napoleon Concurred Spain and put

67: his brother in charge which has been causing quite a stir around the estate about revolution because some say with the old king of Spain out of power the Spanish empire is no longer as strong as it was just a few years ago which has been leading some to think that a revolution would be a good idea. However whether the country falls or not, I won’t really be affected, I will either stay a servant or if the country falls, then I will go free (hopefully). Another important even related to our new found revolution because today they choose their new leader, the government is run by the military, but are loyal to Ferdinand VII and Garcia Carrasco is the Royal Governor of Chile. Which may come to bennifet or hurt the revolution because now the government is fun by the military which will probley give more power to the Spaniards in chili however some have been saying that this could cause a greater reason for a revolution because no this new government may prove to be even more oppresivve that the other and thus may help to rally support behind the cause of the revolution. That’s all I can write today my master will soon call on me. - Santiago Martin

68: Dear Diary, September 25th, 1809 Just in the past few weeks several events of great importance have come about in chili concerning the revolution. First of all I have been noticing that the people of Chile have been divided into two groups, those who favored the status quo and the divine right of Ferdinand VII (whatever that is), and those who wanted Charlotte Joaquina as queen. I hear the two groups are called the absolutists and the Carlotists. Whichever side ends up getting their way, i hope it goes in favor of my master; it always ends badly for me when my master is furious, when he is happy, that means less work which is always better. Which I know sounds kind of selfish of me but in my personal condition I just don’t see enough support for the revolution and thus I don’t seek to peruse these ideas. Also just yesterday something preposterous happened, and brings shame to Chile. Thinking back on what I just overheard, I still can’t believe it. Governor Carrasco has been involved in a

69: huge scandal that has caused riots all over. He was involved in a criminal act, the robbery of a British ship that was attempting to smuggle fine cloth into Chile. Carrasco was involved, because he provided a squadron of disguised police to provide the manpower needed to kill the sailors on the ship and take the cloth. Master has been extremely angry (not that he is usually happy). This is perhaps the first thing that has genuinely angered me about my country. How can something so scandals be taking place in our own government the one that has sworn to protect us even the servants and make our lives better but if they think stealing and smuggling is the right thing to do for their own personal gain. I’ve really been put on the fence for this issue I guess I’m just am gona have to see what happens next. Boy i hope our master isn’t too angered over all this bad news. - Santiago Martini

70: Dear Diary, October 1st, 1809 Now all anyone can talk about is the meeting that Governor Zambrano organized where Mateo de Toro Zambrano, our new governor, planned on holding an open city hall meeting. It is hard for us to get our work done with everyone talking about what they heard from other workers while at the market, and it is hard not to get distracted by all the stories. Even my master is in a good mood, as he has been waiting for someone to take the first steps towards independence, and it looks like yesterday’s meeting is the beginning of a transformation in our nation.

71: From what I have heard, I understand that at the meeting the Criollo leaders of Santiago announced that they would take power until there is another king, like Ferdinand back on the throne. A formation of the Junta has been established, as that is what the Juntistas have been pushing the Governor for. They said that they are completely loyal to Ferdinand VII, however they made it clear that they planned on having as much right to rule as did the monarchs in the powerful country of Spain. The meeting formed something that everyone is calling the First Government Junta, and to make it even more official, Count Toro Zombrano has been named president. At the meeting, as a group they first decided to create a militia to protect us and our newly proclaimed freedom, they also opened up all ports to all traders that are allied with Spain. This means that we will be able to taste things nobody has tasted or seen for while Spain has overpowered us, and hopefully with more products coming in, we won’t have to work as hard because there won’t be as much labor in demand. With this new found government, people like my master, unfortunately not people like me, as I do not have a say, have proclaimed their independence from the country of Spain so that they can hopefully continue to rule on their own. -Santiago Martini

72: Epilogue: Summery of Chiles Economic History After the wars of independence Chile hit the ground running. Around 1850 they were one of the largest copper producing countries in the world. IN 1910 Chile called themselves one of the most wealthy countries in South America. Everything seemed to be going wonderful for the Chilean people until the Great Depression. The Great Depression hit Chile pretty hard. The average GDP went down 14%. After this people lost their jobs and business's started to fail. As soon as World War 2 hit, the lost a lot of major imports. People couldn't trade because they needed goods for their own countries. In the 50s the GDP started to rise again, but at a very slow rate. Then, in 1972 Chile hit another economic crisis. Inflation surpassed 200%! The United States tried to get involved but the countries inflation kept on rising. Chiles economic history has had its ups and downs. They were once a top country in South America. But also they were hit extremely hard with the Great Depression. This wasn't all their fault but they got caught in it. Things started to rise again but then fell in 1972 again.

