S: Cold War Scrapbook
FC: Nishat Momin | Cold War Scrapbook
1: Korea/ Vietnam
2: Vietnamese War The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The war began in 1954 (though conflict in the region stretched back to the mid-1940s), after the rise to power of Ho Chi Minh and his communist Viet Minh party in North Vietnam, and continued against the backdrop of an intense Cold War between two global superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. More than 3 million people (including 58,000 Americans) were killed in the Vietnam War; more than half were Vietnamese civilians. By 1969, at the peak of U.S. involvement in the war, more than 500,000 U.S. military personnel were involved in the Vietnam conflict. Growing opposition to the war in the United States led to bitter divisions among Americans, both before and after President Richard Nixon ordered the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973. In 1975, communist forces seized control of Saigon, ending the Vietnam War, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year. | Korean War On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People's Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea's behalf. As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international communism itself. After some early back-and-forth across the 38th parallel, the fighting stalled and casualties mounted with nothing to show for them. Meanwhile, American officials worked anxiously to fashion some sort of armistice with the North Koreans. The alternative, they feared, would be a wider war with Russia and China–or even, as some warned, World War III. Finally, in July 1953, the Korean War came to an end. In all, some 5 million soldiers and civilians lost their lives during the war. The Korean peninsula is still divided today. | Current Events/Headlines | 38th Parallel: The latitudinal line that approximately forms the boundary between North Korea and South Korea. Its use for the partition of Korea was proposed at the Potsdam Conference in 1945. During the Korean War, each side temporarily controlled area beyond the line, but by the war's end the 38th parallel again was the dividing line between the countries. | 17th Parallel: The military demarcation line established in Vietnam by the Geneva Agreement on Indochina of April 26– July 21, 1954.
3: Korean War Montage
4: Politics | NAME: Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Sinh Cung) OCCUPATION: World Leader, Prime Minister BIRTH DATE: May 19, 1890 DEATH DATE: September 03, 1969 PLACE OF BIRTH: Nghe An Province PLACE OF DEATH: Hanoi, Vietnam Born the son of a poor scholar, Ho Chi Minh later became a Marxist revolutionary. At the age of 21, he set off and traveled the world, spending six years in France, where he became a socialist. He later served as both the prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Leader of the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, Ho Chi Minh City is named in his honor. | NAME: Ngo Dinh Diem OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: January 03, 1901 DEATH DATE: November 02, 1963 PLACE OF BIRTH: Quang Binh, Vietnam PLACE OF DEATH: Cho Lon, Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem was born January 3, 1901 into a noble Vietnamese Catholic family. A staunch anti-Communist, he joined the U.S.-backed government, making himself president in 1955. He imprisoned and murdered hundreds of Buddhists, causing the U.S. to remove its support. Diem's assassination in 1963 left Vietnam vulnerable to the Communist threat from the north, eventually resulting in civil war.
5: Domino Theory : The domino theory was a reason for war during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino theory was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War to clarify the need for American intervention around the world. The domino theory was articulated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in an April 7, 1954, news conference in which he worried that if communism remained unchecked, the free world might endure “the ‘falling domino’ principle. | Vietcong: , Officially Viet Nam Cong San [Vietnamese Communists], People's Liberation Armed Forces in South Vietnam. The term was originally applied by Diem's regime to Communist troops (about 10,000) left in hideouts in South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference of 1954, following the French Indochina War (1946–54). Most Communist troops, according to the agreements, had withdrawn to North Vietnam. Supported and later directed by North Vietnam, the Viet Cong first tried subversive tactics to overthrow the South Vietnamese regime, then resorted to open warfare (see Vietnam War). They were subsequently reinforced by huge numbers of North Vietnamese troops infiltrating south, and aided in the reunification of Vietnam following the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975.
