S: Hernan Cortes and Ponce de Leon
BC: This Mixbook has been made and edited by Filip Cuoco
FC: Hernan Cortes and Ponce de Leon | Filip Cuoco
1: Conquistadors, Spanish for conquerors, were explorers who found and conquered lands. Like Ponce de Leon, and Hernan Cortes. They both were Spanish conquistadors. At that time (1500’s) Portugal, Spain, Great Britain, and other nations were seeking new land. Portugal, and Spain were racing to get more land than the other. Hernan Cortes, and Ponce de Leon, were just two out of the many Spanish explorers. Explorers went after land, riches, trade, and the conversion of people to catholic religion. Cortes, and Ponce were both important people, Cortes took down the Aztec Empire, and Ponce discovered Florida. The purpose of this Mixbook is so that we can look at two explorers side by side, and compare them. I learned a lot from my research, and I hope you learn a lot from what I wrote.
2: Ponce de Leon Ponce de Leon was a Spanish conquistador. Due to the lack of records it is estimated that he was born between 1460-1474. Ponce was raised by his great aunt. Ponce’s success was greatly helped by Don Pedro. Don Pedro was a friend of the royal family. He gave Ponce a job, working as a maid. Ponce did daily chores, and in exchange he got an education, and a place to live. Later on Ponce became Don Pedro’s squire, he shielded him in battle. Ponce was a fast learner, he became captain under the command of Don Pedro. Ponce de Leon was one of the most respected officers of the army. Ponce de Leon died in 1521.
3: When the war with Emirate of Granada ended, Ponce was not needed anymore. Ponce looked for his next opportunity. He joined Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to the New World. In 1502 Hispaniola got a new governor. Ovando, the new governor had orders to overcome of the natives. The Spanish were overrun by the natives and Ponce was assigned to suppress the rebellion. Ovando was impressed, and appointed Ponce as frontier governor of Higuey. Ponce was great at his new job. At more or less the same time Ponce married Leonora, they had four children. Ponce built a giant stone house for his family. Ponce met with the natives, they told him stories about gold, Ponce after being inspired by the stories, requested to explore the island.
4: His exploration, had confirmed the presence of gold, and the King of Spain, Ferdinand, gave him permission to explore the island. They called the island San Juan Bautista. Ponce was given fifty men, and created a settlement in Puerto Rico. Most of the time was used searching for gold. In 1509 Ponce returned to Hispaniola. Due to his success he was assigned governor of San Juan. Back at home the natives were forced to work growing crops, and mining for gold. In 1511 the natives created a short lived rebellion. In 1512 Ponce got the right to search for the islands of Benimy (Florida).
5: Ponce equipped himself with three ships, and two-hundred men. He set out from Puerto Rico. The fleet was in open water until April 2, 1513, when lad was sighted. He named it La Florida. Ponce went to Spain to tell of his claims. Meanwhile there had been at least two unauthorized voyages to La Florida, Ponce knew he had to act fast to keep his claim. In 1521, he organized an expedition to colonize Florida. Ponce was hit by a poisoned arrow, they sailed to Cuba, were he died.
6: Hernan Cortes Hernan Cortes was born in 1485, in Spain, and died in 1547, also in Spain. He was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire. He was born in a lower noble class family. He had some education, but dropped out of school. He studied at the University of Salamanca. He was the cousin of Francisco Pizzaro. There are not a lot of records about his early life, and some dates are estimates made by historians. The Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, called off an expedition in the last moment because he was jealous of Cortés, but Cortes ignored him. When he arrived in the new world he made friends, with the tribes that were against his enemies.
7: With the help of Dona Marina, which he used as an advisor, and interpreter, he communicated. He later had a son with her. He conquered the Aztec, with the help of disease, and other tribes. He then died in the year 1541. Going back to the beginning, Hernan Cortes started out by crossing the Atlantic in 1504, at the age of 19. He met a man called “Diego Velazquez”, Diego was looking for crew members for a voyage to Cuba. Cortes joined the crew. Later on the Spaniards attacked Cuba in 1511. Diego made himself governor of Cuba, people soon didn’t like him. Cortes, and a few others, wanted to plot against him. Diego had his spies, and soon he arrested Cortes, when he was about to report him. Cortes soon got out of jail. It is unknown how he did it, due to the lack of records. There are theories, that he knew the guard, or that
8: the prison was weak. Cortes got a crew, and the permission from Diego, but in the last minute the expedition was called off. Cortes disobeyed Diego, and continued on. When he arrived in Mexico he burned his ships, there was no return. He conquered the Aztec, with the help of disease, and other tribes. He made allies with the Aztecs enemies, he also spread disease. By making allies with the Aztecs enemies, and by spreading disease, the Aztec empire was soon falling apart. He used Dona Marina as a translator. He later had a son with her. Cortes successfully conquered the Aztec Empire. Even though the Aztecs suffered he helped them develop. He brought horses, and other animals, that the natives have never seen. He also
9: brought spices, weapons, and medical treatment. This has later on greatly helped the descendants of the Aztecs, it is still helping them today. He died in Spain in the year 1547. Hernan Cortes is a good example of a conquistador, he was successful, and he didn’t let anything stop him.
10: Slavery Slavery, we all heard something about it, but there is much more to it. Slavery is the idea that one person can own another person, and force him or her to work. This has been in existence since ancient times. It was there before the Egyptians, Romans had it too. It ended around the nineteenth century. Slaves were often treated badly, and they were kept in unacceptable conditions. Many died before they even set foot in the Americas. We all have rights, even prisoners have rights, however slaves didn’t have any rights. White people came, and traded slaves for goods. Then slaves farmed crops in the Americas, and the product was sent to Europe. There it was made into products, shipped to Africa, and traded for slaves. This was called the triangular trade. Slaves, as mentioned in the first paragraph were mistreated. White men came to Africa, traded them, or kidnapped them, without trading them. In both cases, slaves were treated badly. They were whipped, and often times whipped to death.
11: They wore special collars, so they could be hanged, and so they couldn’t escape. Slaves could work in the house or in the field. They were packed into the hulls of ships. Chained together, and from different tribes they couldn’t revolt. Parents and children were separated from each other, and were sold on auctions. Domestic servants, for example could be paid for the trip across the Atlantic, in exchange for 2 years of service or other services. Slavery was slowly coming to an end in the 1800’s. It came earlier for some nations, and later for others, but it came to an end.
12: Time for a quiz! 1. What was the name of the wife of Cortes? 2. How did Ponce get his education? 3. What is Slavery? 4. How did people get the slaves? 5. What did the Spanish call Florida?
13: Works Cited Bartlett Elementary School. "Ponce de Leon." Ponce de Leon. Thinkquest, 2000. Web. 28 Mar. 2010.
14: Picture Bibliography Cortes and Moctazuma http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/58/19358-004-EE106B7C.jpg Hernando Cortes portrait http://www.nndb.com/people/444/000092168/hernando-cortes-1.JPG History of Florida http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/history-of-florida0.gif De Leon map http://library.thinkquest.org/J002678F/ponce_de_leon.htm Cortes and Moctazuma http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/58/19358-004-EE106B7C.jpg
15: Cortes Map http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1a/Cortes_map.png Slavery (shackles) http://stufffromthelab.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/slavery.jpg Cortes and natives www.arizona-dream.com/Mexique/Indiens/hcortes.php De Leon with Natives http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/16100/16144/deleon_16144_lg.gif Triangular Trade Map http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/maps/slave-tr.gif