S: Digital Communication Systems for Dummies
1: OBJECTIVE NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 | OBJECTIVE Computer Fundamentals Speech Recognition Alternate Input Devices Letters Reports Fonts and Editing Special Business Documents Tables Spreadsheets Speed and Accuracy Leadership | To Mrs. Mac, who could sing, dance, and teach DCS at the same time.
2: Computer Fundamentals | Objective One
3: Output Devices electronic or electromechanical equipment connected to a computer and used to transfer data out of the computer | Input Devices a device that can be used to insert data into a computer | The Four Types of Hardware | 1) | 2)
4: CPU Central Processing Unit -The "brains" of a computer. RAM- random-access memory: the most common computer memory which can be used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on | Storage Devices A hardware device use to record and store data ROM- read-only memory: memory whose contents can be accessed and read but cannot be changed | 3) | 4) | The Four Types of Hardware combine to create the robot face: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
5: Commercial Software You have to pay to use it. It is proprietary | Free Ware Given away free; owner still owns copyright. The program cannot be sold or tampered without permission. | Public Domain Software Anyone can use, it is public. You can change and alter. It is NOT Copyrighted. | Shareware Copyrighted. You can use as a free trial for a limited amount of time. | The Four Classes of Software
6: HARDWARE | SYSTEMS SOFTWARE O.S: Operating System Examples: Mac, Linix, Microsoft | APPLICATION SOFTWARE Creating documents: Word Processing. Making calculations: Spread Sheets. Organizing information: Databases Presentation Software (Power Point) | The Three Components of a Computer System | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
7: Virus: a program that is intended to maliciously harm your computer | Types of Viruses: | Bomb- have a specific time they go off | Worm- eats through memory, bytes. | Trojan Horse- looks like something good, but hides something that is not good. It looks like something you want, but it is really a virus. | Hoax- a plot, a trick | Phage- database, operating system, PDA.
8: Speech Recognition | Objective Two
9: Speech Recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken words to text. | Important Terms | Accent– way as a teaching that is characteristic of a geographic region Continuous Speech Recognition- (CSR) Speech recognition system that enables users to speak normally, pausing only to give commands and insert punctuation marks. Diction mode- Enables users to dictate text into a computer application
10: Language Bar- speech recognition or voice control center providing easy access to speech and handwriting recognition tools in Microsoft Office Profile- special file that collects data about a user’s speech patterns. A user profile enables the speech recognition system to store speech patterns and vocabulary for individual speakers Scratch that- voice command that erases the last word or phrase dictated Speech dictionary- contains words recognized by CSR software, speech dictionaries containing over 300,000 words are now common Train- process in which a user reads a sample script aloud, enabling the speech recognition system to record an individual’s unique speech patterns, increasing the accuracy of the conversation from spoken words to the text Voice Command Mode- enables users to give verbal commands to control menus and format documents in any Microsoft Office application | Important Terms (Cont.)
