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FC: The Journey Through Dance Appreciation | Photo Taken By: Jordan Matter, Dancers Among Us

1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | DANC2010 | Daryll Foster Fall 2012 | Chapter 1:Ballet (2-13) - History of Ballet (4-5) - Romantic Ballet (6-7) - Classical Ballet (8-9) - Russian Imperialism Ballet (10-11) - Spotlight on George Balanchine (12-13) Chapter 2: The Stage (14-19) - Stage Directions (16-17) - History of the Stage (18-19) Chapter 3: Modern Dance (20-25) - What is Modern Dance? (20-21) - Modern Dance verse Ballet (22-23) - The major influences of Modern Dance (24-25) Chapter 3: Contemporary Dance (26-33) -What is Contemporary Dance? (26-27) - History of Contemporary Dance(28-29) - Contemporary Spotlight: Merce Cunningham (30-31) - Famous Contemporary Dancers (32-33) Chapter 4: Musical Theater (34-39) -What is Musical Theater (34-35) - History of Musical Theater (36-37) - People in Musical Theater (38-39) Chapter 4: Jazz Dance (40-47) -What is Jazz Dance? (40-41) - History of Jazz (42-43) - Jazz Dance Components (44-45) - Monumental Jazz Dancers (46-47) Chapter 5: Hip-Hop (48-55) - What is Hip-Hop Dance? (48-49) - Pillars of Hip-Hop(50-51) - History of Hip-Hop (52-53) - Hip-Hop Superstars (54-55) Resources (56-57)

2: BALLET | DANC2010 | Daryll Foster Fall 2012 | "Ballet is a dance executed by the human soul." - Alexander Pushkin

4: History of Ballet | Ballet came from Italy but was codified in France. It started out as an artistic form of fencing and created an entertaining story for the viewers. The dark ages had just ended and a lot of musical influences were coming out of Africa to the European continent. Majors centers of ballet were in France, England, Italy, Denmark and Russia. In the beginning of ballet it was not about reality, it was more about celestial things and royalty. People eventually rioted burning down the French palace and newer forms of ballet arose.

6: Romantic Ballet

7: The Romantic Ballet era began in 1827 in Paris when the beautiful Marie Tagloini premiered in La Sylphide. The Romantic Ballets are distinguishable because they focus on the conflict between man verse nature, society verse supernatural. The main themes present in Romantic Ballet include supernatural creatures, fairies, and female vampires. This was the era when the male dancer started to decline and the female dancer, the ballerina started to shine. The female ballerina was characterized by being soft with curved arms - almost flower like. The cult of ballerinas was one of the first times in history that women had careers independent from men. A major development during the Romantic Ballet was the pointe work – a shoe that allowed dancers to dance on their toes. The pointe shoe gave ballerinas a mystical and ethereal appearance because they would seem to be floating or airy – the idea of the impossible weightlessness of a female. During this era one of the famous ballets is the Giselle Ballet. The Giselle Ballet is a perfect example of the distinct format and structure of ballets in this era. The ballets were librettos, which meant they were stories written for the purpose of an artistic production. The ballets were very detailed stories that were thoughtfully put together with appropriate music. Along with each ballet having more substance, the choreography and technique was becoming more difficult. This era also gave rise to a new tutu that is long and made out of tulle. The exaggerative length was modest but also gave the ballerina freedom to move. Finally, special effects are a huge part of the discoveries during Romantic Ballet. Including: gas lighting and a fly system. Prior to the gas lighting, line light, theaters were lit by candles. Candles were very restricting and rather dangerous but now there could be an ominous green glow and dimming of the lights to affect the mood. The fly system allowed for new and different backdrops and people to magically fly across the strange – a huge attention grabber at the time.