6: Korea With the end of the Second World War in 1945, two separate regimes emerged on the Korean peninsula to replace the colonial government. The U.S. military government took over the southern half, while communist Russia set up a Korean leadership in the northern half. The post-World War II division of the Korean Peninsula resulted in imbalances of natural and human resources, with disadvantages for both the North and the South. By most economic measures, after partition the North was better off in terms of industry and natural resources. The South, however, had two-thirds of the work force. In 1945, about 65% of Korean heavy industry was in the North but only 31% of light industry, 37% of agriculture, and 18% of the peninsula's total commerce. North and South both suffered from the massive destruction caused during the Korean War. In the years immediately after the war, North Korea mobilized its labor force and natural resources in an effort to achieve rapid economic development. Large amounts of aid from other communist countries, notably the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, helped the regime achieve a high growth rate in the immediate postwar period. | Economy | Vietnam When the North and South were divided politically in 1954, they also adopted different economic ideologies: communist in the North and capitalist in the South. Destruction caused by the 1954-75 Second Indochina War seriously strained Vietnam's economy. Though the government's Second Five-Year Plan (1976–1981) set extraordinarily high goals for annual growth rates for industry, agriculture, and national income and aimed to integrate the North and the South, the Plan's aims were not achieved: the economy remained dominated by small-scale production, low labor productivity, unemployment, material and technological shortfalls, and insufficient food and consumer goods. From the late 1970s until the early 1990s, Vietnam was a member of the Comecon, and therefore heavily dependent on trade with the Soviet Union and its allies. Following the dissolution of the Comecon and the loss of its traditional trading partners, Vietnam was forced to liberalize trade, devalue its exchange rate to increase exports, and embark on a policy of regional and international economic capitalization.
7: Korea South Korea The themes of twentieth-century literature reflect the national experiences colonization, postliberation division of the homeland, the Korean War, urbanization, and industrialization. Among folk instrumental music, samul nori has been the most popular form since the 1970s. North Korea Literature is produced by state-salaried official writers whose novels and poems tend to be pedantic, predictable, and outright boring. For example, a long-selling popular novel Ode to Youth (first published in 1987 and continuously reprinted until 1994) is a story of a technician in a steel mill, whose relationship with his girlfriend is interwoven with other human relations among his colleagues. The story in the end reconfirms that in North Korea all relations, including romantic ones, exist to encourage loyalty to the leader. This has been the pattern in literature since the 1960s. Typically, human relationships are depicted in simplistic ways, with romantically-involved couples never hesitating to help each other become heroes for the revolution. There is no complex web of psychology, diversity of personality, or unexpected events that are quite often part of the ordinary lives of individuals. North Korean literature is full of barren, lifeless language, which is to be expected given the limited vocabulary the North Korean state makes available to the public. Also commonly seen are large sculptures depicting history patriotically, such as Korean War heroes and anti-Japanese guerrilla fighters; there are usually portrayed in the Soviet style. | Vietnam In the socialist era, the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences were shunned and emphasis placed on appreciating and sharing the culture of communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and others. In the 20th century, in contact with the Western culture, especially after the national independence, many new categories of arts like plays, photography, cinemas, and modern art had taken shape and developed strongly, obtaining huge achievements with the contents reflecting the social and revolutionary realities. | Culture
9: Current Events Headlines | Cultural Revolution An upheaval launched by Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong during his last decade in power (1966–76) to renew the spirit of the Chinese Revolution. Fearing that China would develop along the lines of the Soviet model and concerned about his own place in history, Mao threw China's cities into turmoil in a monumental effort to reverse the historic processes underway. | Great Leap Forward In Chinese history, the campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists between 1958 and early 1960 to organize its vast population, especially in large-scale rural communes, to meet China's industrial and agricultural problems. The Chinese hoped to develop labor-intensive methods of industrialization, which would emphasize manpower rather than machines and capital expenditure. Thereby, it was hoped, the country could bypass the slow, more typical process of industrialization through gradual accumulation of capital and purchase of heavy machinery. The Great Leap Forward approach was epitomized by the development of small backyard steel furnaces in every village and urban neighborhood, which were intended to accelerate the industrialization process. | Tiananmen Square A massive demonstration for democratic reform, begun there by Chinese students in Apr., 1989, was brutally repressed on June 3 and 4. It was initiated to demand the posthumous rehabilitation of former Communist Party Chairman Hu Yaobang. The government was tolerant until after his funeral; then Deng Xiaoping denounced the protests. The demonstrators were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, until over a million people filled the square. General Secretary Zhao Ziyang expressed sympathy, but lost out to Deng, who supported the use of military suppression. Martial law was declared on May 20. The protesters demanded that the leadership resign, but the government answered on June 3-4 with troops and tanks, killing thousands to quell a "counterrevolutionary rebellion." Zhao was dismissed and a number of the student leaders were arrested. | Four Modernizations The Four Modernizations were goals, set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, defense, science in China. Henceforth the Four Modernizations were a focus of the Chinese government, especially under Deng Xiaoping.
