S: The Civil War
FC: Civil War Portfolio 1861-1865 Jessie Sumulong Gency 1-A
1: Table of Contents 2-9 Coming of Civil War 10-13 Critical Thinking 14-19 Civil War Battles 20-25 Resumé 26-27 Vocabulary Words 28-29Maps of the Civil War 30-33 Time Line
2: Coming of The Civil War I. Missouri Compromise of 1820 A. The Compromise was an agreement between anti slavery and pro-slavery states. B. It prohibited slavery in the western territories north of the 36 degree parallel. C. The only exception was with the new state of Missouri. II.North v. South A.Economy/Tariff 1.North- Citizens and financial institutions were required to buy war bonds. Then the north decided to print green caked paper money and sell the bonds. The bonds would be sold in paper money and gold in as interest. 2.South- Started out awful because it lost its gold and silver rewards, which were located in New York. The South could print paper money,but banks wouldn't trust it if it wasn't backed by gold. The South couldn't even tax its citizens for it was against its constitution and it was left up to tax.
3: B. Abolition 1. William Loyd Garrison- Created the Liberator. The Liberator was an Anti Slavery newspaper. It promoted immediate freedom of the slaves, and Garrison was also one of the founders of American Anti Slavery Society. 2. Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin- The book that gave insight about life as a slave. It showed the hardships of being a slave, such as punishment and torn families. 3. Southern Fears-There were more anti-slavery societies below the Mason Dixon line than above. Turners rebellion in 1831 caused hysteria in the cotton fields and scared the plantation owners so much that they slept with pistol under their pillows. The nullification crisis of 1832 silenced southern abolitionism, but showed the fear of the south.
4: III. Results of the Mexican War A. Slavery will not be expanded into the newly acquired territories because of the Wilmot Proviso. B.Wilmot Proviso 1. The Wilmot Proviso stated that the new territory should not be open to slavery. 2. The South saw the Wilmot Proviso as a threat because it threatened to halt the expansion of slavery to the western territories. C. Popular Sovereignty 1. The decision for a territory to become a slave state or not was completely up to the territory itself. 2. Popular Sovereignty was liked by both sides for it was a fair compromise for deciding what kind of state the territory will be. D. Free-Soil Party 1. Conscience Whigs- Whigs that had strong moral opposition to slavery. 2. Cotton Whigs- The more conservative whigs that wished to quiet down the slavery issue, and keep relations with the south.
5: 3. Free Soilers Form- The party was formed in 1848 on the idea of anti slavery. It was formed from the Abolitionist Liberty Party, the Whigs, and the Barnburners. The party also supported a homestead law and a tariff to increase revenue. IV. California and the Compromise of 1850 A. Gold and Statehood- In 1848, a vast amount of gold was discovered in California. This discovery attracted over 300,000 immigrants from all over the world. Within three years California's population grew to the point where it became a state. B. Compromise of 1850 1. California was administered as a slave state. 2. Slave trade was abolished in WAshington D.C. 3. Fugitive Slave Act 4. Popular Sovereignty
6: V. Fugitive Slave Act A. All of the captured run away slaves would returned straight back to their masters. B. It was the South who passed the the slave laws. C. Before the slaves would be returned to their owners, they would be given a trial in the north. D. The under ground railroad was a network of safe houses that safely led run away slaves to the North. VI.Transcontinental Railroad-This rail road crossed the whole Country and connected the Pacific to the Atlantic. VII. Kansas-Nebraska Act A. Kansas and Nebraska organized into territories. B. Both territories open to popular sovereignty. C. It divided the North and the South and started to point towards the Civil War. VIII. Bleeding Kansas(1854) A. It was a conflict between ..... for Kansas to be either a free state or a slave state. B. John Brown- A radical abolitionist that murdered pro-slavery families.
7: C. "Beecher's Bibles"- The name given to Breech loading rifles that were supplied during bleeding Kansas. D. Charles Sumner and Andrew Butler- The writers of the Kansas Nebraska Act. IX. Birth of the Republican Party A. The Republican Party was formation of the Conscience Whigs and the Free Soil Party. B. They called themselves the republican party because they supported the ideas of the Democratic Republican Party. X. Dread Scott Decision(Dread Scott v. Sanford-1857) A. Dread Scott was a slave who sued his master for freedom because he was brought to the North with his master. B. What did the Supreme Court Say? 1. Slaves are considered as property and not citizens. 2. Since Slaves aren't considered slaves if they are in the north with their master they are still slaves. 3. Congress was not allowed to ban territorial slavery.