8: Classical Ballet is the time period when the different ballet schools were being established around Europe in Russia (Vangova), France, England, Denmark (Bournonville), and Italy (Cecchetti). Classical Ballet consists of a company with a core, soloists, and principal dancers. This time period in ballet is where technique was taken to a higher level. There was more intricate legwork, increased elevated technique, and they wore point shoes that were made specifically for dance and technique. The classical tutu was cut tool and a lot shorter then the romantic tutu, so you could see the new techniques of the leg better. | Classical Ballet

9: This was the time that Swan Lake, Don Quixote, and the Nutcracker were being performed, all of which that were stories adapted into ballets. The order of a classical ballet was the prologue or the prelude which is the music that foreshadows what is about to happen, then the exposition, which is telling the story with ballet music. After the exposition is the divertissement, which the choreographer and the composer used as an excuse to do something fun but really has nothing to do with the story, then is the grand pas de deux, which is a duet between a man and a woman, and literally means step for two and is a dance to a slow, walking pace tempo of music. After the pas de deux, there is the adage, which is also dance slow controlled music to really show thetechnical control, then is a female solo, then the male solo. Following the two variations, there is the grand allegro, which is almost the preface to the finale and is a duet with faster and bigger movement. Finally there is the coda, which is the review of the entire story, followed by the finale.

10: Russian Imperialism Ballet | Russian Imperialism was a period during ballet when Russia created a new technique called the Vaganova Method, which was created by Russian Ballet teacher, Agripinna Vaganova. The Vaganova is bold and athletic. It consists of sharp angles and is more direct in the line as compared to the Italian and French feminine, curved technique. There were many ballet companies in Russia at this time, for example, the Bolshoi Ballet and the Ballet Russe. Ballet Russe broke away from the classical ballet. This company had more creative ballets that were not necessarily full-length stories. It was combined with individual artists, Leon Bakst and Coco Chanel. The Fire Bird, the Right of Spring, and Afternoon of the Faun are all examples of ballets put on by Ballet Russe. Igor Stravinsky wrote music for most of Ballet Russe’s ballets. His music shows a more modern presentation ballet. The music is not as long and formal as the classical ballets are. Stravinsky’s music is more eccentric.

12: George Balanchine | BALLET | George Balanchine was a dancer and a choreographer who changed the way that Americans look at ballet. He experimented with ballet and wanted the dancers to get rid of the tutus and the tights. His ways were not appreciated or accepted. George and a man named Pierce moved to New York and created the ballet society in America. The School of Ballet in America was the first major ballet school in America.

13: There are two international ballet companies in America, The New York City Ballet and The American Ballet. People from around the world can come to these international ballet companies and be compared on an international scale. These companies are large in size, around 80 to 100 people. George deconstructed ballet and took neoclassicism to the next level. He threw out the tutus, set pieces, elaborate costumes, and story lines. He made ballet all about the bare elements that includes lines, techniques, athleticism, shape, contour, simplicity, and virtuosity. His dancers are referred to cookie cutter dancers because they all look the same, white and very skinny. The emergence of jazz was happening at the time as well so George was very influenced by African American culture and rhythms. George’s concept of ballet was linear or line oriented. An example of one of his ballets is called Agon. This ballet has no story line and is all about the body. It shows how linear the body is and fast movements of the body. This type of dance causes major stress on the body.

15: the stage | Image from:


17: Besides the stage directions, performers must also know about the fly system (shown left and below) that is located above the stage. This is used to "fly in" set pieces, dancers, backdrops, and other elements that enhance the aesthetics of a performance (6). | Images from:

18: From: 12/vs-theatrical-glossary-with-a-rush-hour-twist/ | From: | From:

19: While the terms "upstage" and "downstage" currently refer to the back of the stage and the front of the stage, respectively, they previously held a more literal meaning. During Shakespearean performances, the stage was grated (or tilted) towards the audience. This allowed the audience, who were seated on a flat surface, to see all parts of the stage. "Upstage" referred to the highest part of the stage (located away from the audience) and "downstage" referred to the lowest level of the stage (located towards the audience in the front). The biggest problem that arose with this setup of the stage was that things had a tendency to slide off of the stage. Dancers, set pieces, and other props fell off of the stage because of the incline. This not only endangered the performers, but also the audience members who were seated closest to the stage. The transition to a flat stage and inclined audience is what performers and audience members still see today (6). | A Historic Perspective: The Stage