11: Alternative Input Devices | Objective Three
12: The first webcam was pointed at the Trojan room coffee pot in the computer science department of Cambridge University. | A webcam is a video capture device connected to a computer or computer network, usually through a USB port or, if connected to a network, Wi-Fi or Ethernet. -video chatting -online conferences -recording videos -taking pictures -security cameras | WEBCAM | Uses
13: a device in which it detects the presence and location within the display area allowing the user to interact with it. The touch screen was invented in 1971. Cell phones, Computers, Laptops, Music devices, Cameras, PDAs, Satellite navigation, Video games, ATMs, and Cash Registers | a “stick” that is used in tablet PC’s and PDA’s. It is also very useful for artists. | Uses | Uses | Touch Screens
14: a tablet PC is a laptop or slate-shaped mobile computer, equipped with a touch screen or graphic tablets/screen hybrid to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. -Tablets were announced by Microsoft in 2001. | -A USB flash drive is a type of storage device. It needs no battery and has no moving parts. It is used to read, write, and transfer data. -USB flash drives have virtually replaced CDs and floppy disks because they are smaller and can hold more data. -Over the years, USB flash drives have continued to improve in terms of storage capacity and speed while dropping in price. | Touch Screens | Touch Screens
15: This device can control lighting, Television, Radios, and many other things in the house. | It can help physically and mentally disable people get back to their everyday life. | Helps disabled people do everyday things like watch TV, change the temperature , and other things with a small device. | Touch Screens
16: Letters | Objective Four
17: a business letter when representing your own self EXAMPLES: When you are not satisfied with a product You are asking for McDonald's coupons for you class | a letter when representing a group or company EXAMPLE: We at Highland are very unhappy because a lot of teachers are getting Almond Joys dont have the almonds in it lately. | Personal Business Letters | Letters
18: Basic parts: 1) return address 2) date (April 2, 2009) -quadruple space 3) letter address -double space 4) salutation (Greeting) -Double space 5) Body (single spaced in paragraphs, double spaced between paragraphs) 6) complimentary close (something nice) -quadruple space (to sign your name in cursive) name of writer | Special Parts: (Everything below the name of writer is double spaced) Reference Initials -in lower case (James Hall= jh) Attachments (list at the bottom the attachments that are attached to the letter) -stapled, paper clipped, or taped to the letter Enclosure notation(s) -in the same envelope | Personal Business Letter Guidelines | Margins -1” side margins (left and right) -2” top margin or may be centered vertically with Center Page feature -1” bottom margin | is in block style: everything starts on the left margin, paragraphs are NOT indented
19: Basic parts: 1) Letterhead Ex: Highland School of Technology, address, number, email, ram. (You do not need to write a return address since the letter head contains it) 2) Date (April 2, 2009) is centered -quadruple space letter address -double space 3) Salutation -Double space 4) Body (single spaced in paragraphs, double spaced between paragraphs) | is in modified block style | Formal Business Letter Guidelines | Special Parts: mailing notations (certified, register, special delivery, confidential, personal) attention line -would go above the letter address, specifies a person or a business subject line -tells what the letter is about; between the salutation and the body of the letter copy notation -tells who else receives a copy of the letter postscript -an afterthought; after writing; PS stands for postscript | 6) complimentary close (something nice) -quadruple space (to sign your name in cursive) name of writer
20: Reports | Objective Five
21: MARGINS: -top margin on first page is 2”. -Top margin on succeeding (pages after) pages is 1”. -Side margins are 1”. -Bottom margin is 1”, but may vary depending on page break decisions. Avoid widows and orphans. Additional Formatting Requirements: -Center the title of the report in ALL CAPS, then quadruple space after the title before beginning the body of the report. -Double space the body of the report. -Side headings are underlined and keyed in initial caps. -Paragraph headings are indented .5” from the left margin and end with a period. Capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word only. -Key references/bibliography on the last page or on a separate page of the report in hanging-indent style -To cite sources, use textual citations within the report or key endnotes on the last page or on a separate page in hanging indent style. -Page numbers (usually preceded by a last name) are located at the top right margin, .5” from the top, followed by a double space. The first page is usually not numbered. You only have to cite sources that are quoted or paraphrased. | Typically short reports prepared without binders or covers. A multi-page report may be held together by paper clip or staple. | Unbound Report: Business
22: MARGINS: -top margin on first page is 2”. -Top margin on succeeding (pages after) pages is 1”. -Side margins are 1”. -Bottom margin is 1”, but may vary depending on page break decisions. Avoid widows and orphans. The left margin is increased to 1.5” to accommodate the binding. | Bound Report: Business | Typically longer reports are bound with covers or binders. | Academic Style: Bound/Unbound Reports | -No title page is used for Academic style reports. Instead, key a heading in the top left corner on the first page. Double space between lines and include the following: Name of Student Name of Instructor Course Title Date in military style (21 November 2004) -Double-space the body of the report, no exceptions
23: MARGINS: -The top margin is 2” or vertically centered. -All other margins are the same as the report -Main and side entries or headings are used to organize information Formatting for Main Entries in an Outline -Preceded by capital Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.) -Use ALL CAPS or initial caps and bold -Double space before and after a main entry Formatting for Secondary Entries in an Outline -Are preceded by capital letters (A, B, C, etc.) Key important words in initial caps. -Lower level entries are preceded by Arabic number (1, 2, 3, etc.) and lower-case letters (a, b, c, etc.) Only capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word when keying these. -Single space all secondary entries. | Outlines | A type of enumeration that organizes information. | Title Page (Cover Page) | Center the page horizontally and vertically. Include the following information (minimum): Report Title, Writer’s Name, Date -The course name and teacher’s name may also be included The left margin is increased to 1.5” to accommodate the binding. | Only a Business Report (not an Academic Report) should include a Title Page.
