BC: The End
FC: Developmental Psychology
1: 4/29/2012 Psychology (Block 4)
2: Jean Piaget | Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operations Jean Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development focused on how individuals develop intellectually. He focused on the maturation of how one thinks, and how the manner of thinking changes as one ages.
4: Me at 4 months
5: Sensorimotor The sensorimotor stage occurs in children ages 0-2. In the sensorimotor stage, the child performs action-based schemes, such as sucking, grasping, and observing the environment. All that the child knows is what is sees, hears, tastes, and feels. In the photo to the left, I am displaying behaviors associated with Jean Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage. In this photo, I am looking at the camera and focusing on my environment. I can focus only on objects in sight, such as in this case, the camera.
7: All things grow better with love. | Preoperational In the preoperational stage, which happens when the child is between 2 and 6 years of age, the child starts to understand that things outside of sight can exist. They also learn how to communicate more efficiently by developing language. In this photo, I am displaying the preoperational stage by attempting to unwrap a present Christmas morning. At this stage, I understand that although I cannot see it, there is a present under the wrapping paper. A child at the sensorimotor stage would not be able to understand that a present exists under the paper.
8: Concrete Operational Stage During the concrete operational stage, the child starts to exercise reasonably logical thinking. Children ages 6-12 begin to understand more abstract concepts and problem solve. Children also begin to make rational judgments. Here, I begin to understand more abstract concepts and make connections. In the top photo, friends and I compared rolling in the mud to avoid horse flies to wild horses rolling in the mud to avoid bugs. In the middle picture, I begin learning how to train and teach our new puppy, Zilly. In the bottom photo, I understand that others in the world are not as fortunate as I am, and so I pack meals at Feed My Starving Children.
9: During the formal operational stage, the individual uses hypothetical and deductive reasoning. The ability to solve a problem systematically strengthens, and the individual can not only identify a problem, but come up with a sound, well thought-out resolution. I displayed being in the formal operational stage over the summer, when I organized a service project that would provide impoverished children in Mexico with educational coloring books. By using abstract problem solving, I was able to utilize my 4-H club and Girl Scout Troop and send over 100 coloring books to kids in Mexico. | Formal Operational Stage
10: Sigmund Freud Oral Stage, Anal Stage, Phallic Stage, Latency Period, Genital Stage Freud based his theory upon psychosexual development. He believed that sexual pleasure developed the personality. At different stages, the individual focuses on certain erogenous zones, such as the mouth, anus, and genital region. In order to develop healthily, the individual must fully resolve the conflict that comes with each of these stages.
11: The Oral Stage During the Oral Stage, the child preoccupies himself with nursing and bringing things into the mouth. A child that didn’t receive the amount of nursing to satisfy him will be envious, suspicious, and sarcastic. An individual that was over-indulged will be optimistic, gullible, and admire those around him. In this photo, I display signs of the oral stage by using a pacifier.
12: At one and a half years, the child enters the anal stage. During this time, the child experiences toilet training, and the child becomes interested in the erogenous zone of the anus. Pleasure derives from the expulsion of waste. In this photo, the child is in the anal stage. He is in the process of toilet training, and seems to enjoy the expulsion of waste. | Anal Stage
13: The Phallic Stage The phallic stage is one of the most crucial sexual conflicts an individual will experience over the course of their life. In this stage, the child’s erogenous zone is the genital region. Males tend to develop love for the mother and envy and aggression to his father. Females develop penis envy, and develops and erotic love for her father. This stage is resolved when the child moves into the latency period.
14: Latency Period During the latency period, sexual drive lies dormant. Instead, the child focuses on same-sex friendships, sports, hobbies, and academics. At the time when I was in the Latency Period, I began taking Horseback riding lessons, joined 4-H, and became friends with several other 4-H members.
