S: DCS '09
BC: The End (buh-bye)
FC: DCS '09
1: Mrs. Mcmahan's !First Period DCS Fall '09
2: Parts of a Computer
3: Hardware System Software Application Software
5: Input | Output | Process RAM (random access memory) volatile | Storage ROM (read only memory)
6: "Boss" Operating System (OS) Manages all basic functions such as starting up | System Software:
7: Application Software | •Word Processor (documents) •Spreadsheet (calculations) •Presentation •Publishing •Database •Application Specific: Micro Type (learning to type), QuickBooks (accounting)
8: Classes of Software | Commercial: copyrighted costs money safest | Shareware: copyrighted distributed on trial basis 2nd safest
9: Freeware copyrighted free only the owner has the right to edit, copy or distribute 3rd safest | Public Domain NOT copyrighted controlled by the public anyone can copy, edit or distribute it least safe
10: Viruses a virus is a code or program designed to harm your computer
11: Types of Viruses | Bomb: set to 'detonate' at a time designated by the creator Worm: eats away at files and you don't notice until it is too late Phage: attacks files and databases on a PDA Trojan Horse: looks like something helpful but is actually malicious
12: Hoax: opposite of a trojan. looks like something bad and tricks you in to deleting important files
13: Antivirus Program: Detects and deletes, isolates or tells you how to fix a virus on your computer. Also, helps keep you from downloading viruses. Encryption: A code to encrypt secure files or data. Ethics: The code of conduct for the internet and computers. Cracker: Someone hired by a company to try and find a way in to secure files so that hole can be fixed. Password: Simple safeguard for access to a computer or files. Piracy: Illegally copying, downloading, and distribution of software.
14: Speech Recognition
15: Speech Recognition Software-software that converts spoken word into a computer-readable format There are two types of speech recognition software: Continuous Speech- You speak almost as if you were having a conversation. Most common and easy to use; newer. Discrete Speech- You have to pause momentarily between each word you say. Only used at the present for people with speech impediments.
16: When using speech recognition software, there are several factors that make a difference in how well the computer recognizes your words. 1.Make sure the microphone is positioned correctly 2.Complete the initial enrollment, when the software learns general sounds 3.Train the system to your voice. This is usually done by reading on screen stories and passages to the computer. This is how the software learns how you speak and this makes the biggest difference in recognition. 4.Always configure the microphone volume before use. 5.Speak clearly and in the same way that you trained it; in a conversational tone.
17: How Speech Recognition Software Can Be Used: It is most commonly used for dictating in to a word processor. While it can control computer functions to some extent, it is still not hands free. There are many commands that can be used to do special things in word processing documents. Bold, italic, underline, new line, all punctuation characters, and justification are just a few of the things you can control with speech recognition software.
18: Some Definitions: Accent-way of speaking that is characteristic of a geographic region Acoustic model-set of mathematical formulas that analyzes human voice patterns and evaluates the probability of spoken words matching words in his speech recognition vocabulary Automatic speech recognizer ( ASR)- speech recognition software, sometimes called a speech engine, which listens to human speech and converts the spoken words to text
19: Carpal tunnel syndrome-Painful inflammatory condition that affects the carpal or wrist portion of the median nerve. Often associated with repetitive actions such as typing can be caused by physical trauma or hereditary conditions that inflamed tendon surrounded are distracting and functional resulting in numbness and pain Continuous speech recognition (CSR)-speech recognition system that enables users to speak normally, pausing only to give commands and insert punctuation marks Dictation mode-enables users to dictate text into a computer application Discreet speech-speech recognition system that requires the user to cause momentarily between each word
20: Dragon-company, also known as dragon systems they released the first continuous speech recognition (CSR) product in 1997 with over 30,000 words in its speech dictionary. The product was called naturally speaking Jargon-unique vocabulary includes technical terms, slang, and phrases not used by the general public. Also called shoptalk. Language bar-speech recognition or voice control center providing easy access to speech and handwriting recognition tools in Microsoft office. Lernout & Hauspie-early leader in the development of speech recognition and translation software. Pioneered many speech recognition technologies and translation tools with Microsoft. Pioneered the natural language technology (NLT) commands in its voice Xpress software.
21: Natural language technology ( NLT)-commands that makes speaking to a speech recognition system almost as natural as talking to a person New line command- ends the current line of text and moves the insertion point to the next line New paragraph command-it has a paragraph and moves the insertion point to the next line. Generally, there is more white space between paragraphs and between lines within a paragraph. Phrase-group of words that express an idea. Profile-special file that collects data about a user’s speech patterns. A user profile enables the speech recognition system to store speech patterns and vocabulary for individual speakers. Pronunciation-sound of words when they are spoken
22: Repetitive strain injury ( RSI)-condition, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, that causes painful, inflammation that affects parts of the body involved in constantly repeated actions such as typing. Say what you see-the voice-activated technology that enables users to access any function or command a visible in a dialog box, menu bar, toolbar, or task pane Scratch That-voice command or aces the last word or phrase dictated. Speech balloon-display messages about the current status of the speech recognition software and warns users if the current speech is too loud or too soft for processing. Speech dictionary-contains words recognized by CSR software. speech dictionaries can containing over 300,000 words are now common.
