FC: The Civil Rights Movement: Voting Rights, Protest, and Legislation
1: Who? Paige Matheson Mandolin Parrett Shelby Scarafano Eddie Byrd | Pages 1 - 6 7 -11 12 - 15 16 - 20
2: In most places to register to vote African Americans had to go to the courthouse. The Registrars Office was only open two or three days each month for a couple of hours, usually in the morning or afternoon. You had to take off work — with or without your employer's permission — to register. Sometimes the employer would be driven out of business for allowing an african american to register to vote. On registration day, the county Sheriff and his deputies made sure to hang around the courthouse to discourage "undesirables" from trying to register. This included that black women and men had to go though intimidation, insults, and threats just to get to register to vote. Once they got into the Registrars Office they faced hatred, humiliation, and harassment from clerks and officials.
3: The Alabama Application Form and oaths African Americans had to take were four pages long. This application was made to intimidate and threaten. African Americans had to swear that their answers to every question was true under penalty of law. African Americans knew that the information that they put on the form would be passed on to the Citizens Council and KKK. Many counties used what they called the "voucher system." African Americans had to have someone who was already a registered voter "vouch" for them. In some counties this "supporting witness" had to accompany them to the registrars office, in others they were interviewed somewhere else. Some counties limited the number of new applicants a registered voter could vouch for in a given year, usually two or three. Since no white voter vouched for a black applicant, in most counties where only a small amount of African-Americans were already registered only a few more each year could be added to the rolls. In counties where no African-Americans were registered, other African Americans could not either because they had no one to vouch for them.
4: In addition to completing the application and swearing the oaths, African Americans had to pass the actual "Literacy Test. , Alabama changed the test 4 times in less than two years (1964-1965). At the time of the Selma Voting Rights campaign there were actually 100 different tests in use. the test were suposed to be chosen ramndomly froma loose-leaf bimder. In real life, some individual tests were easier than others and the registrar made sure that black applicants got the hardest ones.
5: In "Part A" the applicant was given a selection of the Constitution to read aloud. The Registrar marked each word he thought you mispronounced. African Americans then had to either copy out by hand a section of the Constitution, or write it down as the registrar spoke (mumbled) it. White applicants usually were allowed to copy, Black applicants usually had to write it down. The Registrar then judged whether you were able to read and write. In Parts "B" and "C," African Americans had to answer two different sets of four written questions each. Part "B" was 4 questions based on the excerpt you had written down. Part "C" consisted of 4 "general knowledge" questions about state and national government.
7: The Albany movement proved to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. The campaign focused on one goal—the desegregation of Birmingham's downtown merchants, than total desegregation, as in Albany. It was also helped by the brutal response of local authorities, in particular Eugene "Bull" Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety who had lost a recent election for mayor to a less rabidly segregationist candidate but refused to accept the new mayor's authority.
8: The campaign also had many varieties of nonviolent confrontations, like sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the start of the drive to register voters. They were convinced that the order was unconstitutional; the campaign was prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. King elected to be among those arrested on April 12, 1963.
9: The campaign was faltering at the same time King was fighting to get out of jail. It was faltering because the movement was running out of demonstrators that were willing to risk an arrest. SCLC organizers came up with a bold and controversial calling on high school students to take part in the demonstrations. When more than one 1,000 students left school on May 2 to join the demonstrations in what would come to be called the Children's Crusade, more than 600 ended up in jail. This was all in the news, but with this first encounter the police acted with restraint. On the next day however another 1,000 students gathered at the church and Bull Connor unleashed police dogs on them, then turned the city's fire hoses mortar, on the children. Television cameras broadcast the scenes of fire hoses knocking down schoolchildren and dogs attacking individual demonstrators, with no means of protecting themselves, to the nation.
10: Finally John F. Kennedy set enough force to governor Wallace to step aside to allow two blacks students to be enrolled that same evening he addressed a the nation on TV and the radio with a historic civil rights speech. The next week June 19.1963 JFK submitted his civil rights movement to congress.
11: Most of the time Police sent dogs to attack them. They would also use fire trucks and shoot them with a fire hoes. The police said it couldn't harm them and that they shoudn't be protesting anyway.
12: A lot of times at protests, people got hurt or killed. Police would beat or arrest people for absolutely nothing.
13: Some of the worst things they could do was to beat them to death or hang them. | A lot of times whites would hang them for just being with a white girl even for talking to one
14: When they would march the police would line up and would not let them through.Sometimes they would attack them by throwing smoke bombs. | kids would also protest after school for freedom and the police would arrest them
15: During the civil rights movement there were laws called the Jim Crow Laws. These laws were used to segregate blacks and whites.
16: Restaurants were allowed to segregate blacks and whites are and just let whites eat there. Blacks and whites didn't like this, they had protest called sit-ins and would not leave until they were served.
17: When blacks wanted to register to vote they had to take a test that asked questions like, "Who is the current president?" All Whites had to do is say that they wanted to register to vote.
18: There were alot of laws that segregated blacks and whites from using the same bathroom, going to the same school, or drinking from the same fountain.
20: Pictures of important happenings during the Civil Rights Movement.