10: Zhou Enlai or Chou En-lai (1898-1976). Chinese revolutionary and politician. A leader of the Chinese Communist Party, he was the first prime minister (1949-1976) and foreign minister (1949-1958) of China. | NAME: Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) OCCUPATION: Military Leader, Political Leader BIRTH DATE: December 26, 1893 DEATH DATE: September 09, 1976 EDUCATION: First Provincial Normal School, Peking University PLACE OF BIRTH: Shaoshan, China PLACE OF DEATH: Beijing, China Born on December 26, 1893, in Shaoshan, Hunan province, China, Mao Zedong was the leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1935 until his death and chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1949 to 1959. Mao's Great Leap and the Cultural Revolution were ill-conceived and had disastrous consequences, but many of his goals, such as stressing China's self-reliance, were generally laudable. | Politics
11: Communism: Is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order. This movement, in its Marxist-Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by Communist parties) and the "western world" (countries with market economies), culminating in the Cold War between the Eastern bloc and the "Free World". | Communes: A commune is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work and income; any community organized for the protection and promotion of local interests, and subordinate to the state. (Great Leap Forward- The peasants were organized into brigade teams, and communal kitchens were established so that women could be freed for work. The program was implemented with such haste by overzealous cadres that implements were often melted to make steel in the backyard furnaces, and many farm animals were slaughtered by discontented peasants. These errors in implementation were made worse by a series of natural disasters and the withdrawal of Soviet support. The inefficiency of the communes and the large-scale diversion of farm labor into small-scale industry disrupted China's agriculture seriously, and three consecutive years of natural calamities added to what quickly turned into a national disaster; in all, about 20 million people were estimated to have died of starvation between 1959 and 1962.)
12: (See Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution) Since 1978, China began to make major reforms to its economy. The Chinese leadership adopted a pragmatic perspective on many political and socioeconomic problems, and quickly began to introduce aspects of a capitalist economic system. Political and social stability, economic productivity, and public and consumer welfare were considered paramount and indivisible. In these years, the government emphasized raising personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to help increase productivity. The government also had focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth. In the 1980s, China tried to combine central planning with market-oriented reforms to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without exacerbating inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits. Reforms began in the agricultural, industrial, fiscal, financial, banking, price setting, and labor systems. | Economy
13: Culture When the Cultural Revolution began in 1966 all forms of traditional culture, Chinese or Western, were suppressed, including to bring an end to the Four Olds( Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas). Temples and churches were vandalized by the Red Guards; Confucian morality was frowned upon; and a cult of personality surrounding Chairman Mao Zedong was promoted. The Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (or the "Little Red Book") achieved sanctity equivalent to a holy text as part of Maoism, or "thoughts of Mao Zedong", which became the national ideology. The artistic community was particularly affected by the Cultural Revolution. Initially only eight "Sample Acts", or propaganda performances, were allowed, along with the "Loyalty Dance", posters that deify Chairman Mao, and a large number of revolutionary songs such as The East Is Red. Theatrical productions performed by traveling Red Army cultural troupes in Communist-controlled areas were consciously used to promote party goals and political philosophy. During the height of the Cultural Revolution, musical composition and performance were greatly restricted. During the Cultural Revolution, art schools were closed, and publication of art journals and major art exhibitions ceased. Nevertheless, amateur art continued to flourish throughout this period. During the Cultural Revolution, the film industry was severely restricted. Most previous films were banned, and only a few new ones were produced.