8: XI. Lincoln and Douglass and the Freeport Doctrine A. There were several debates between Lincoln and Douglass on the issue of Slavery. B. Freeport Doctrine- Slavery could be excluded if the local legislation allows it. XII. John Brown's Raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia 1858 A. John Brown, a radical abolitionist, and a small group attempted to break into the Federal armory and cause a rebellion. B. John Brown's attempt failed and he was executed. This event caused the fever for the civil war to quicken. XIII. Election of 1860 A. The election if between Lincoln, for the Republicans,and Douglas for the Southern Democrats. B. Lincoln won the election. C. South Carolina secedes as it warned during the election. Soon after the rest of the South seceded with South Carolina.
10: Critical Thinking
11: 1.Which is better to fight in the Civil War , the North or the South and explain why? The North was better equipped for the war tan the South. The North had plenty of factories for produces many supplies and ammunition needed for the war. In addition to multiple factories with many workers, the north had numerous troops compared to the South. The south had a bad economy and therefore had low supplies.
12: 2. Describe the Southern Battle Pan for victory. Describe the Northern Battle Plan for Victory. The battle strategy, proposed by Beauregard and Johnston, was to defend the Confederacy from conquest. The main idea was to expand the war as long as possible.In doing so the war would become unpopular in the North and the Union would have to allow the Confederacy to be its own nation. The Northern Battle Plan was known as the "Anaconda Plan". The "Anaconda Plan" was proposed by Winfield Scott and would basically "suffocate" the South. The plan was to block the southern ports and cut the south in half by marching down the Mississippi river.
13: 3. Describe the effects of the economies on both the North and South. The North passed the Morrill Tariff Act in 1861. This act raised the tariffs so that the North had additional revenue to spend on factories. The North also issued green backed paper money, which totaled at $450 million at face value. It was because of this the Union's economy flourished. The south's economy started deteriorated because Customs duties were being choked off by the Union as part of the "Anaconda Plan". The South sold their Confederate bonds and received $400 million. The South tried to increase taxes, but it was heavily opposed by the Farmers. They then started to print blue back money , which was worth $1 billion in all, but it was reduced to 1.6 cents each when Lee surrendered.
14: Battles of the Civil War
15: Battle of Bull Run Victor:The Confederacy had won the battle, but didn't go after the Union's remaining troops. Generals: The General for the Union was Irvin McDowell, and the Confederate General was Beauregard and Johnston brought reinforcements. Significance: The Battle of Bull Run was the First battle of the Civil War. Loss of Life: The Union suffered 460 deaths, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured or missing. The Confederacy suffered 387 deaths, 1,582 wounded, and thirteen missing.
16: Battle of Antietam Victor: The Union was the winner of the battle. Generals: The General of the Union was George McClellan and the General for the Confederacy was Robert E. Lee. Significance: The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle of he Civil War. The battle also gave union President Lincoln motivation to write the Emancipation Proclamation. Loss of Life: The Union suffered 2,108 deaths, 9,540 wounded, and 753 captured or missing. The Confederacy suffered 1,546 deaths, 7,752 wounded, and 1,018 captured or missing.
17: The Battle of Gettysburg Victor: The Union was the Victor of the battle. Generals: The Union general was George Meade and the Confederate general was Robert E. Lee. Significance: The battle was turning point of he war, where Lee's northern advances were stopped. Loss of Life: The Union suffered 3,155 deaths, 14,531 wounded, and 5,369 captured or missing. The Confederacy suffered 4,708 deaths, 12,693 wounded, and 5,830 captured or missing.
18: Monitor v.s. Merrimack Victor:There was a draw between the two ships. Generals: The Union had Lieutenant John Worden, and the South had Captain Franklin Buchanan. Significance:The proved that iron warships were better than wooden ones. Loss of Life: The union suffered 261 deaths, 108 wounded, 1 frigate sunk, 1 slo op-of-war sunk 1 damaged frigate. The Confederacy suffered 7 deaths, 17 wounded, and 1 damaged iron clad.
