BC: Addison Collins is a 9th grade student at Highland. She is in Mrs. MacMahan's third period class.
FC: The Basics of DCS | By Addison Collins
1: DCS: | DC S stands for Digital Communication Systems. | This class teaches you all you need to know about computers.
2: Objective 1: | Computer Fundamentals
3: In this objective, you will be learning about... *-the 3 components of a computer system -the 4 types of hardware -the 4 types of software -viruses: types and what they do
4: The 3 Components of a Computer The 3 components of a computer system are:
5: *Hardware ( see next page) *System Software- makes the hardware work. *Application Software- Word Processor, Spreadsheet, etc.
6: The 4 Types of Hardware | *Input- keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc. These put information into the computer.
7: *CPU- aka, Central Processing Unit. It is the "Brain" of the computer.
8: The 4 Types of Hardware, Cont. | *Output- speakers, printers, monitor, etc. These devices are used to get information out of a computer.
9: *Storage- Hard drives, flash drives, CDs. These devices are used to store information. | *Types of memory: Random Access Memory (RAM) or Read Only Memory (ROM).
10: The 4 types of Software | *Commercial Software- software that is proprietary (owend) and is protected by copyright. You have to pay to use it.
11: *Shareware- copyrighted software that you can not give away, but you can show others how to get to it. You can use it for a limited amount of time before you have to pay for it. The payment for shareware used to be an honor system, but it isn't anymore.
12: The 4 Types of Software, Cont. | *Freeware- software that is given away free of charge, but is still copyrighted by the owner. Freeware can not be sold, altered, or copied without the owner's permission.
13: *Public Domain Software- software that was donated for public use and belongs to the public. It is not copyrighted, and anyone can alter it.
14: Viruses! | Computer viruses are intended to mess up your computer. Hackers get access into your computer. Viruses are intentional. There are five types of viruses:
15: Types of Viruses! | *Bomb- goes off at a certain time. *Worm- bury themselves in your data; start out small, but get bigger.
16: Oh no, more viruses?! | *Phage- database, operating system, PDA. *Trojan Horse- it looks like something good, but it's really a virus. *Hoax- opposite of Trojan horses. You create your own problem with these.
17: Other things... | *Anti-virus software- protects your computer from viruses. *Encryption- secret codes that protect your data. *Piracy- stealing, copying, & selling copyrighted material.
18: Objective 3: Speech Recognition
19: My experience
20: Voice recognition is a very useful program. It turns something that you said into a microphone into text on the computer. A speech engine recognizes what you are saying and types it up.
21: Some speech recognition programs can understand what you're saying up to 200 words a minute. You have to make a profile when using speech recognition, because it can understand you better.
22: It took me a little while to get used to speech recognition. Most of the time, when I tried to say my name,it thought I had said something crazy...
23: Addison Grace Collins turned into... | @ is son brace callings | all this some race call kings | addition grace Collin | @reason space roll inns
24: *Automatic speech recognizer -- (ASR) speech recognition software sometimes called a speech engine, which listens to human speech and converts the spoken words to text. | *Dictation mode-- enables users to dictate text into a computer application.
25: *Continuous speech recognition (CSR)-- speech recognition system that enables users to speak normally, pausing only to give commands and give punctuation marks. | *Discrete speech-- speech recognition system that requires the user to pause momentarily between each word.
26: Objective 4: | Alternative Input Devices
27: The devices you will be learning about are... | --Flatbed Scanners --Digital Camcorders --Keyboards --Webcams --Touch Screens --Environmental Control Units --Phone Generations
28: Flatbed Scanners | Flatbed scanners are scanners with a flat, glass surface to hold paper, books, or other objects and scan them. The scan head moves under the glass to copy what you need it to.
29: They are necessary for art history, archeology history, and museum research. Scanners can make things appear that the human eye can't detect.They have a large depth of focus. They can be used as digital cameras.