14: Soviet Union from Stalin to Khrushchev
15: Current Events Headlines | Sputnik Was the first artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Union on 4 October 1957. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the Space Age. | Cuban Missile Crisis An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the US and the Soviet Union. When the US discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the US demands a week later. | Bay of Pigs Considered the worst fiasco of the Kennedy presidency. In the 1960’s U.S. backed forces made up of mainly Cuban exile landed at the Bahia de Cochinas (Bay of Pigs). There aim was to oust the anti-American leader of Cuba, Fidel Castro. Forces loyal to Castro captured the invaders. Kennedy at first denied U.S. involvement and did not provide the air serve that was initially promised to the invaders. | Berlin Wall 1980’s, the wall that separated east and West Germany. At the end of the cold war the Germans tore it down. During Kennedy's presidency there were negotiations for the soviets to get West Berlin. Kennedy refused and they started to build a fence that lead to the wall.
16: United Nations: The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. | “Iron Curtain”: The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances: Member countries of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact, with the Soviet Union as the leading country. The European Community members and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization members and associated countries with the United States as the leading country. Physically, the Iron Curtain took the shape of border defenses between the countries of Europe in the middle of the continent. The most notable border was marked by the Berlin Wall, which served as a symbol of the Curtain as a whole. | Truman Doctrine: Was a policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry S Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. Historians often consider it as the start of the Cold War. Truman stated the Doctrine would be "the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman reasoned, because these "totalitarian regimes" coerced "free peoples," they represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States. Truman made the plea amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946–1949). He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they urgently needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region. | Politics
17: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): An international organization composed of the US, Canada, Britain, and a number of European countries: established by the North Atlantic Treaty (1949) for purposes of collective security. In 1994 it launched the partnerships for peace initiative, in order to forge alliances with former Warsaw Pact countries; in 1997 a treaty of cooperation with Russia was signed and in 1999 Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic became full NATO members. | Warsaw Pact: Was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the communist states of Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was a Soviet military response to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955, per the Paris Pacts of 1954. | Containment: Was a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between détente (the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation) and rollback (the strategy of forcing change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime). | Brinkmanship: Is a term that was used to refer to the constant competition between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. (is the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor relations, and (in contemporary settings) military strategy involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons.)
18: NAME: Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz OCCUPATION: Military Leader, Prime Minister BIRTH DATE: c. August 13, 1926 EDUCATION: El Colegio de Belen, University of Havana PLACE OF BIRTH: Birán, Cuba Cuban dictator Fidel Castro was born near Biran in August 13, 1926. In 1959 he used guerrilla warfare to successfully overthrow Cuban leader Batista and was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba, remaining so until his presidency in 1976. As prime minister, Castro's government established covert military and economic relations with the Soviet Union, leading to the Cuban Missile. | NAME: John Fitzgerald Kennedy OCCUPATION: U.S. President BIRTH DATE: May 29, 1917 DEATH DATE: November 22, 1963 EDUCATION: The Choate School, Harvard College PLACE OF BIRTH: Brookline, Massachusetts PLACE OF DEATH: Dallas, Texas AKA: JFK Born May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts, John F. Kennedy was a congressman and senator before becoming the 35th U.S. president in 1961. As president, he faced a number of foreign crises, especially in Cuba and Berlin, but managed to secure such achievements as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for Progress. In 1963 he was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas.
19: Economy | Marshall Plan: (Officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. The initiative was named after Secretary of State George Marshall. | Starting in 1928, the five-year plans began building a heavy industrial base at once in an underdeveloped economy without waiting years for capital to accumulate through the expansion of light industry, and without reliance on external financing. The five-year plans began building a heavy industrial base at once in an underdeveloped economy without waiting years for capital to accumulate through the expansion of light industry, and without reliance on external financing.