20: WHAT IS MODERN DANCE? | Modern Dance originated in Germany and eventually moved to America. It began as a form of rebellion against ballet in the early 20th century. | Phto credit: | Photo Credit: | Modern Dance is characterized by human emotion. This emotion is portrayed on stage with the use of body movements such as contraction and release. | (Information from class notes)

21: A central theme of Modern Dance during the early 20th century was pseudoexoticism, or false exoticism. Ruth St. Denis pioneered this theme, presenting her experience of eastern culture as her own in her performances. | Martha Graham, one of Ruth St. Denis' students at the Denishawn school of dance, created an entirely new technique that she exhibited in her performances that drew heavily from mythology and folklore. | Photo Credit: Muray | Information from class notes

22: Poto Credit: | Photo Credit: | Photo Credit:

23: Modern dance has no specialized shoe, whereas the pointe shoe is a central focus in ballet. Modern dance is characterized by expressing human emotion through the use of contraction, release, and recover. The Principles of Modern Dance are head to tail connection, body half, core to distal, upper lower, translateral, and vestibular. On the contrary, Ballet is characterized by linear alignment and pulled up, upright movements. Ballet performances often have elaborate costumes and sets; however, Modern dance performances are usual done in simple costumes without any props or backdrops to emphasize the dancer and his or her emotion. | Modern Dance vs. Ballet | Information from class notes

24: MODERN DANCE INFLUENCES | She traveled around the world and presented her cultural experiences as if they were her own using a theme of pseudoexoticism, or false exoticism. One of her most famous dances, "Incense Dance" portrays pseudoexoticism. | Ruth St. Denis was raised to priestess or goddess-like status because every element of her performances was mesmerizing due to its foreign and unusual components. | She and her husband, Ted Shaun, started Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts in 1915. | Ruth St. Denis is one of the most famously influential dancers of the Modern Dance Era. | Photo Credit: | Photo Credit: | Photo Credit:

25: Martha Graham's work was heavily influenced by mythology and folklore. Like Ruth St. Denis, her work drew from far away and was foreign to her audience. Martha Graham worked with visual artists and fashion designers to give her audience the reaction she desired. | Martha Graham was another influential figure in Modern Dance. She attended the Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts. Rumor has it that she locked herself in a closet until she created an entirely new technique. | Photo Credit: | Photo Credit: | Information from class noes

26: CONTEMPORARY DANCE | Contemporary dance combines elements from Japanese butoh, pedestrian movement, aerial work, and current movements. It focuses on "now," emphasizing the importance of the present. Contemporary dance can also be site-specific, allowing dancers to utilize their surroundings to delve into the emotion of a piece (11). Improvisation is also a large component of contemporary dance. Dancers may have certain moments in a piece that have no set choreography. They then use the "push and pull" of the piece to dictate their next movements (11). | Image From:

27: From: | From:

28: HISTORY OF CONTEMPORARY DANCE | Contemporary Dance is a style of dance that emerged in the 1950s and is based on the techniques that Merce Cunningham came up with when he was at Black Mountain College. He created the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. Contemporary dance as a whole has stemmed off of the original techniques by Cunningham and has elements from both modern and post modern dance. While there still is a lot of technique involved, contemporary dance is a lot more free movements and is not like ballet in the sense that is is telling a story.

30: Merce Cunningham forged the way for contemporary dance by utilizing "chance dance". Chance dance refers to the movement progression as dictated by a random selection process. For example, Cunningham would ask his audience to vote upon a sequence of several numbers. These numbers would then reflect the order of the program. The dancers would received the order shortly before beginning the movement and utilize the location and atmosphere of the performance to make the segments flow together (12). | S | Contemporary Spotlight: Merce Cunningham | One well known Cunningham piece is "Ocean," which was performed in a rock quarry to mimic the depths of the ocean and horizon of the water's surface. Dancers performed on a moving platform that could tilt, demonstrating the moving water and wore various shades of blue costumes (12). | Image from:

31: Contemporary Influences | Images left and above from: http://www.artsalive. ca/en/dan/meet/bios/artistDetail.asp?artistID=165 | Image right from: nnovation/Horizons/2009/ 0727/remembering-merce- cunningham-technology- pioneer

32: One of the first influential contemporary dancers is Carolyn Brown. She was in Merce Cunningham's first company and was known as the best in the company. She was known to have a great pure technique. | FAMOUS CONTEMPORARY DANCERS

34: MUSICAL THEATRE | What is it?