24: Table of Contents | -Follows the Title Page. -Margins are the same as for the report (using a 2” top margin). -Center the heading in ALL CAPS. -Each entry refers to a major section and should be keyed in initial caps. -Use right aligned tabs for creating leaders from the entry to its respective page number. -Number the page at the bottom center using lowercase Roman numerals (I, ii, iii, etc.) | an outline of the side and paragraph headings in a report with their respective page numbers. | Works Cited | Following the same formatting as that of a Bibliography. The difference is that you will only include those sources that were quoted or paraphrased. Do not include other reference materials on a works cited page. | A listing of only those works that were cited in the report; located on a separate page at the end of the report.
25: Bibliography | -Margins are the same as for the report (using a 2” top margin) -Center the title in ALL CAPS followed by a quadruple space. (Precede by a QS if references begin after the report body on the same page.) -List references in alphabetical order by author last name/sir name -Include a page number at the top right. -Single space each entry; Double space between entries. -Key each entry using a hanging indent (1st line begins at left margin; subsequent lines are indented by .5”) -Underline or italicize books, magazines, and newspaper titles. -Use quotation marks around titles of articles, poetry and essays. -(Websites underline themselves) | A listing of the material used in the report
26: Documentation of Sources | -Enclose direct quotes of up to three lines in length in quotation marks. Quotes of four or more lines in length (long quotations) should be single-spaced and indented .5” from the left margin. -An ellipses () is used to indicate material that is omitted from a quotation. -There are three methods of referencing cited material within the body of a report Textual Citations -typically keyed within parentheses immediately following the quoted material -includes the name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number. Ex: a textual citation. (Smith, 2003, 45) Footnotes - When using footnotes, complete documentation for a reference is placed at the bottom of the same page. A divider line (preceded and followed by a DS) typically separates footnotes from the report body.
27: A listing of the material used in the report | Documentation of Sources (Cont.) | Endnotes -Superscript numbers are used to consecutively identify each footnote. -Indent the first line .5” from the left margin. -Single-space each footnote; double-space between items. -Like footnotes, endnotes contain complete documentation for a reference. However, endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the report. -Use the same margins as for the 1st page of the report -Endnotes are formatted like footnotes with a corresponding superscript number and a 1st line indent -Single-space each endnote; double-space between items. -Include a page number at the top right
28: Fonts and Editing | Objective Six
29: Font Attributes | Underline this sentence and change the font color to red. Bold this text. Place this text in italics. Key this text using Arial font type. Key this text using bold italics. KEY THIS LINE USING ALL CAPS.
30: Special Business Documents | Objective Seven
31: Job Application | -Don’t put important information unless needed (social security number, resources. Only put when employed or when they are deciding whether you will be employed) -They cannot ask for: Age, sexual orientation, religion, politics, if you are handicapped, -permanent records if you are hired, give the company what you need to know, legal so they can prove they didn’t discriminate when hiring. -These are legal documents used as proof of EEOC requirements -These are Employer Driven -You still have some ability to ensure that you are telling information that makes you look good | an employment form used by employers to document information pertaining to job applicants | Resume | usually a one-page document, a resume is a summative document which usually outlines six major areas describing an applicant. | 1)Personal Information 2)Objective 3)Education 4)School/Community/Employment Awards, Honors and Accomplishments 5)Work Experience 6)References -Originated by you -Every resume you send should not be the same for each different company
32: Purchase Requisition (Request) | -putting orders together so that the business can get more stock for less money. Better prices -are not promises of purchasing, it is a document that is practically a wish list -goes to a central location | A form to be completed by individuals within a business to request that items or services be purchased | Purchase Order | -Usually on a special form with four copies 1) Original to company we’re ordering from 2) Person that purchases from company 3) Accounts payable 4) Person receiving | A form prepared by a business (buyer) and sent to another business (seller/supplier) to order items or services. | Invoice | -In households, known by another name (bills) -When invoices are used on an “as-ordered” basis, Monthly Statements are sent | A form that the seller/supplier completes and sends to the buyer during the month indicating how much is owed for items bought or services rendered and the due date for payment/payment terms.