23: Train-process in which a user reads a sample script allowed enabling the speech recognition system to record an individual’s unique speech patterns, increasing the accuracy of the conversation from spoken words into text. U.S. B.-acronym for the universal serial bus, an interface connection to a personal computer. USB speech recognition headsets and microphones bypass the sound card and input speech more directly and with less distortion into a computer processor. Via voice-continuous voice dictation software are created by IBM. Voice command would-enables users to give verbal commands to control menus and documents in any Microsoft office application. Voice express-speech recognition product created by Lernout &Hauspie. It pioneered many natural language technology or read NLT commands
24: Alternate Input Devices
25: Alternate input devices are peripheral devices, other than the keyboard and mouse, that can be used with a computer.
26: Notebook Computers- A portable computer that typically weighs less than 6 lbs. and is small enough to fit easily in a briefcase or other compartment.
27: One usually has a 4-5 hour or more battery life. It is highly portable, made for people to use on the go. Not as powerful processor or as much memory as a desktop or laptop computer. Made for business people that mainly just send e-mails and go on the Internet. They're not very good for much else.
28: Webcams- a small camera that works in the same manner as a video camera but with images that go straight into a computer and can be accessed via the Internet, instant messaging or with video conferencing applications.
29: Types of Webcams- Dedicated webcams – These are the most common types of webcam available and simply require a USB connection on your computer. They are easy to install and they are straightforward to use. Of course they do have their limitations, including a potentially low number of frames per second and poor resolution. Integrated cameras- Comes as part of the hardware. Many laptops now include webcams integrated into their design. Megapixel cameras – Due to their excellent quality, megapixel cameras create large files and are rarely used for streaming. Instead they are used to capture still images over a consistent period of time.
30: Web Cell Phones
31: Evolution of Cell Phones-1G: In 1908 Nathan B. Stubblefield put out a patent for a wireless phone. In 1979 the first commercial citywide cellular network was launched in Japan. Fully automatic cell networks were first introduced in the mid- 1980s In 1983 the first mobile phone was approved in the U.S.
32: 2G Phones: The first second generation cellular technology was launched in Finland in 1991. The first person to person SMS text messages also appeared in Finland. The first content sent to cell phones was ring tones in Japan in 1999.
33: 3G Phones: In 2001 the first launch for the third generation of cell phones was launched also in Japan and we have been using the 3G ever since. 3G is a family of standards for mobile telecommunications. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data. Compared to 2G a, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates.
35: It is an input tool commonly used by artists that allows you to draw a picture on a computer screen without using the mouse or keyboard. It is made of a flat tablet and some sort of pen or stylus. It lets you draw on the tablet just like drawing on a piece of paper but it is put into digital form.
36: USB Flash Drives: A flash drive is a small, portable storage device that plugs into a computer's USB port and you can open, print and save documents. Storage capacity generally ranges from 32mb to 16gb.
37: Scientific Probes: A scientific probe is a device that can be connected to a computer or a graphic calculator to collect data. Scientists use probes to research and learn more about places that they can't travel to.
38: AIDs for the Handicapped: Eye Tech- The EyeTech is a mouse replacement device that allows the user to place the pointer anywhere on screen by simply looking at the location.
39: CyberLink The CyberLink interface enables hands free control of computers and electrical devices. It is a communication link between humans and machines, anyone wishing to explore the world of Brain-Actuated control can now operate computer software and any electrical device directly from the control center the mind.
41: Accountability Accountability is ethical; it is doing the right thing just to do the right thing. It is often interchanged with responsibility, answerability, liability, and so on but it is different. Accountability is something you take on yourself. If you choose not to be accountable, your punishment will be from you conscious.
42: Steps to Accountability: Step 1: (SEE IT) Step 2: (OWN IT) Step 3: (SOLVE IT) Step 4: (DO IT)
43: SEE IT: See the truth of the situation. Understand the situation from all sides. OWN IT: Become accountable for you part in the situation. Decide to face the situation and deal with it effectively. SOLVE IT: Be accountable for finding a solution. Focus on your goal and involve others wherever they are affected. DO IT: Implement the Solution. Embrace your full responsibility for results and remain answerable for your progress in attaining those results.