30: Digital Camcorders | Digital camcorders are electronic input devices that combine a video camera and a video recorder together. They are designed to capture videos.
31: Everyone can use a digital camcorder. They allow you to put videos on a computer. You can play back videos that you recorded with these. They can be big or small, and the prices vary.
32: Keyboards | Keyboards act like a series of levers and switches and are designed after the typewriter keyboard. Each key stands for a symbol, but you can get other symbols if you press keys in a sequence or at the same time.
33: The first keyboard was made in 1872. The QUERTY keyboard was made 200 years ago. It is the most popular keyboard, although it still causes some strain on the user. New keyboards have been designed to reduce stress.
34: Keyboard Layouts | QWERTY: QWERTYUIOP ASDFGHJKL;' ZXCVBNM,.?
35: XPeRT: XPERTUIOJ QSDFNHAELK ZWCVBGM,.?
36: Phone Generations | There are three generations of cell phones. *First Generation- signals were modulated to 150 MHz, and sent as analog signals through radio towers.
37: *Second Generation- the second generation used wireless digital technology. Also had SMS messaging, or text messaging. *Third Generation- has enhanced features such as high-speed transmission and advanced multimedia access.
38: Webcams | Webcams come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, and range in price from under $20 to over $3200. The more expensive it is, the more features it has.
39: Webcams can be used for video chatting, making videos or still images, and for security purposes. The first webcam filmed a coffee pot at Cambridge University. Hackers can hack into webcams and see everything that goes on.
40: Touch Screens | Touch screens are devices that detects the presence and location within the display area allowing the user to interact with it
41: Touch screens can be on cell phones, computers, music devices, PDAs, and much more. They were made in 1971, and have become very popular recently.
42: Environmental Control Units | Environmental control units help disabled people do everyday things like watch TV, change the temperature, and other things with a small device. It can control things around the house.
43: Most environmental control units cost about $5,500. They can be used by anyone, but they are mostly used by disabled people. They can do tasks such as turn on lights and start devices. They help disabled people get back to their normal life.
44: these are all input devices.
46: Objective 9: | Leadership
47: You will be learning about: -Accountability -Responsibility -Victimization
48: Accountability | If you are accountable, than you are above the line. The four steps to being accountable are: 1. See it 2. Own it 3.Solve it 4. Do it
49: 1. See it- See the truth of the situation. Understand the situation from all sides. 2. Own it- Become accountable for your part in the situation. Decide to face the situation and deal with it effectively. 3. Solve it- Be accountable for finding a solution. Focus on your goal and involve others wherever they are affected. 4. Do it- Implement the solution!
50: Victimization | If you are a victim, then you are below the line. You are a victim if you use phrases like:
51: "It's not my job." | "Let's just wait and see what happens." | "Someone ought to tell him/her." | "I didn't because..." | "It wasn't my fault."
52: Objective 5: | Word Processing
53: In this unit you will learn: | -Emails and Memos -Fonts and Editing -Letters -Reports -Special Business Documents -Tables
54: Letters | A business letter is used when you are representing a company. | A personal business letter is used when you are representing yourself, but you are addressing a company.
55: Business letters contain a return address, date, letter address, salutation, body, and complimentary close. The margins are: 2" at the top 1" everywhere else. Reference initials are used when another person types the letter for you. Reference initials are lower cased and put a double space below the author's typed title.
56: Letters, cont. | Letters sometimes have mailing notations, subject lines, attention lines, copy notations, and postscripts. The basic parts of a personal business letter are a return address, date, letter address, salutation, body, complimentary close, and the name of the writer.
57: Punctuation | Open punctuation uses no punctuation in the salutation or the complementary close. Mixed punctuation uses a comma in the complementary close and a colon in the salutation. Complementary- to complete.
58: Emails and Memos | Memos are letters that stay within the company or building. Emails are memos that are typed and sent on the computer.
