FC: How Alike Can Two Explorers Be? Lorena A. Lorenzo | Hernan Cortes | POnce de Leon | Hernan Cortes
1: Have you ever tried to compare two explorers and see how alike they might be? First of all, what are explorers? An explorer is a person who investigates unknown regions. Why are they so important? You probably are asking yourself and here is the answer to it. Of course before the explorers knew that North, Central and South America existed the land was the home of many Native Americans. Yes, the explorers did come to these areas and invaded but if not we would have not developed into what we now are. Have you ever Heard of the Famous Christopher Colombus? He was the explorer who discovered part ofNorth America. If Colombus found part of North America, who found Mexico in Central America and Florida in North America? The explorers were both from Spain, Hernan Cortes and Ponce de Leon. Hop aboard and join us on a voyage from Spain all the way to the Americas!
2: Hernán Cortés was born in Medellin, Spain on the year 1485. He belonged to a noble moderate fortuned family and grew up in a small town of Estremadura. Amazingly, Cortés when off to college to study law in the University of Salamanca but the word study didn’t fit poor hernán, of course he was 14 and he eventually returned to Medellin in 1501 and resolved upon making his future and fortune on his voyages. Hernán decided to start | Hernan Cortes
3: his first voyage with Nicolas de Ovando who wanted to sail to now known as Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) and conquer the area to claim it for him and the name of Spain. Unfortunately some love conflicts kept him back and the voyage went on without him. Finally, in 1504 he sailed for Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) where Cortés meet again with Ovando who gave Hernán a job and worked for a couple of years. Soon, in 1511 Cortés and Diego Velázquez took a voyage to what we now know as Cuba. In 1518 Cortés persuaded Velázquez, who was now governor of Cuba, to make him commander of an expedition to Mexico. It had only recently been discovered by Europeans and was rumoured to contain great wealth but all of these explorers had failed in the attempt of settling there. With about 700 Spaniards Cortés was ready to set sail but then the governor, Velázquez, who was now suspicious of his motives
4: so he canceled his commission and could be even sent to jail if he didn't follow the rule but Cortés ignored Velázquez and set out. He arrived in the coast on the coast of Mexico in 1519 on arrival he established a settlement (now Veracruz) and made local allies and the major civilization in the region | that was of the Aztecs, led by Montezuma II. Cortés headed for the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, which was a three-month journey over difficult terrain. It is thought that Cortés’ arrival coincided with an Aztec prophecy about a white-skinned god arriving from the east, which would explain why Montezuma welcomed Cortés and gave him lavish gifts. However, relations quickly deteriorated and,
5: of Montezuma who he (Hernán Cortés) called Doña Marina. In April 1520, Velázquez sent an expedition to capture Cortés and when Hernán found out he left to fight the expedition, an Aztec revolt began in Tenochtitlán. Cortés returned and obliged Montezuma to face the crowd, but the Aztec leader was struck by a stone and died. The Spanish were driven out of the city, incurring heavy losses. Cortés re-organised his forces and in 1521 returned to Tenochtitlán, which fell after a three-month siege. A new settlement, Mexico City, was built on the ruins and settled with Spanish | fearing an attack, Cortés took Montezuma hostage, demanding a huge ransom from his people. One of the people he had on his side was the daughter
6: colonists, becoming the centre of Spanish America. Cortés secured control over Mexico, inflicting great cruelty on the indigenous population. Western diseases such as smallpox also caused huge fatalities. In 1523 | Cortés was named governor and captain general of New Spain. In 1528, the Spanish feared that he was becoming too powerful, so he was forced to return to Spain where the king reinstated him as captain general, but not to the position of civil governor. On his return to Mexico, his powers were significantly limited and his activities were monitored. He continued to explore Central America, hoping to find a strait from the
7: Atlantic to the pacific Ocean. He failed, instead of discovering and in 1541 he returned to Spain. He retired to an estate near Seville, Spain where he died seven years later (1547) on December 2nd.
