BC: By: Carolan Norris Mrs. Winkie's iAchieve 8th Grade 3/21/10
FC: CIVIL RIGHTS YEAR BOOK iACHIEVE 2011 | Carolan Norris
1: 1946 WHITE PRIMARY | The White Primary is one way the democrats kept black people from voting. When the blacks were able to vote, the future winner had already been selected. In 1946 the Supreme Court ruled the White Primary unconstitutional in Georgia.
2: William Hartsfeild was an American Politician. He was born in Atlanta, and served as its 49th and 51st Mayor from 1937 to 1941 and again from 1942 to 1962, making him the longest serving mayor in Atlanta history. During Hartsfield years in office he outlawed Georgia white primary and the opening of the electoral system to black political participation. Hartsfield developed a gradualist approach to race relations by building a biracial coalition for winning municipal elections. The strategy proved to be very useful as the city experienced the beginning of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and the racial unrest of the early 1960s. Atlanta under Hartsfield desegragated schools On August 30, 1961, the city peacefully integrated its public schools. As a result, Atlanta began to acquire its reputation as "A City Too | 1946 William Hartsfield is the mayor of Atlanta. | William Hartsfield served as Georgia's 49th and 51st Mayor from 1937 to 1941 and again from 1942 to 1962, making him the longest serving mayor in Atlanta history. Mayor Hartsfield served the city through World War II (1941-45). Hartsfield successfully desegregated all of Atlanta's public schools.
3: 1948 Integration of the Armed Forces | On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed the Executive Order 9981 integrating the U.s. military and allowing fair treatment to all soldiers. The Order made it illegal to make racist statements towards others. It took until 1954 for the army to be fully integrated.
4: In 1950, a seven year old girl, named Linda Brown, tried to go to an all white school in Topeka, Kansas. Her family wanted to enroll her because her regular school was very far away and the all white school was only 7 blocks away. When the school said that she couldn't attend, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Charles Houston and Thurgood Marshal helped her father, Oliver Brown, to sue the Topeka Bord of Education. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court where the Judge declared that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional. | 1954 Brown vs. Bord of Education
5: Emmit Till was a 14 year old boy who was murdered on August 28, 1955 for flirting with a white woman in Mississippi. He was originally from Chicago, Illinois but went to Mississippi to visit relatives. | 1955 The Murder of Emmett Till
6: 1955 Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott | On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery AL, 42 year old Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white person. She was arrested by the Montgomery police and went to jail until December, 2 when E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail. Her actions started the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Black residents of Montgomery stoped using the buses as a way of transportation. The result was financial problems for the Montgomery public transit system. Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision ruling that segregated buses were unconstitutional.
7: The state flag used from 1956 to 2001 featured a prominent Confederate flag on the right side, which some people found offensive because of its historical use by the Confederate States of America and its contemporary use as a symbol by various white supremacy groups. People found it hurtful because the symbol was used not only during the American Civil War period but in 1956 during the fight for desegregation. | 1956 Change to Georgia's State Flag
8: 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded. | The Southern Christian Leader Conference was founded in 1960. This was and still is an American Civil Rights organization. The first president was Martin Luther King Jr. He asked black ministers and leaders to come and help him organize the foundation. In the early years of the organization they struggled to gain space in black churches and communities across the South.They had to face police, White Citizens' Council and the Ku Klux Klan. Only a few churches had the courage to go along with the SCLC and risk economic struggle, bombings and much more. | Southern Leadership Confrence (SCLC)
9: 1960 Sibley Commission | In Georgia, most of the state’s school systems refused desegregation, but in 1960, the Georgia General Assembly saw change was needed. It organized a fourteen member commission headed by Atlanta attorney and banker John Sibley, to study the problem of integration. The Sibley Commission held investigations all over the state to learn how the public felt about integration. Georgians said that they would rather close the schools than integrate them. The commission allowed that local school systems to decide if they would go by the court order to integrate public schools or if they would close them.
10: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, began in 1960 with an $800.00 grant from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The committee was a group of student activists that would share experiences and plan activities. The first conference was held at Shaw University in April 1960. 127 students came, along with representatives from 19 northern colleges and many other organizations. | 1960 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
11: Freedom Riders were civil rights supporters who rode buses into southern states to test the United States Supreme Court order Boynton vs. Virginia regarding segregation in transportation. | 1961 Freedom Rides
12: 1961 Integration of the University of Georgia | On January 6, 1961, federal district court Judge W. A. Bootle ordered the instant acceptance of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, ending 160 years of segregation at the university.
13: On November 1st, 1961, workers with the NAACP and SNCC decided to test the Boynton vs. Virginia court order by waiting in the “whites only” sitting room at the Albany bus station. They were immediately arrested. This event triggered the Albany Movement. | 1961 Albany Movement
14: 1962- Ivan Allen, Jr. elected mayor of Atlanta | Ivan Allen was elected mayor of Georgia in 1962 and stayed in that position until 1970. In office, he did away with all the “colored” and “white” signs, gave black policemen the power to arrest whites, appointed the first black firemen, and ordered the desegregation of city sport centers and swimming pools.
15: 1963 Birmingham, AL Protests | The protests in Birmingham were a series of protests by the African American population. The whole country was watching Alabama in 1963 as the African Americans fought for their freedoms. The demonstrations first stared as nonviolent but soon turned dangerous.
16: 1963 March on Washington DC | The March on Washington is where Martin Luther King Jr gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. An estimated 250,000 people, black and white, marched in a peaceful protest for African American rights. They marched down Constitution and Independence Avenues.
17: The 16th Street African American Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963. The bomb killed four girls and ruined the church. This event really shocked the nation. | 1963 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed.
18: John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963 at 12:30 pm. in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. President Kennedy was shot while traveling with his wife Jacqueline Kennedy. This startled the country and Vice President Johnson had to take over his position. | 1963 John F. Kennedy assassinated.
19: 1964 Civil Rights Act 1964 passed | Kennedy's Civil Rights bill was still being debated by Congress when he was assassinated in November, 1963. The new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, wanted to carry out JFK's bill. Under lots of pressure Johnson was able to pass the law.
20: 1965 Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed | Although the Civil Rights Act had been passed many African Americans still could not vote. Martin Luther King, Jr. led many marches protesting the voting laws. The marches were unsuccessful until March 21, 1965 when MLK led more than 4,000 marchers on a 50 mile walk. This really influenced the decision of passing the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
21: Martin Luther King, Jr. was a very famous leader of the civil rights movement and a Nobel Peace Prize winner. He was assassinated by James Earl Ray at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. | 1968 Martin Luther King Assassinated
22: 1969 Georgia State Bord of Education sued by federal government. | In 1969 the U.S. Department of Justice sued the Georgia State Board of Education. They demanded that the state keep funds from systems that refused to follow courts desegregation plans.
23: 1973 Maynard Jackson elected mayor of Atlanta | Maynard Jackson was an politician who was a member of the democratic party and the first African American mayor of Atlanta. He was elected in 1973 and served three terms.
24: Andrew Young is a politician, civil rights supporter and pastor from Georgia. He served as Mayor of Atlanta and many other important roles. He was elected as mayor in 1981. Young has done great deal for the state of Georgia. | 1981 Andrew Young elected mayor of Atlanta.
25: The End