59: Memo is short for Memorandum. They have a 1-inch or 2-inch margin. It is single spaced within paragraphs. In between paragraphs, it is double spaced.
60: Tables | You can make tables on Word Processing. Tables can be used to organize information into categories.
61: Column headings tell what is in the body of the table. The title should be in all caps. Subtitles and column headings should be in initial caps.
62: Reports | There are basically two different types of reports:
63: *Unbound reports are typically short reports prepared without binders or covers. A multi-page report may be held together with a paper clip or staple.
64: The top margin on the first page of an unbound report is 2". The side and bottom margins on all pages are 1". The top margins on all pages but the top page is 1".
65: Additional Formatting requirements | *Center the title in all caps, with a quadruple space between the title and the body. *Double space the body of the report. *Side headings are underlined and keyed in initial caps. *Paragraph headings are indented 1/2 an inch from the margin and only the first word is capitalized.
66: *Side headings= main entries. Paragraph headings= secondary entries. *Key references/bibliography on the last page or on a separate page of the report in hanging indent style. *To cite sources, use textual citations or key endnotes. *Page numbers are keyed in the top right margin.
67: Bound reports: typically longer reports that are bound with covers or binders. *Top, right, and bottom margins are the same for an unbound report.. *Left margin is increased to 1.5" to accommodate binding.
68: No title page is used for academic style reports. Instead, key a heading in the top left corner of the first page Double space between lines and include the following: *Name of student *Name of instructor *Course title *Date-- military style *Double space the body
69: Outline: A type of enumeration that organizes information. The top margin is 2" or vertically centered. All other margins are the same as the report. Main and side entries are used to organize information.
70: Formatting for main entries: *Preceded by capital Roman numerals. *use all caps or initial caps and bold. *Double space before and after the main entries. Secondary entries: *Preceded by capital letters. Key important words in initial caps. *Lower level entries are preceded by Arabic numbers and lowercase letters.
71: *Only capitalize the first letter of the first word when keying these. *Single space all secondary entries. Title page: Only a business report should have this page. *center page horizontally & vertically *Include: report title, writer's name, date, and the course name and teacher's name.
72: Table of contents: an outline of the paragraph and side headings in a report with their respective page numbers. *Follows the title page *Margins are same as report. *Center heading in all caps. *Each entry refers to a major section and should be keyed in initial caps. *Use right aligned tabs for creating leaders. from the entry to its respective page #. *Number the page at the bottom with lower case Roman numerals.
73: Bibliography: a list of material used in the report that is at the end of the report. *includes textual citations, footnotes, endnotes, & related material. *Margins are the same as report. *Center title in all caps, followed by quadruple space. *List references in alphabetical order by author's last name. *Page numbers at top right. *Single space within, double space between.
74: *Key each entry in hanging indent. *Underline or italicize books, magazines, and newspaper articles. *Use quotation marks around titles of articles, poetry, and essays. Works cited: a listing of only those works that were cited in the report; located on a separate page at the end of the report. *Same format as bibliography. Only difference is only include sources you used.
75: Textual citations: keyed within parentheses right after the quoted material. Footnote: complete documentation for a source at the bottom of a page. Divided from the body by a divider line. Endnote: complete documentation for a source at the end of a report on a separate page.
76: Font Attributes | You can do many things to change the font of text, such as:
77: Underline it! | Bold it! | Put it in italics! | ...or just change the font!
78: Special Business Documents | There are many types of special business documents:
79: *Job Applications *Resume *Purchase Requisition *Purchase order *Invoice *Flyers *Incitations *Announcements *Agenda *Minutes *Enhancements *Orientation
80: Job Applications: You fill them out when you apply for a job. They originate in the company and stay in the company. You do not have control of what they ask you, but you do have control of what you answer. Resume: usually a one page document; it's a summative document which outlines six major areas describing an applicant:
81: *Personal Info *Objective *Education *School/community/employment awards, honors and accomplishments *Work experience *References Base your information that you put in your resume on the job you are applying for. Do not make just one resume and send it to everyone.