19: The Battle of Appomattox Victor: The Union won the battle. Generals: The Union had General Ulysses S. Grant, and the Confederacy had General Robert E. Lee. Significance: Final engagement of the Civil War before Lee surrendered to Grand. Loss of Life: Union Suffered 164 deaths. The Confederacy sufferd 500 kills and wounded and 27,805 surrendered ad paroled.
20: Generals Ulysses S. Grant Education: - Graduated 21'st of the Class of 1839 at the United States Military Academy of New York. Work Experience: - Fought in the Mexican-American War as a lieutenant under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. - Fought in the battles of Resaca de la Palma, Palo Alto, Monterrey, and Veracruz - Grant was brevetted twice for Bravery at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. -In Monterrey he carried a dispatch voluntarily through a sniper lined street.
21: George McClellan Education: -McClellan went to the University of Pennsylvania at the age 13, determined to study Law. -McClellan later changed his goal to military service, and then went to the United States Military Academy at the age of 15. -McClellan graduated in 1864 as second in he class of 59. Work Experience: - Br. Sec. Lt. in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after graduation. -Served as Engineering Officer during the Mexican American War. -Performed reconnaissance Missions for Lt.Gen.Winfield Scott.
22: Thomas Jonathan Jackson Education: - Graduated 17 of his class in 1864 at the United States Military Academy. Work Experience: - Jackson began as a Sec.Lt. in the U.S.artillery regiment in the Mexican American War. - Participated in the Siege of Veracruz, and the battles of Contreras, Chapultepec, Mexico City. - During those battles, Jackson received to brevet Promotions and a real promotion to first lieutenant. - After the war Jackson became a teacher at the Virginia Military Institute. - Jackson was a professor of natural and experimental philosophy, and an instructor on artillery
23: Robert E. Lee Education: - Lee Graduated second in his class at West Point. - No demerits during his four years of Studying Work Experience: - Lee began his career as a Brevet Sec.Lt. in the Corps. of engineers. - Lee helped begin construction on Fort Pulaski. - Served as an assistant to the Chief Engineer in Washington D.C. - He served as one of Winfield's chief aides in the Mexican American War. - Promoted to Brevet Major in the battle of Cerro Gordo. -Fought in the battles of Contrerras, Churubusco, and wounded t the battle of Chapultepec.
24: David G. Farragut Education: - His adoptive father Captain David Porter taught Farragut his nautical skills. Work Experience: - Commissioned as a midshipman on Dec.17 1810, at the age of 9. -Prize Master at the age of 12 - Promoted to Lieutenant in 1822 - Promoted to Commander 1844 - Promoted to Captain in 1855 -Created Mare Island Naval Shipyard
25: William Tecumseh Sherman Education: - Sherman graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1840 Work Experience: - Sherman entered the Army as a Sec. Lt. in the 3rd Artillery - Fought in the Second Seminole War in Florida - Served as a Major General of the California Militia on 1856 -First Superintendent of Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy in Pineville, Louisiana in 1859.
26: Vocabulary 1.Habeas Corpus- A writ where a prisoner can be released due to unlawful detention. 2. Copperhead- a Northerner who sympathizes with the South. 3. Conscription- forced enrollment into the army, or payment to the government during war time. 4.Bounties-a reward for doing acts such as enlisting in the army. 5. Income Tax- a tax on annual income 6. Clara Barton- Civil War nurse who founded the Red Cross. 7. Gettysburg Address- A speech from Abraham Lincoln that at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. 8. 13th Amendment- Abolished and Prohibited Slavery.
28: Maps of the Civil War | Northern States | Slave owning North States | Slave States | Map of the U.S. 1861
29: Kennesaw Mt. | Atlanta | Savannah | Grant'sPath | Sherman's Path | Columbia | Fayetteville | Raleigh | The Wilderness | Spotsylvania Courthouse | North Anna | Cold Harbor | Petersburg | Five Forks | Amelia Courthouse | Sayler's Creek | Appomattox Courthouse
30: Time Line