35: Musical Theater | Musical Theatre is a unique combination of music, speech, and dance. These components come together to allow almost any audience to find joy in witnessing this type of performance. What we know as Musical Theatre actually came about as late as the 19th century, although other forms have been around for ages. The difference between Musical Theatre and other pieces is that the music drives the plot and is a major component of the work.

36: HISTORY OF MUSICAL THEATRE | The earliest forms of Musical Theater started in Ancient Greece. Music was added for emphasis in the stage works of this time. During the Renaissance, these works transformed into operas, where music was the main focus on the stage. From here, Musical Theatre took on a comical role towards the later half of the 19th century. Entering into the new century, popular songs were used and this type of performance transformed into a hip, stylish work of art. During WWI, Musical Theatre was an escape from the everyday doom and gloom.

37: Just Dance | THEATRE | Much like the time itself, Musical Theatre in the 1920's was frivolous and upbeat. Although this lighthearted theatre may have kept up after the 20's, the great depression mad it very difficult for people to go to shows due to lack of money. The 40's saw the first "blockbuster" Broadway show, Oklahoma! This was known as the Golden Age of Musical Theatre. Music and dance became a large part of what Musical Theatre was about. During civil rights movements, the shows reflected societal issues and tried to lessen the problems facing minority groups. Now, Musical Theatre is huge and influences from the changing times is evident with rock musicals and pop operas.

39: Composer Richard Rogers and lyricist Lorenzo Hart produced Broadway musicals together and have been commended for their excellent achievements in the musical world. | Richard Rogers | Lorenz Hart

40: photo credit:

41: Jazz Dance According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, jazz dance is "any dance to jazz accompaniments, composed of a profusion of forms. Jazz dance paralleled the birth and spread of jazz itself from roots in black American society and was popularized in ballrooms by the big bands of the swing era (1930s and ’40s). It radically altered the style of American and European stage and social dance in the 20th century.

42: JAZZ HISTORY | AUSTRALIA | ARRIVED 21 DEC 2011 | American Jazz Dance is also referred to as vernacular dance. Vernacular dance is dance that happens in its environment, like the dance of the people, or slavery. When the African slaves were brought to America they converted their memories from home into dancing that eventually evolved into jazz dance. photos and info from:

43: In the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. Black musicians provided "low-class" entertainment at dances, minstrel shows, and in vaudeville, and many marching bands formed. Black pianists played in bars, clubs and brothels, and ragtime developed.

45: Components of Jazz Dance 1. Free Spirit- Jazz is about being a rebel and it is about freedom. It is about doing what you want. It is about not conforming to standards or what you know - it's about exploring what's out there 2. Swing- When you ride a swing, you move back and forth in a swaying motion. Swing in jazz refers to its perpetual forward momentum. 3. Syncopation- Syncopation is a fancy word which describes the way jazz musicians play their notes. They place accents before and after the beat, which emphasizes the beat itself. This is what makes jazz different from the regular classical and pop music. 4. Call and Response- This melody dates back to the African tribal songs, and even the songs which slaves used to sing before slavery was abolished in America. The call and response occurs when a preacher or the dance leader shouts a statement, and the audience shouts back. Similarly, instrumentalists also have this call and response "conversation". They trade musical phrases as if they are playing tag. photos and info from:

46: SPOTLIGHT ON PEOPLE MONUMENTAL IN JAZZ DANCE | Joe Oliver was his favorite musician to watch, and the older man acted as a father to Louis, even giving him his first real cornet, and instructing him on the instrument. | Like almost all early Jazz musicians, Louis was from New Orleans. He was from a very poor family and was sent to reform school when he was twelve after firing a gun in the air on New Year's Eve. | Louis Armstrong is one of the most famous Jazz musicians of all time. some of his most famous works include "Hello Dolly" and "What A Wonderful World."