8: Juan Ponce de Leon | The Spanish conqueror and explorer Juan Ponce de León was born in San Servas, Spain. Although he was born into a noble family, he was poor, and like many in similar situations, he got fame and fortune as a soldier. He received an education in fighting skills, manners, and religion while serving a knight named Pedro Nunez de Guzman, and later helped in the ten-year conquest of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in southern Spain.
9: Afterward, Ponce de León heard stories of Christopher Columbus's (1451–1506) discovery of a new world and volunteered to go along on a return trip. In September 1493 he was one of twelve hundred men who set out for the island of Hispaniola (modern Dominican Republic and Haiti). Ponce de León survived diseases, bad weathers, and hunger to help colonize the new lands by forcing the Indians into slavery. Ponce de León | spent most of the early 1500s in Hispaniola, establishing farms, distributing land rights, helping construct buildings to aid in defense, and working to set up an island economy (system of production, distribution, and use of goods and services). He also married and fathered four children. He was named deputy governor of Hispaniola by Governor Nicolas de Ovando after helping put down an Indian uprising in the eastern
10: province of the island in 1504. The Indians told Ponce de León that he would find gold on a neighboring island to the east, called Boriquien (Puerto Rico). Four years later he crossed over and conquered the island. During the conquest he shared the honors with a famous greyhound dog named Bercerillo. It was said that the Indians were more afraid of ten Spaniards with the dog than one hundred | hundred without him. Ponce de León was appointed governor of Puerto Rico by King Ferdinand of Spain (1452–1516). The island became popular with other settlers because it was well run by Ponce de León and it had a large number of slaves
11: and many natural resources. Ponce de León was also noted for his nonviolent treatment of the Indians, which was rare for the time. Stripped of his title as governor by King Ferdinand in 1512 after a political conflict, Ponce de León obtained permission from the king to discover and settle the island of Bimini, which was believed to lie somewhere to the northwest. He was also interested in locating a famous body of water that was said to have the power to restore youth to the aged. This myth, repeated to Ponce de León by the Indians, was of European origin. According to the legend, the spring was in the Garden of Eden, which was located somewhere in Asia (the early Spaniards believed America to be Asia). In March 1513 Ponce de León sailed from Puerto Rico and a month later anchored near the mouth of the St. Johns River on the northeast coast of Florida. Impressed with its many beautiful flowers,
12: and having landed on Easter day, he named the land Florida, from the Spanish Pascua florida, or "flowery Easter." While traveling southward he encountered the strong current of the Gulf Stream as it poured through a channel. He had discovered the Bahama Channel, which later became the route of the treasure ships on their return voyage to Spain. He continued exploring the East Coast and then sailed up the Gulf Coast to Pensacola Bay. During his return voyage to Puerto Rico he sighted several small islands crowded with tortoises and named the islands the Tortugas, or "tortoises." In 1514 Ponce de León returned to Spain where he received another grant, to establish colonies in the "Island of Florida" at his own expense. In February 1521 the colonizing expedition landed on the Florida coast near Charlotte Harbor. A fierce attack by Native Americans caused the settlement to be left abandoned.
13: Ponce de León, wounded in the battle, died a few days after returning to Cuba. He was buried in Puerto Rico; the words on his gravestone read, "Here rest the bones of a valiant LION [León], mightier in deeds than in name."