20: Arts during the rule of Joseph Stalin were characterized by the rise and domination of the government-imposed style of Socialist realism, with all other trends being severely repressed, with rare exceptions. Many writers were imprisoned and killed or died of starvation. Musical expression was also repressed during the Stalin era, and at times the music of many Soviet composers was banned altogether. | Culture
21: Soviet Union from Brezhnev to Yeltsin
22: Current Events/Headlines | Fall of the Berlin Wall In the late 1980s Russian leader Gorbachev decided to abandon Russia’s satellite states to try and save his crumbling nation, allowing democracy to filter through, as it did in Poland. There were anti-government protests in East Germany and, after some initially stern words by East German leader Honecker which threatened violence, Russia refused to back him and he resigned. The new leader, Egon Krenz, decided against violence and instead ordered a relaxation of travel restrictions to the West in order to try and defuse rising tensions. However, when a politburo member called Schabowski briefed the media on November 9th 1989 on the swiftly written decree he misinterpreted what it said, announcing that East Germans could freely use all border crossings to "permanently exit" the nation. Word soon spread and people gathered at the border crossings. Although the guards had no orders to do so, they reopened the borders with the rest of Germany, allowing people to cross freely. The wall ceased to function from that day forward, and people were soon chipping away at it, eventually knocking it down. The East German government withered away. | Collapse of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union was a process of systematic disintegration, which occurred in economy, social structure and political structure. It resulted in the abolition of the Soviet Federal Government ("the Union center") and independence of the USSR's republics on 26 December 1991. The process was caused by weakening of the Soviet government, which led to disintegration and took place from about 19 January 1990 to 31 December 1991. The process was characterized by many of the republics of the Soviet Union declaring their independence and being recognized as sovereign nation-states. | Ethnic Cleansing inYugoslavia Ethnic Cleansing is the violent removal by one ethnic group of other ethnic groups from the population of a particular area: used esp of the activities of Serbs against Croats and Muslims in the former Yugoslavia.
23: NAME: Richard Nixon OCCUPATION: U.S. President BIRTH DATE: January 09, 1913 DEATH DATE: April 22, 1994 EDUCATION: Whittier College, Duke University School of Law PLACE OF BIRTH: Lorba Linda, California PLACE OF DEATH: New York, New York He was vice president to President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961 and the 37th President of the United States from 1969 to 1973 when he resigned facing almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate Scandal. He was the first American president to resign from office. | NAME: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev OCCUPATION: World Leader, Government Official BIRTH DATE: March 02, 1931 (Age: 81) EDUCATION: Moscow State University PLACE OF BIRTH: Privolye, Russia ZODIAC SIGN: Pisces Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in Privolye, Stavropol kray, Russia. He was the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 1985 to 1991 and president of the Soviet Union in 1990–91. His policies of "glasnost" led to the downfall of communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1990. | Politics
24: Detente: State of armed peace between the West and the Soviet Union during the late 1960's and early 1970's. Contrary to the beginning of the Cold War, during Detente both sides agreed that there should not be any (open) strategy to improve their position. It's aim was to create stability by a status quo. | Glasnost (Openness): A domestic initiative of political reform introduced by Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s to allow more freedom in public discussion and the arts, and to foster the process of the democratization of the political process. | Perestroika (Restructuring): An economic initiative launched by Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s in an attempt to move the Soviet economy in the market direction and to open up trade, finance, and investment relations with the West. The initiative envisioned the decentralization of industrial decision making from central planners to individual firms; the creation of financial markets to determine capital flows; scrapping the system of centralized supply and replacing it by a wholesale distribution system; and improving trade and financial interactions with the West. Because perestroika was implemented in a halting and ultimately unsuccessful manner, it had the unintended consequence of hastening the decline of the Soviet economy and ultimately helped bring about the breakup of the Soviet empire. | Strategic Arms Limitation Talks(SALT): A series of negotiations between the US and the former Soviet Union aimed at the limitation or reduction of nuclear armaments, which produced the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. The talks were organized from 1968 onward and held in stages until superseded by the START negotiations in 1983.
25: After Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, continuing economic liberalization moved the economy towards a market-oriented socialist economy. The stagnation which would consume the last years of the Soviet Union was caused by poor governance under Leonid Brezhnev and inefficiencies within the planned economy. When the stagnation began is a matter of debate, but is normally placed either in the 1960s or early 1970s. | Economy
26: Culture | In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the Brezhnev era, a distinctive period of Soviet culture developed characterized by conformist public life and intense focus on personal life. In arts, the liberalization of all aspects of life starting from the Khrushchev Thaw created a possibility for the evolution of various forms of non-formal, underground and dissident art; still repressed, but no longer under the immediate threat of Gulag labor camps. Greater experimentation in art forms became permissible in the 1970s, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced. The regime loosened the strictures of socialist realism