15: Genital Stage | In the genital stage, the individual's energy once again focuses on the genital region. The individual becomes interested in heterosexual relationships. At this point, the individual will attempt to maintain normal relationships with the opposite sex, which can prove challenging if another stage has yet to be resolved. In this photo, the individuals are the in the genital stage. They are in a relationship, and interested in members of the opposite sex.
16: Erikson placed an emphasis on social development. He believed that development was a life-long experience. | Erik Erikson Infancy, Early Childhood, The Play Age, School Age, Youth, Young Adulthood, Adulthood, Mature Age,
17: Infancy In this stage, the child learns about trust, and how to understand if people are reliable. The child learns to explore, communicate, manipulate objects, and walk. In this photo, I am in the Infancy Stage. I am learning to explore my environment by seeing, touching, and tasting. Here, I am playing with a toy, which shows that I am trying to explore my environment and manipulate an object.
18: Early Childhood During early childhood (ages 2-3), the child wants to perform tasks on their own and starts to experience independence. They develop a sense of self, and learn to communicate more efficiently. The learn about authority, time, space, and relationships. In this photo, I am in early childhood, as displayed by me attempting to put shoes on. Though the shoes are not laced, I feel satisfied that I was able to do the task by myself and act independent.
19: The Play Age | During the play age, the child learns to deal with conflict. They learn how to feel valued by others and start to understand abstract concepts such as truth, beauty, and justice. They also learn to delay gratification for a better reward. In this photo, I am in the play age. I understand that good behavior throughout the year will bring even better presents from Santa. I understand that by delaying gratification, I will later achieve an even better reward.
20: School Age During the school age, the child learns about productive work. Achievement-oriented behaviors are crucial for self-esteem, as are social behaviors and learning to read, write, and use computers. In this photo, I am at the school age, and I enjoy being with friends and playing. Here, we have built a garden, and I feel good for doing productive work. I also enjoy being friends.
21: Youth During their youth, children ages 12-18 form their own identity. Individuals learn how to prioritize their abilities, needs, interests, and desires. They focus on achieving friendships, decision-making, independence, and producing work. In these photos, I am in the Youth stage because I am participating a hobby, which forms my identity, and taking on the responsibility of caring for my horse, Tucker.
22: Young Adulthood When an individual enters young adulthood, they have formed their own identity and are looking to fuse their identity with another. They engage in more sexual and risk-taking behaviors. In this photo, the couple is in young adulthood. They are getting married, which requires compromise. Because they have formed their own identity, they can fuse it with another.
23: Adulthood During Adulthood, many wish to guide and establish the next generation. They often take up leadership and helping roles, and want to help the next generation have a better life than they did. In this photo, a college professor is explaining something to her student. It is important for her to be able to pass on knowledge to the next generation, and make sure she has contributed to the next generation.
24: Mature Age | The mature age stage involves the reflection of ones life. People at the mature age must accept their lives so that they can also accept their approaching deaths. They also need to learn to cope with reduced physical vigor and retirement. In this photo, the elderly woman displays the mature age. She is in a wheel chair, and so, she must adapt to her aging body.
25: Lawrence Kohlberg Kohlberg based his theory upon the observations of individuals. The Stages of Moral Development theory focuses on the levels of moral development and how humans progress through them.
26: Preconventional Morality Stage One: Individual obeys rules to avoid punishment. Stage Two: individual obeys rules to receive rewards. The girl in this photo is at the preconventional level. She is washing dishes either to avoid punishment from her parents if she refuses, or to gain rewards, such as an allowance.
27: Conventional Morality Stage Three: Individual acts morally to gain approval from others. Stage Four: Individual conforms to authority to avoid guilt. In this photo, the voters are in the conventional morality phase. They have accepted an established social and legal order, and are willing to vote for a cause they believe in.
28: Postconventionial Morality | Stage Five: Individual concerned with rights and laws. Stage Six: Individual entirely guided by his or her own conscience. The individuals in this photo have all conformed, except for the girl in the middle. She is practicing postconventional morality by refusing to conform and being guided by her own conscience, despite the disapproval of others around her.