FC: A Civil Rights Movement Scrapbook By: Jonelle Brown Class 7c
1: Table of Contents: | Page #/Titles: Page #1: Plessy vs. Ferguson Page #2: Brown vs. Board of Education Page #3: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Page #4: Rosa Parks Page #5: Civil Rights Act of 1964/ Voting Rights Act of 1965 Page #6: Ruby Bridges
2: Plessy vs. Ferguson: "Separate but Equal." | Homer A. Plessy | Judge J.H.Ferguson
3: The Plessy vs. Ferguson case was about a man named Homer Plessy. In 1892, he was arrested for sitting in a "Whites Only" section of a train. Even though he was seven-eighths white and one-eighths black, he was still considered a colored man. In court, he argued that they were violating the 13th and 14th amendments, but after 3 court cases, his claim was denied and he was sent to jail. It was sixty-four years before the "separate but equal" law was finally ruled against in the U.S. Supreme Court in the Brown vs. Board of Education case. Plessy's case showed the unfairness of segregation, and it eventually led to the integration of schools, because America finally realized that separate is not equal. | Railroad Car
4: Brown vs. Board of Education: Desegregation of Schools | Linda Brown: She was in 3rd grade at the time of the case | This poster describes the effect of this case | This poster is depicting the newspaper on this day that says: "High Court Bans Segregation in Public Schools."
5: The Brown vs. Board of Education case was about a man named Oliver Brown when he wanted his daughter, Linda Brown, to be able to go to the white schools 6 blocks from their home, instead of having to walk a mile every day to get to the closest black school. This was a concern among other parents as well, but the case was named after the Brown's family because they were the first to go to court. In 1951 Oliver and 13 other parents went to the schools to fight for their children's education. They were denied, so they went to the NAACP, in which they were provided lawyers. They were also turned down at the state level. The court referred to the Plessy vs. Ferguson case and agreed that it should stay "separate but equal". Finally, they went to the U.S. Supreme Court. It appealed to them because they had received similar cases from around the country. After 3 years, on May 17, 1954, the court ruled in favor of Brown and the other Blacks around the country. It was a victory for Linda and all to go to school after her.
6: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.: Passive Resistance; "I Have a Dream....." Speech | On August 28, 1963, about 250,000 people( 600,000 of them white) marched on Washington to her Dr. Martin Luther King Speech. On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, he delivered his "I Have a Dream Speech". It described an America where everyone was treated fairly and equally. He followed Gandhi, and didn't believe in violence. The fact that he was on the Lincoln Memorial helped too, because Lincoln had delivered his Emancipation Proclamation speech only 100 years earlier.
7: Dr. Martin Luther KIng Jr. (Both) | MLK Presenting "I Have A Dream ..." Speech
8: Rosa Parks: The Montgomery Bus Boycott
9: Thursday, December 1st, 1955, a woman working with the NAACP had planned to perform a very risky task, in which she was arrested and sent to jail. Her name, was Rosa Parks. At the time, she was only 42 years old, and she was riding on a bus. Since she was African American, she had to sit in the back of the bus if all of the seats in the front were taken by white people. One day, she decided that she wanted to sit in the front, but when a White man got on the bus and told her to move, she refused. She was later arrested and put in jail. This sparked a revolution among the African Americans of Montgomery, Alabama. They started the peaceful Montgomery Bus Boycott, and refused to ride the bus. They walked, carpooled, or drove to the places that they needed to go. They formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA). Also at this time, Martin Luther King Jr. had heard of Rosa and he became the leader of the bus boycott, and eventually, after 381 days of boycotting and receiving countless amount of help from other organizations and minorities, the Supreme Court ruled segregated buses were unconstitutional. They had had a rewarding victory. | Far left: Rosa Parks being finger printed at the jail. Right: Rosa Parks young and then older
10: Civil Rights Act of 1964 | The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the of outlawing of discrimination based on race, color, gender, religion or national origin. This act was the result of all of the Civil Rights leader's hard work to end discrimination in America. John F. Kennedy created this law, but sadly he was assassinated before he got to see it take place.
11: Voting Rights Act of 1965 | The Voting Rights Act of 1964 was signed under law on August 6, 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., as well as other leaders in the Civil Rights Movement, were also present. It outlawed poll taxes and discrimination literacy tests, allowing African Americans and minorities to vote. Despite some setbacks and debates, it had an enormous impact. It also gave African Americans the right to run for office at local, state, and national levels. | The signing of the Voting Rights Act
12: Ruby Bridges: The First Steps to Integration | In 1960, 6 year-old Ruby Bridges became the first African American to try to integrate elementary schools in the south. On her way to the school, even though she is guarded closely by U.S. Marshals, she still received hate and threatening messages from the angry mob of White people that surrounded the school. She was the only child in her class, possibly the school, for about a year until people started to let their children back into school. Her teacher was Ms. Henry, a white Civil Rights activist, and for the whole year, she taught Ruby how to read and write, along with the other things that were required at her old school. She still received hateful messages by her former friends and strangers, but Ruby pressed on, and eventually, schools all over the south became integrated.
13: Ruby walking from school / to school | Ruby Now(2010) / Ruby walking with Marshals
14: Work Cited: ~librarythinkquest.org ~pbskids.org ~google images