S: EUROPEAN EXPLORERS | Cortes & Cabral - Alice Kanitz Sanchez
FC: Hernan Cortés & Pedro Álvares Cabral | Alice K. Sanchez | EUROPEAN EXPLORERS
1: 1500. 1519. In both these years a famous, well-known European explorer from the Renaissance sailed in a voyage which would lead him to make a twist in the course of history. These discussed in the following essay were very different from one another, sharing very few things. As the reader can observe after reading this paper, they both had very few things in common; though they both led very interesting lives. Here, each one's life story is described; and how both the Spaniard and the Portuguese got hold of two distinct pieces of land in Latin America. Here, the lives of Hernan Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, and Pedro Álvares Cabral, the conqueror of Brazil, are described. | This book is for a Social Studies class. | Introduction
2: Hernándo Cortés Pizarro, more known as Hernan Cortés, was born in 1485, in Spain. He was born in the kingdom of Castile, in the town of Medellín, which is in the southwest of Spain. He came from an upper class family, though his parents were not wealthy. Hernan Cortés was the only son in the family. At the age of 14, he was sent to the University of Salamanca to study Law. He was extremely good at convincing people and also at writing; he is also reported as having been ambitious and energetic. He was a soldier and a farmer before sailing for Diego Velázquez in the conquest of Cuba, in 1511. He was also the mayor-judge of Santiago (in Cuba). He had moral weaknesses despite being extremely devoted to the Catholic Church; however, Cortés had affairs with many women (including married women), and was not serious about marriage, but he did end up marrying a woman called Catalina Xuarez. Despite his first marriage in Spain, later in his | Hernan Cortés
3: life, he married Doña Marina, whose real native name was Malinche. She was a woman who helped him conquer the Aztecs by being his translator and advisor; and she was also the mother of his son, Martín. Malinche was extremely clever, as clever as Cortés himself. Cortés was also good at fighting with swords and riding horses. A sentence which says a lot about his character was said by him when he got to Hispaniola: “But I came to get gold, not to till the soil like a peasant”. His life as an explorer of present-day Mexico (New Spain at the time) was different from the one he led in Spain. When he was about eighteen, he | sailed for the island of Hispaniola, in the West Indies. As soon as he got to Tabasco, Mexico, in 1519, he quickly subjugated the natives living there. These natives had few possessions, but they told Cortés about the great power and wealth of the Aztec Empire. He took some natives to help compose his army, and they all got together. Cortés burned his ships, so that no one should try to escape. He wanted to take over and defeat the Aztecs using local rivalry. Many other minor Native American tribes that were subjugated by the Aztecs obviously did not like them, and would much rather be free. Those tribes would first battle against Cortés, and right after
4: after Cortés was welcomed into Moctezuma’s court, he took the ruler hostage, afraid an attack might happen, and the ransom involved a large sum of riches from the Aztecs. Velázquez, the man who had entitled Cortés for this expedition, regretted it and sailed to New Spain to take him back to Spain. While Cortés was trying to deter Velázquez from taking him to Spain, the Aztecs carried out a rebellion. Cortés returned, but chaos had been created. Moctezuma was hit by a stone and died. Nobody knows for sure who threw the stone, if someone from Cortés’s army or somebody from the Aztec side who might have had a bad aim or even with the actual objective of destroying Moctezuma, for | that help him against the Aztecs. When he got to Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec Empire (now Mexico City), Cortés was taken for being the god Quetzalcoatl by Moctezuma, the Aztec Emperor. Moctezuma welcomed Cortés into his court and let him stay. Cortés, his men and his ship were described as “a house in the water, out of which came white men [...], and very long, bushy beards, and clothes of every color: white, yellow, red, green, blue and purple, and on their heads they wore round hats.” Another description made by spies sent by Moctezuma before Cortés’s full arrival in the Aztec territory was "supernatural creatures riding on hornless deer, armed in iron, fearless as gods." However, soon
5: reasons unknown. Tenochtitlán was conquered the year after that, 1521. In the ruins, a city called Mexico City was built. He became governor and captain-general of New Spain. Later, he was forced back to Spain, because Spanish rulers feared he might become too powerful. His title of governor was taken from him, but he still was able to go back to Mexico. He died in Spain near Seville.