47: Scott Joplin is most well known for starting the ragtime era of Jazz music. | Spencer Williams | Bessie Smith | photos from;; and


49: Pbase. (n.d.). Retrieved from Jackson, W. [Web log message]. Retrieved from Class Notes | Hip Hop dance is a cultural movement formed out of the desire to seize freedom from oppressive social conditions. Hip Hop emerged in the South Bronx in the late 1970s. The people of the South Bronx were being oppressed and subdued by the white culture around them, and the area was compared to a war zone. As violence spread, so did the new culture that the youth of the Bronx used to re-channel the energy into something constructive.

50: 5 Pillars of HIP-HOP 1.MC-ing- master of ceremony (eventually become rappers) 2.DJ-ing-Disc Jockey- Cued break beats for dancers, and MC’s 3.BBoy-ing- breakers and dancers 4.Graffiti- grew out of the need to beautify the plight of the urban community 5. Knowledge- the understanding, vibe, and common bond that tie the hip hop community together (Class Notes)

51: HIP-HOP | Components | 1990-2012 | [Web log message]. (2005, 01 18). Retrieved from

52: When hip hop music began to emerge, it was based around disc jockeys who created rhythmic beats by looping breaks (small portions of songs emphasizing a percussive pattern) on two turntables, which is now more commonly referred to as sampling. This was later accompanied by rapping and beatboxing, a vocal technique used to imitate percussive elements of the music and various technical effects of hip hop DJs.

54: DJ Kool Herc The Father of Hip Hop | Herc used twin turntables and cut back and forth between two seperate records to create a new sound known as the Break. By mixing back and forth between the two copies the break could be doubled tripled or extended indefinately. Deconstructing and reconstructing music and other found sounds with the turntables, the foundations of Beat Juggling.This was to become the foundation for hip hop, sampling to create new music with exsisting music and also the beggining of the DJ as a musician (or Turntablist) | Emir, D. (2012). Hip hop history and culture. Retrieved from

55: HIP-HOP SUPERSTARS | From the first beats of 1983's "It's Like That," their debut single, Run-DMC ignited a revolution that brought hip-hop into the front-line, across television barriers, into the RIAA platinum realm, and straight ahead to the mash-ups that are today's new frontiers of rap and rock

56: RESOURCES | 1. Brenner, W. (n.d.). Ballet Dancers - Contemporary Dance - UC CCM 4 - Ballet Photography & Dance Portraits in Columbus, Ohio - a photo on Flickriver. Flickriver - A new way to view Flickr photos and more.... Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 2.Cambridge University Contemporary Dance Workshop. (n.d.). University of Cambridge Registered Clubs & Societies. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 3. Contemporary Dance Techniques . (n.d.). CONTEMPORARY DANCE. The Best Resources and Information Online.. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 4.Curriculum - James Madison University School of Theatre and Dance, Harrisonburg, Virginia. (n.d.). James Madison University - Home. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 5. Stage Directions. Online. Retrieved on Nov. 2, 2012 from 6. Hickman, S. (n.d.). THE BOY IN THE DRESS: CONTEMPORARY DANCE... THE BOY IN THE DRESS. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 7. Talley, R. (n.d.). Contemporary Dance (Foumonic) | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Welcome to Flickr - Photo Sharing. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from 8. Weng, K. (n.d.). Method Contemporary Dance Asks: Do You Still Love Us?: LAist. LAist: Los Angeles News, Food, Arts & Events. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from

57: 9. Contemporary Dance- Michael Lutch 10. Contemporary Dance Carolyn Brown- John Wulp 11. The Art of Contemporary Dance - Choreography and Movement. Online. Retrieved November 1, 2012, from 12. The Biography of Merce Cunningham - Merce Cunningham Dance Company. Online. Retrieved November 1, 2012, from 13. Run dmc. (2012). Retrieved from | CREATED BY GROUP 6 1. Laura Kinsey 2. Ainsley Holyfield 3. Morgan Batson 4. Caroline Bortz 5. Kate Wagner 6. Alexa Boykin 7. Kasey Leigh Darley 8. Michaela Hyland 9. Polly Jean Turrentine

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