33: Flyer | A one-page document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. (Can be sent to individuals within a targeted interest group, but may also be posted for the general public to view.) | Invitation | A document sent to specified individuals to inform them and request their presence at an event or occasion. A response (reply) if often required to indicate whether or not the individual(s) will attend. | Announcement | A document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required (Often sent to individuals within a targeted interest group.) | Agenda | Includes the order of topics to be covered at a meeting and the individuals responsible for each topic.
34: Minutes | A summary of the events and business conducted during a meeting. The official record of a meeting, generally kept by the secretary of the organization. | Itinerary | A list which includes the dates, times, schedules, lodging, and method of travel to be used on a trip.
35: Visual additions to attract a reader’s attention to specific text | The determination of how material is arranged on a page. -Portrait – taller than wide -Landscape – wider than tall | Enhancements | Orientation | Important Terms
36: Tables | Objective Eight
37: Table Examples
38: Objective Nine | Spreadsheets
39: Spreadsheet | a program that allows you to use ROWS and COLUMNS of data to manage, predict, and present information (resembles a table) | -ROWS: horizontal (right & left)  -COLUMNS: vertical (up & down) [ABC] -When calling out, column name and then row name. Example: A (column) 45 (row) Advantages of Computer Spreadsheets -Fast and Accurate -Can answer “What is?” Students’ current grade (school) Individual athlete statistics (sports) Transportation schedules (business) Current $ available for spending (personal) Census results -Can Answer “What if?” Student population increases (school) Win/loss record changes (sports) Product sales decrease (business) Hourly wage rate changes (personal)
40: Uses of Computer Spreadsheets -School Student grades Payroll Class sizes Schedules -Sports Individual and team statistics Current and future budgets -Personal Checkbook Household expenses Investments Income taxes -Business Payroll Investments Inventory Product sales Delivery -Government Taxes Census Loans Investments Budgets | Formulas Add+ Subtract- Multiply* Divide/ Exponent^ -Order of operations You can also use parenthesis in your calculations where the order of operations is completed first: Parentheses Exponents Multiply Divide Add Subtract
41: Active cell – The cell ready for data entry (the cell you click on) Alignment – When data is entered into a cell, the default alignment is labels to the left and values to the right Cell – Intersection of a row and a column and is identified by a cell reference (B7, A5) Cell range – A selected group of cells that form a rectangle Cell Reference – The column letter and the row number example: B12 Column – Identified by letters that appear at the top of the spreadsheet (vertical) Formula – Equations with symbols for math operations examples: =B6+B7 Function – Special formulas that do not use operators to calculate a result; a shortcut formula. Example: =sum(A6:A9) -sum: adds the range -average: averages the range **All formulas are functions, but not all functions are formulas Label – Text, symbols, dates, or numbers not used in calculations Rows – Identified by numbers on the left side of the spreadsheet (Horizontal) Spreadsheet - a program that allows you to use ROWS and COLUMNS of data to manage, predict, and present information (resembles a table) Value – A number entered into a spreadsheet cell that will be used for calculations | Spreadsheet Terms
42: Objective Ten | Speed and Accuracy
44: Objective Eleven | Leadership
45: To be a leader, you need to be above the accountability line. | You need to: -see the truth of the situation -become accountable for your part in the situation -be accountable for finding a solution -embrace your full responsibility for results and remain answerable for your progress in attaining those results. | You cannot be a leader if you are below the accountability line, and use victimization. There are no excuses, you need to take full responsibility of yourself.