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Coral Reefs

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FC: Coral Reefs By: Lydia Lorenzo

1: Today, you will be learning all about coral reefs, how they form, who makes them their home, and more! So sit back, relax, and enjoy the book!

2: How Are Coral Reefs Formed? -Built-up limestone deposits formed by large colonies of ant-sized organisms called corals.

3: WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND? - Tropical warm waters -Tropical parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans, and the Red Sea.

4: Types Of Animals Parrotfish-The largest most colorful reef herbivores. -Dwarf Minke Whales-Visit the Great Barrier Reef every June and July. -White- Breasted Sea Eagles-Live on the coast of the Great Barrier Reef and catch fish. -Sea Snakes-Evolved in the sea about 135 years ago. They can spend 2 hours underwater between breaths but have to go to the surface for air. -Giant Clams-Can be more than 1 meter long and can live up to 70 years. -Marine Algae-Have different growth forms ranging from single celled plankton to large sea weeds that can reach several meters in length. There are so many more types of animals in the coral reefs that I can't fit all of them on this page

5: The Parrotfish | The Dwarf Minke Whale | The White-Breasted Eagle | The Sea Snake | A Giant Clam | Marine Algae

6: Adaptations Some of the adaptations the animals have or have to have are... -They are/have to be really fast. -They have/have to have good maneuverability. -Some have/have to have a pancake shaped body. -Some have unusual patterns/colors to hide from predators. These give warning signs to predators or help their kind to recognize it. -Special chemicals contained within the mucus layer of a fishes skin help protect that fish from anemone stings. -Some fish have highly specialized jaws, mouths, and teeth to be able to eat certain things.

7: The Parrotfish has a special mouth structure for feeding. | The Angelfish has wonderful maneuverability and and excellent amount of speed. | The lionfish is very poisonous and displays vivid warning coloration. | The clown fish have a special chemical contained within the mucus layer of its skin to help protect it from anemone stings.

8: What Percentage of Ocean Life is Found in Coral Reefs? -Contains 25% or more of all species of ocean life. | Coral Reefs Are Endangered! -10% of the world's coral reefs are degraded beyond recovery. (Federal Task Force Study) -2/3rds of the world's coral reef systems are being damaged. 58% of that damage is done by human activities. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

9: Coral Reef Damage Is Caused by Natural and Human Activities. - Coastal development -Fishing methods (overfishing, *trawling, *dynamite, *poison). (Words with * are explained on the next page). - Pollution - Activities that make the water muddy and puts sediment all over the corals. - Coral mining, ornamental fishing, and shell collecting (aka-aquarium fish collecting). - Global warming, changing climates, storms and other natural events. - Tourism and tourism development. - Crown-of-Thorns starfish invasions.

10: Definitions Of.... -Trawling-Fishing trawlers drag down chains/nets and scrape up coral, plants, and animals leaving the ocean habitat below destroyed. About 25 billion animals caught in these nets each year are thrown back into the sea as garbage because they can't be sold. -Dynamite-Stuns the fish and brings them out of hiding,in the reefs. This temporarily paralyzes hundreds of fish and other species so the collectors can gather up huge amounts quickly. This kills many species! -Cyanide Poisoning -The hunter squirts the cyanide in and around the coral to temporarily immobilize fish and other species so they can be caught. The poison floats around and kills smaller fish and also the coral animals.

11: From left to right: Pollution in ocean, effects after dynamite fishing, cyanide poisoning, pollution in ocean, trawling, a bird in oil after an oil spill, and a Crown-of-Thorns invasion.

12: Characteristics of Coral Reefs... Size-Some corals form small colonies. Others form colonies several feet high. Color-Natural coral colors including white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Algae that live within some corals may make the coral look brown, green, or orange. Tentacles-For defense and for moving food to the mouth. Body Shape-Consists of a tube and an oral disc, or mouth, surrounded by tentacles, which the polyps use to capture food

13: Fun Facts on Coral Reefs -Star coral colonies reach an average height of 10 to 13 ft! -Also known as "Rainforest's of the Sea." -Scientifically known as Polyp. - Algae are the corals' natural glue that holds them together to maintain their shape. -About 10 million bacteria live on one square centimeter of coral. -Coral reefs are widely used in the treatment of cancer, HIV, cardiovascular diseases and ulcers. -Coral reefs in the Pacific contain more species of fish, plants, and corals than coral reefs in the Caribbean do. -Parts of Florida would have been under water, if coral reefs would not existed.

15: Fish+Coral Reefs= Happy Sea Life:) THE END!

16: Bibliography http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/plantsanimals/facts_plantanimal.htm http://www.coral-reef-info.com/ http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/clown-anemonefish/ http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Coralreef.shtml http://subtropicalenvironments.homestead.com/SundayApril16.html http://www.eco-pros.com/endangeredreefs.htm http://savethedeepsea.blogspot.com/2011_09_01_archive.html http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgfagatele/human/human_15.html

17: Bibliography Continued... http://www.fishchannel.com/fish-magazines/freshwater-and-marine-aquarium/august-2008/cyanide-aquarium-fish.aspx http://enviroissueslh.blogspot.com/ http://europasicewolf.wordpress.com/2011/02/20/world-of-the-plastic-beach/ http://animalsmatter.wordpress.com/category/ocean/ http://www.coralreefinstitute.org/10-ways-to-protect-coral-reefs.htm http://echinoblog.blogspot.com/2010/11/huge-swarms-of-pycnopodia-helianthoides.html http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/coral/physical-characteristics.htm http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/habitats/coral1.htm http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/facts-about-coral-reef-8796.html

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Lily Lorenz
  • By: Lily L.
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  • Title: Coral Reefs
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