14: Slavery In the Caribbean | Imagine being snatched away from your home and your family, being stuck in a boat for months and then being put to do hard laboring all day long. That was what was happening in the Caribbean for about 400 years, starting in the 1500s. Slavery is the word that we call this time of period. Do not get confused with slaves and indentured servants because servants did get paid. Slaves were not paid, did not have cloths and where put to death
15: to North and Central America, sell them, whip them and use them is all the Europeans did. The slaves had different jobs which were planting crops and hunting. Slaves were considered so un-valuable that the conquerors would normally trade products for slaves. This process was called the Triangular Trade. The Triangular Trade was based on trading from continent to continent. North America would trade crops to Europe. the Europeans would trade hand made goods such as cloth, | in front of everyone if they made a tiny mistake. This is what Europeans did. They got people from Africa and sent them on a boat all the way to
16: iron guns and other weapons and Africa would then trade slaves; the slaves were delivered from the “Slave Coast” to other continents such as South America and North America. Slaves were not treated in a considerate and respectful way. The salves would resist a bit in the beginning but some could not take it and would try to escape. Big error. Any slave who ever tried to escape was punished in a very crucial way and in front of everyone. Usually the punishment was long and painful so that the remaining people observing the act would learn not to make the same error because if not they would end up in the same position as the specific slave. Eventually slavery was abolished in the 1900s and the Africans were free to go back to their home.
17: Lots of lives were left there, under the dirt. So many lives destroyed without justice and so many families were split apart just for money. I am sure that this time period left a horrible mark on the life of all Africans whose ancestors might have been slaves and in Europeans life too, for turning out to be such a racist, mean race.
18: Now, lets see if you were paying attention. Answer the quiz on the following page and see how good of a reader you are!
19: 1. Where did Hernan Cortes first settle? 2. What did Hernan Cortes Study? 3. When and where did Hernan Cortes die? 4. What was ponce de Leon's first goal on the Americas? 5. Where did Ponce de Leon First settle? | QUIZ
20: Bibliography (Hernan Cortes) Folsom, Gorge. “Hernan Cortes .” Virtualology. American Biology , n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2010.
21: Eagles, Andre. “Juan Ponce de Leon.” Discoverers Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.
22: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/fotos/cortes.jpg (Hernan Cortes front cover) http://www.corning.k12.ia.us/images/verna/WebQuest_files/Leon.jpg (Ponce de Leon front cover) http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/images/Mexico/factfile/397px-Cortes-Hernando-LOC.jpg (Hernan Cortes Top Page 2) http://www.hernancortes-vs-hernancortes.com/IMAGES/HERNANCORTES.JPG (Hernan Cortes Bottom Page 2) http://www.xpoferens.cat/cortmok1.jpg (Hernan Cortes Fighing) http://wa4.www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/historia/jpg/AMH10478.jpg (Hernan Cortes & Dona Marina) | Bibliography (Photos)
23: http://lialdia.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/hernan-cortes-y-montezuma.jpg (Hernan Cortes & Montezuma) http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/historia/hernan/caratula.jpg (Hernan Cortes Top Page 7) http://www.nosoloviajeros.com/imagenes/miscelanea/hernan-cortes.jpg (Hernan Cortes Bottom Page 7) http://www.johntoddjr.com/104%20History/images/01%20mapcortes3.jpg (Hernan Cortes Route) http://bellsouthpwp.net/r/u/ruiz_b/PuertoRico/Juan_Ponce_de_Leon.jpg (Ponce de Leon Page 8 bottom) http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/7600/7692/de_leon_7692_md.gif (Ponce de Leon Page8 Top) http://uofugeron.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/ponce-de-leon-fountain-of-youth.jpg (Ponce de Leon Page 12) http://www.mrnussbaum.com/pdlmap.gif (Ponce de Leon Route)
24: http://www.newton.k12.ma.us/bigelow/classroom/cohen/poncedeleon/images/leon%20on%20island.jpg (Ponce de Leon Bottom Page 13) http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/history-of-florida0.gif (Ponce de Leon Top Page 13) http://www.fresno.k12.ca.us/divdept/sscience/images/MSCSTReview/slavery.jpeg (Slavery Hands Chained) http://loszieglerencanada.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/slavery.jpg (Sad Slave) http://children.foreignpolicyblogs.com/files/2007/04/slaves_in_chains_grayscale.png (Slaves Chained Together) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Triangular_trade.jpg (Triangular Trade