44: Victimization Victimization is when someone plays the victim in a situation even when nothing happened to them. These are people who always complain about every little thing that doesn't go their way. Victimization is the opposite of accountability.
45: Victim Phrases I don't see any problem Its not my job. It wasn't my fault. That's unfair. I would have but... Thats too hard. What more can I do? Someone should do something about that. There's nothing I can do about it. Let's just wait and see what happens. | Signs of Victimization Being held prisoner by your circumstances. Feeling a loss of control over present circumstances. Failing to confront issues. Blaming or pointing fingers. Being pessimistic. Repeatedly becoming defensive. Citing confusion as a reason for not acting.
47: There are 2 main types of business letters: Business Personal
48: Business Formal Business: A letter written to represent an entire company or business Personal: A business letter only to represent a single person
49: Formatting for a formal business letter (modified block style): Letterhead (name of company, address, phone number, etc.) Date (centered) Letter address (centered) Salutation Body Complimentary close (centered) (signature) centered Name of writer (centered)
50: Special Parts of a Formal Business Letter (modified block style): Mailing Notations (certified, registered, special delivery, confidential, personal) Attention line (eg. ATTENTION PRESIDENT BOB) goes above mailing address Subject line (between salutation and body, 2 space) Copy notation PS MAY BE EITHER INDENTED OR BLOCKED 2nd page heading has date, page number, and name
51: Formatting for a personal business letter (block style): Return Address (usually no name) Date Letter Address Salutation Body (double space between paragraph) Complimentary Close (Signature) Name of writer Anything else (PS or reference initials)
52: Special Parts of a Personal Business Letter (block style): IS NOT INDENTED EVERYTHING IS LEFT ALIGNED reference initials(who actually typed the letter) attachment enclosure TWO TYPES OF PUNCTUATION: OPEN-NOPE: no punctuation after salutation or complimentary close MIXED: there is a colon (:) after the salutation and a comma (,) after the close
53: MEMOS AND E-MAIL
54: Memo (memorandum): correspondence written to people within same business/organization 1 or 2 top margin 1 side margins single-spaced within paragraphs double-spaced between paragraphs FORMATTING: memo heading -- guide words (TO:, FROM:, DATE:, SUBJECT:) memo body reference initials attachment/enclosure notation distribution list
55: E-mail (electronic mail): Parts: heading body attachment copy notation forward/reply
56: TABLES Table- an arrangement of words, numbers, or signs, or combinations of them, as in parallel columns, to exhibit a set of facts or relations in a definite, compact, and comprehensive form
59: UNBOUND REPOT (BUSINESS): Typically short reports prepared without binders or covers. A multi-page report may be held together by a paper clip or staple. Margins: 2,1,1,1 Top margin on succeeding pages is 1”. Center the title of the report in all caps, and then quadruple space after the title before beginning the body of the report. Double space the body of the report. Side headings are underlined and keyed in initial caps. Paragraph headings are indented .5” from the left margin and end with a period. Capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word only. Key references/bibliography on the last page or on a separate page of the report in hanging-indent style. To cite sources, use textual citations within the report or key endnotes on the last page or on a separate page in hanging indent style. Page numbers (usually preceded by a last name) are located at the top right margin, .5” from the top, followed by a double space. The first page is usually not numbered.
60: BOUND REPORT (BUSINESS): Typically longer reports bound with covers or binders. Margins: 2,1,1 The left margin is increased to 1.5” to accommodate the binding. ACADEMIC STYLE BOUND/UNBOUND REPORTS No title page is used for academic style reports. Instead, key a heading in the top left corner on the first page. Double space between lines and include the following: Name of student Name of instructor Course title Date in military style (12 November 2009) Double space the body of the report.
61: OUTLINES: A type of enumeration that organizes information. The top margin is 2” or vertically centered. All other margins are the same as report. Main and side entries or headings are used to organize information. Formatting for Main Entries in an Outline: Preceded by capital roman numerals. Use all caps or initial caps and bold. Double space before and after a main entry. Formatting for Secondary Entries in an Outline: Preceded by capital letters. Key important words in initial caps. Lower level entries are preceded by Arabic numbers and lower case letters. Only capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word when keying these. Single space all secondary entries.
62: TITLE PAGE: Only a business report should include a title page. Center the page horizontally and vertically. Include the following: -Report Title -Writer’s Name -Date The course name and teacher’s name may also be included. TABLE OF CONTENTS: An outline of the side and paragraph heading in a report with their respective page numbers. Follows the title page. Margins are the same as for the report. Center the heading in all caps. Each entry refers to a major selection and should be keyed in initial caps. Use right aligned tabs for creating leaders from the entry to its respective page number. Number the page at the bottom center using lowercase roman numerals.