73: Epilogue | Economy | Modern Economic Graphs:

74: When comparing the Chilean presidents and the length of there term it is easy to see the political differences between the united states and Chile. First of all in the us government there are either 4 year or 8 year terms while it seems to be somewhat random in chili mostly less than 3 years showing a instable government. The second indicator of Chiles political status is that Ramon Freire is president on two separate occasions which is not something that happens often in modern democracy's

75: As you can see from the two graphs on the left chili is a far smaller country in terms of population which has a great effect on off of the other factors in Chiles revolution and subsequent years. As a result of Chilis relatively small population the revolution took little time to gain speed however the battles where few and far between because of the lack of manpower

76: “Chilean Coup.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3. Nov. 2010. Crider, Gregory. “Family Life in 19th Century Latin America.” Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3. Nov. 2010. http://dailylife.abc-clio.com/ Hamilton, Neil. “Bernardo O’Higgins”. World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27. Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/> "Results of the Latin American Wars of Independence (Facts & Figures)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/106?cid=37 "Revolutions in Latin America (Overview)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ “Revolutions in Latin America”. World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27. Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/> | Works Cited

77: Sater, William F. "Chile, War with Spain." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 380-381. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. Watts, Tim. "Battle of Chacabuco: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 8 Nov. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ 2008/2009 wikipidea schools selection http://schools-wikipedia.org/wp/c/Chile.htm http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1475268?terms=battle+of+maipu

78: http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://en.academic.ru/pictures/enwiki/79/Ohiggins.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/182434&usg=__A_e8NZMoPQewf0aHW5sog53Vy34=&h=550&w=429&sz=34&hl=en&start=0&sig2=sk1VRZRuUPN-lFrwcW17jQ&zoom=1&tbnid=37kLldFPBGgACM:&tbnh=162&tbnw=153&ei=kazlTM-3D4OjnAeevvHnDA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbernardo%2Bo%2527higgins%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1170%26bih%3D637%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=491&vpy=111&dur=1054&hovh=254&hovw=198&tx=121&ty=107&oei=kazlTM-3D4OjnAeevvHnDA&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://placeholdermedia.com/projects/59revolutions/assets/images/BattleofChacabuco.jpg&imgrefurl=http://placeholdermedia.com/projects/59revolutions/imageinfo.php&usg=__ampTsTphy_-n8WkEWnEj84oreyw=&h=340&w=469&sz=34&hl=en&start=1&sig2=VYxAyZxBd9v18HKWL2rhkw&zoom=1&tbnid=MG4Gs3TlH9Zc7M:&tbnh=93&tbnw=128&ei=dq3lTKvyNYrQnAfDruH2DA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbattle%2Bof%2Bchacabuco%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1170%26bih%3D637%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1

79: http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/artists_a-k/gil_de_castro/Gil%2520de%2520Castro-%2520Gral.%2520San%2520Martin.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/gil_de_castro.php&usg=__gVvJG1N8KkDFI7yJx6tPu3yif2A=&h=480&w=369&sz=35&hl=en&start=0&sig2=UqVqOOYbipkYeP0nrW6Yxw&zoom=1&tbnid=E6o4ml_Ckk7nvM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=91&ei=VrLlTPytIIqMnAfwq6XsDA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Djose%2Bde%2Bsan%2Bmartin%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1170%26bih%3D637%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=504&vpy=178&dur=206&hovh=256&hovw=197&tx=131&ty=104&oei=VrLlTPytIIqMnAfwq6XsDA&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.joeskitchen.com/chile/culture/images/desfile.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.joeskitchen.com/chile/culture/fiestaspatrias.htm&usg=__QGdtJvqRjatKqz8Mk3RfVWLG_4Y=&h=248&w=400&sz=55&hl=en&start=0&sig2=nEzcvrOJvOUmeaGIZo30ug&zoom=1&tbnid=hn27DKKU2eBHBM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=148&ei=r-zqTJK_N4OUnQe3vq39DA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchile%2Band%2Bindependence%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1170%26bih%3D659%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=261&vpy=74&dur=2073&hovh=177&hovw=285&tx=99&ty=95&oei=r-zqTJK_N4OUnQe3vq39DA&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0

80: Henry Lavier's Citations Cami, Paul. "San Jose de Martins Home page." http://www.pachami.com/English/ressanmE.htm Author, N/A. "Chile: History and Culture" http://www.geographia.com/chile/chilehistory.htm Minster, Chris. "Chile's Independence Day: September 18, 1810" http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/thehistoryofchile/p/09chileindependence.htm Images http://dirusso09.wiki.hhh.k12.ny.us/Peru http://www.todo-argentina.net/biografias/san_martin/mili017.htm

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