6: Pedro Álvares Cabral was an explorer from Portugal who sailed for his own country. His main accomplishment was sailing to Brazil in 1500 and finding land which was new to the Europeans (and declaring the land Portuguese territory). He was born around 1467 in the small village of Belmonte, close to Covilh, Portugal. His parents were Fernao Cabral, the governor of Beira and Belmonte, in Portugal, and Isabel de Gouveia. He married Isabel de Castro, daughter of Fernando de Noronha, an important and distinguished man. His education happened at the royal court, and he was so well-educated he became a member of the King’s Council. In 1499, when he was chosen by King Manuel to command a fleet which would carry on the work of the explorer Vasco da Gama (also from Portugal), Cabral had probably never sailed on a ship before. This information, from the World Book 2006, is denied by another source I utilized in the production of this work (the Catholic Encyclopedia website). This source says Cabral must have been | Pedro Alvares Cabral
7: experienced in sailing and as a seaman. I did further research on Cabral’s education and experience and in most sources’s excerpts, Cabral was most likely an experienced seaman; though I will still consider both points and let the question remain unopened. On March 9th, 1500, a fleet made up of 13 ships sailed from Belém, Lisbon, Portugal. They departured in that day, heading for India. Cabral commanded the fleet. He was supposed to follow Vasco da Gama’s route, but he sailed off course. He was initially sailing southwest, and he hoped winds would carry him and his fleet around the Cape of Good Hope, but the complete opposite happened: winds blew them off course. This theory has its controversies, though: most likely he was blown off course, but there is also the version that maybe Cabral had | been secretly ordered by King Manuel to get to Brazil so that he could ensure and reinforce possession of that land (which was Portuguese, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494). He landed on the country which today is Brazil in April 22nd, 1500. The area was claimed for Portugal by the explorer. In that trip, one ship was lost and another was sent to Portugal with news about their landing in the so-called Ilha da Vera Cruz (Island of the True Cross). The country was later renamed as Terra da Santa Cruz (Land of the Holy Cross), as people realized that landmass was definitely too big to be an island. The country just got its present name later. Due to the country’s main source of
8: economy at the time, a plant called pau-brasil out of which a reddish dye was made, the name of the area of land became its present one – Brazil. Cabral made an effort to treat natives nicely – differently from other explorers and conquerors. However, he still felt it was his right to take over Brazil, in which he was exactly the same as his fellow explorers and conquerors. The remaining ships stayed on Brazil for eight more days and then proceeded to India. On May 24th, however, before India was reached, a storm destroyed four vessels. One vessel was able to reach Madagascar. The six remaining ships sailed to Mozambique and then north. On September 13th, the fleet arrived
9: in Kozhikode (Calicut), India, after sailing across the Indian Ocean. In Calicut, trading started well and a trading post was created. However, many of Cabral’s men ended up killed by Arab merchants in a battle. Cabral was extremely mad. He first bombarded Calicut, then captured ten Arab (Muslim) vessels and killing their crews. He sailed to the Indian ports of Cochin and Cannanore and filled his ships with spices. On June 23rd, 1501, he sailed back to Lisbon. King Manuel considered sending Cabral in another expedition, but he decided in favor of Vasco da Gama. Then, Cabral retired from royal service. He is thought to have died in Santarém, Portugal, in the year of 1520.
10: SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAS | The Triangular Trade involved the Americas, Europe and Africa. Slaves went to America, spices were sent to Europe and goods like weapons, cloth and iron ended up in Africa. Some of the commonly traded goods and people in the Triangular Trade were: African people - men, women and children made into slaves; textiles (cloth); tools; sugar; cotton. metals; tobacco; and weapons. During the Triangular Trade, slaves had to get into a boat which would carry them through the Middle Passage, the route which would take them from Africa to the Americas. The slaves were taken in ships, in which they were treated like ordinary cargo. Slaves were usually sat down or lying on top of one another, which left minimal personal space. They were allowed on deck for a little time a day; however, they were forced to endure many tortures, like being chained all day long in the hot, dark hold. They had to live on this conditions for two or three months, the time the journey lasted. One in every six slaves died, due to diseases (which were quickly spread) or even due to suicide. Many slaves jumped overboard, choosing
11: no life at all over a life of slavery and servitude to another person, a "master". Slaves in voyages slept on boards, not on beds. They came from many different tribes and places, making communication hard. Therefore, a big rebellion was almost impossible. Slaves that had arrived had no rights. Masters had the right to torture, kill or abuse of the slaves in any form, by any means. Obviously, they were unpaid - that is what differentiates slave labor from a badly paid job. They can be born as slaves if their parents were also in the same class as them, or if the kids were sold before their birth. A master or mistress would "brand" a slave, by marking it with the owner's mark. The only hope for slaves was that they actually could be freed - if their master wanted to and let them go. | Slaves can have many jobs. Some examples are the domestic servant or slaves that worked in fields. Slavery added to the economy, and nobody cared about the fact that they [slaves] were actually people. As long as more money was getting inside their pockets, they did not care about the fact that slavery was morally wrong. It was only many years later slavery was considered an unfair act and it was abolished at last. In my research, I discovered that Cortes treated the Aztecs in a bad way; however, Cabral was a little more considerate with the natives. As I wrote on
12: my paragraphs about him, he still thought it was his right to take over the natives; however, he did make an effort to treat them nicely. Most explorers did not do that; they just came in and started conquering people. Cortes is an example of this type of person: he enslaved Aztecs if they did not praise the word of God, of his religion. Another alternative for the natives was death - Cortes killed many Aztecs, and destroyed a rich culture. Cabral did not treat the natives as badly as Cortes did.