63: BIBLIOGRAPHY: A listing of the material used in the report, located at the end of the report. Margins are the same as report. Center title in all caps followed by a quadruple space. List references in alphabetical order by author last name (surname). Include a page number at the top right. Single space each entry; double space between entries. Key each entry using a hanging indent. Underline or italicize books, magazines, and newspaper titles. Use quotation marks for titles of articles, poetry, and essays. WORKS CITED: A listing of only those works that were cited in the report; located on a separate page at the end of the report. Follow the same formatting as a bibliography. The difference is that you will only include those sources that were quoted or paraphrased. Do not include other reference materials on a works cited page.
64: DOCUMENTATION OF SOURCES Enclose direct quotes of up to 3 lines in length in quotation marks. Quotes of 4 or more lines in length (long quotations) should be single spaced and indented .5” from the left margin. An ellipsis () is used to indicate material that is omitted from a quotation. There are 3 methods of referencing cited material within the body of a report -textual citations -footnotes -endnotes TEXTUAL CITATIONS Typically keyed within parentheses immediately following the quoted material. Includes the name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number Example: a textual citation. (Smith, 2003, 45)
65: FOOTNOTES When using footnotes, complete documentation for a reference is placed at the bottom of the same page. A divided line (preceded and followed by a DS) typically separates footnotes form the report body Superscript numbers are used to consecutively identify each footnote Indent the first line .5” from the left margin Single space each footnote; double space between items ENDNOTES Like footnotes, endnotes contain complete documentation for a reference. However, endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the report. Use the same margins as for the 1st page of the report. Endnotes are formatted like footnotes with a corresponding superscript number and a 1st-line indent. Single-space each endnote; double-space between items. Include a page number at the top right.
66: NOTE Always consult style manuals for specific formatting requirements as there are several accepted methods. Become familiar with your particular software. There are many automatic formatting features which provide ease in designing and formatting.
68: Business Documents
69: Résumé: usually one page, summative, personal info, objective, education, school/community/employment awards, honors and accomplishments, work experience, references Job Application: legal document that the government requires companies to make possible employees to fill out; includes previous jobs, references, email address, if you’re over a certain age, contact info, education, anything the company wants to know; why you left your last job, etc. Cannot ask: personal, non-work related questions, orientation, race, birthday, religion, or if you have a car, any health information or handicaps Purchase Requisition (Request): A form to be completed by individuals within a business to request that items or services be purchased
70: Purchase Order: A form prepared by a business (buyer) and sent to another business (seller/supplier) to order items or services Invoice: A form that the seller/supplier completes and sends to the buyer during the month indicating how much is owed for items bought or services rendered and the cue date for payment/payment terms. Also known as a bill When invoices are used on an ‘as ordered’ basis, monthly statements are sent Agenda: Includes the order of topics to be covered at a meeting and the individuals responsible for each topic Flyers: A one-page document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. Can be sent to individuals within a targeted interest group, but may also be posted for the general public to view
71: Invitation: sent to specified individuals to inform them and request their presence at an event or occasion. A response is often required to indicate whether or not the individual(s) will attend Announcement: A document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. Often sent to individuals within a targeted interest group. Minutes: A summary of the events and business conducted during a meeting. The official record of a meeting, generally kept by the secretary of the organization.
72: Itinerary: A list which includes the dates, times, schedules, lodging, and method of travel to be used on a trip. Enhancements: Visual additions to attract a reader's attention to specific text. Orientation: The determination of how material is arranged on a page. Portrait-vertical Landscape-horizontal
73: An agenda is a step by step plan of what is to be done and when it is to be done, usually used for meetings. Keying Agendas Leave a 2” top margin Use a columnar format Arrange the topics in chronological order or in a logical sequence if no times are used Key the time information in the first column Key the descriptive information in the second column. Begin keying the entries at the tab stop If the descriptive information is very short, center the program horizontally If the speaker’s name or the room number is keyed in a third column, use the right align feature of your word processing program to align the column at the right edge.
75: Spreadsheet: a program that allows you to use ROWS and COLUMNS of data to manage, predict, and present information. Main advantage is the use of formulas. Active cell: the cell ready for data entry Alignment: when data is entered into a cell, the default alignment is labels to the left and values to the right Cell: intersection of a row and column and is identified by a cell reference Cell range: a selected group of cells that form a rectangle Cell reference: the column letter and the row number Formula: equations with symbols for math operations Function: special formulas that do not use operators to calculate a result e.g. =sum(A6:A9) Label: text, symbols, dates, or numbers not used in calculations Value: a number entered into a spreadsheet cell that will be used for calculations
77: Database Notes Used to organize large amounts of data Example: store inventories Table- your data Report- print out certain parts of a database Form- shows information on certain data in the table Queries- a question; in a database is used to narrow down the database by certain criteria. A search