82: -Purchase Requisition (Request) A form to be completed by individuals within a business to request that items or services be purchased; basically a wish list Purchase Order A form prepared by a business (buyer) and sent to another business (seller/supplier) to order items or services. Combine them to a purchase order to save many and get better deals.
83: Invoice A form that the seller/ supplier completes and sends to the buyer during the month indication how much is owed for items bought or services rendered and the due date for payment/payment terms. In households, known by another name. When invoices are used on an “as-ordered: basis, Monthly Statements are sent
84: Flyers A one-page document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. Can be sent to individuals within a targeted interest group, but may also be posted for the general public to view. Incitation A document sent to specified individuals to inform them and request their presence at an event or occasion. A response (reply) is often required to indicate whether or not the individual(s) will attend.
85: Announcement A document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required, often sent to individuals within a targeted interest group. Agenda Includes the order of topics to be covered at a meeting and the individuals responsible for each topic
86: Minutes A summary of the events and business conducted during a meeting. The official record of a meeting, generally kept by the secretary of the organization Itinerary A list which includes the dates, times, schedules, lodging, and method of travel to be used on a trip Enhancements Visual additions to attract a reader’s attention to specific text
87: Orientation The determination of how material is arranged on a page Portrait-taller than wide Landscape-wider than tall
88: Speed and Accuracy | My microtype grades...
90: Objective 6: Spread Sheets
91: In this unit, you will learn all the basics of spreadsheets.
92: Spreadsheet: a program that allows you to use ROWS and COLUMNS of data to manage, predict, and present information. When you call out a cell, you call out the column name first, then the row. (Like in Battleship) | Advantages: Fast and Accurate Can answer “What is?” Can answer “What if?”
93: Uses of computer spreadsheets School Student grades Payroll Class sizes Schedules Sports Individual and team statistics Personal Checkbook Household expenses Business Payroll Investments
94: *Active cell: the cell ready for data entry. *Alignment: When data is entered into a cell, the default alignment is labels to the left and values to the right. *Cell: intersection of a row and a column and is identified by a cell reference. | *Cell range: a selected group of cells that form a rectangle.
95: *Cell reference: the column letter and the row number. Ex, B12. *Column: identified by letters that appear at the top of the spreadsheet. (Vertical) *Formula: equations with symbols for math operations. Ex, =B6+B7+B8 | *Function: special formulas that do not use operators to calculate a result. i.e. A shortcut formula. Ex, =sum(A6:A9)
96: *Label: text, symbols, dates, or numbers not used in calculations. *Rows: identified by numbers on the left hand side of the spreadsheet. (Horizontal) *Spreadsheet: a program that allows you to use rows and columns of data to manage, predict, and present information. | *Value: a number entered into a spreadsheet cell that will be used for calculations.
97: 4 basic calculations: Add is + Subtract is – Multiply is * Divide is / Parenthesis is ( ) Exponent is ^ Order of operations: You can also use parenthesis in your calculations. *The SUM function will add all numbers in a range. The Average function averages all numbers in a range.
98: A database is a container. You put data in tables. You do not normally have just one table. | When databases came out, they were called relational databases. Databases were on “flat files” (our bathroom pass). Any time you go use an I. d. card or buy something from the grocery store, you are using a database. Databases use criteria to search for specific things. The Internet is a big database. So Is Google. | If you put your data all in one place, that is good. If you do this, it does not take up as much memory.
99: Databases can print reports. A form is a way of accessing the data and having it on the screen; it is a way of getting data, but it usually focuses on one concept. If you get a membership card for something and you have to fill out a card with your information, then you are giving info to put in someones database. You can ask a database questions and give it criteria—it will answer. You do queries to find out the answer to your question. *data, forms, queries*