14: The Route Cabral Took Across The World
15: The Voyage Cortes Traveled in The New World
16: QUIZ TIME! | 1.Mark the following sentence with a T for true or an F for false. Explain why did you write such an answer in a few words. __ Cortés and Cabral were European explorers who had the same nationality. ___________________________________________________________________ 2.Check the statement which is correct from the choices below. a) Cabral’s main accomplishment was sailing to and discovering for Spain the land of Brazil. b) After Cortés took over the Aztecs, he was forced back to Spain because the king believed he was a good conqueror, but a bad ruler. c) The first name for Brazil was “Island of the True Cross” (in the original in Portuguese, Ilha da Vera Cruz). d) Cabral took Moctezuma hostage after his relationship with the Aztec ruler deteriorated. 3.Write a short definition to indicate the place of Tenochtitlán. ___________________________________________________________________
17: 4.Short Answer/Critical Thinking question: Why was Cabral different from Cortés relating to the way each one treated the natives or the Aztecs? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.The following text is an excerpt of the Introduction at the beginning of this book. Fill in the blanks that are left, without looking back at the original text. Use the key to the left to help with the answers. | TEXT: “[...] Here, each one's life story is described; and how both the (1) ________ and the (2)___________ got hold of two distinct pieces of land in (3) _______ ___________. Here, the lives of (4) _______ _________, the conqueror of Mexico, and Pedro Álvares Cabral, the conqueror of _______, are described.” | KEY: (1): Nationality of one explorer (2): Nationality of the other explorer (3): The name given to the part of the Americas which goes from Mexico down to the tip of South America; most people speak Spanish on these lands (4): Conqueror of Mexico (5): Today’s name for the country the explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered
18: Bibliography | “Cabral, Pedro Álvares.” World Book C-Ch - 3. 2006 ed. 2006. Print. Calmon, Pedro. “Pedro Álvares Cabral.” Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2010.
19: Hartig, Otto. “Pedralvarez Cabral.” Catholic Encyclopedia. 1908 ed. 1908. New Advent. Web. 25 Apr. 2010.
20: Picture Bibliography | Hernan Cortes 1. http://www.allposters.com/IMAGES/BRGPOD/144080.jpg 2. http://www.hernancortes-vs-hernancortes.com/IMAGES/HERNANCORTES.JPG Pedro Álvares Cabral 1.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Pedro_%C3%81lvares_Cabral_-_steel_engraving_by_American_Bank_Note_Company.jpg/250px-Pedro_%C3%81lvares_Cabral_-_steel_engraving_by_American_Bank_Note_Company.jpg 2.http://purl.pt/4991/1/e-359-v_JPG/e-359-v_JPG_24-C-R0072/e-359-v_0001_1_p24-C-R0072.jpg
21: Maps 1.http://www.lilalions.com/blog/CM1A_LF/images/Cortes_picture_map.jpg 2.http://www.mssanmarino.com/Images/Cabral%27s-Voyage-Map.jpg Slavery Pictures 1.http://www.edb.utexas.edu/faculty/salinas/students/student_sites/Spring2007/Jamie_Baker/image_slaveTradePoster.jpg 2.http://latinamericanmusings.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/slavery-brazil.jpg