S: Digital Communication System (DCS)
BC: THE END!!!
FC: Digital Communication System (DCS) By: Alexis Williams
1: Hardware Hardware is the components that you can actually touch on the computer.(Example: Keyboard, mouse, monitor....) Hardware is IPO. Which stands for Input, Processing, And Output. There is also Storage. Input devices are keyboards and mouses. The input devices is what put the information into the computer. CPU is the central processing unit. It what processes the information you input. Output devices are monitors and printers. Output devices put out what you have created.
2: System Software System software runs the computer. It is the boss of the computer It boots up and shuts down the computer. System software is the Operating System (OS).
3: Application Software Application Software are the programs and games on the computer. Application are the icons on the computer. Some examples of application software are: Microsoft Word- Makes Documents PowerPoint- Creates Presentations Publisher Excel Micro-Type Application Specific is used to teach something or to do something. (Examples: Micro-Type, games, Quick Books, Email, Virus Protection, and Internet.)
4: Commercial Software Commercial Software has to be purchased to be used. It is copyrighted software. This means that the person that copyrighted it has control of it. A person has to ask the owner before copying it. It is the safest software.
5: Shareware Shareware is software that can be used for a trail period. mostly it is used for students. It is copyrighted software as well. It is safer than freeware.
6: Freeware It is free software. It is copyrighted but the owner has chosen to give it away free. It is the second least protected software from viruses.
7: Public Domain Software It is controlled by the public. It is not copyrighted. It is free to use, copy, and distribute. It is the least safest from viruses.
8: Viruses Viruses are computer programs or codes created to destroy or damage a computer. The different types of viruses are Bombs, Worms, Trojan Horse, Phage, and Hoax.
9: Types of Viruses Bombs are viruses that have a timer and are set to go off at a certain time. Worms are viruses that go through files and destroy them slowly by eating them away. Phage are viruses on PDA's. Trojan Horse is a virus that is made to look good and beautiful but really it's a virus. Hoax look like something bad but really it's not. It's a trick to make you ruin you're computer. Anti-Virus is used to protect your computer for viruses. Encryption is a special code that only the sender and the reader can read so it can't be hacked and read.
10: Types of Viruses (cont.) Ethics are what you should do on the computer. Hackers are people who get into you're files to steal money and important information about you. Piracy is the illegal copying and distribution software. Passwords are personal codes used to keep people from getting into you're personal stuff.
11: Speech Recognition There are different kinds of voice or speech "engines" that take the sounds of your voice and match it with words. Speech recognition works when a you speak into a microphone connected to your computer. The sound-card or multimedia chip and the speech engine processes your speech. Every person that us speech recognition programs have their own unique "voice profile" that is separate from others. You choose your voice profile when you begin. Then over time the computer learns more about your voice and how you speak. Like a child, it learns what words you say and can correct it immediately.
12: Speech Recognition (cont.) Continuous speech recognition application allows a user to dictate text fluently into the computer. These new application can recognize speech at up to 200 words per minute. While theses systems do give the user system control they are not yet hands-free. Depending on the speed of your computer there are continuous speech, normal speaking speed and discrete speech, slight pauses between each word, versions available.
13: Speech Recognition (cont.) Continuous speech is more natural but it requires a more powerful computer to processes the information. Most modern speech recognition programs are continuous. many people, especially ones that have learning disabilities prefer discrete system. Speech recognition allows a user to use his/her a]voice as an input device. Voice recognition may be used to dictate text into the computer or to give commands to the computer, such as opening programs, pulling down menus, or saving work.
14: Speech Recognition (cont.) Some why to learn speech recognition: It increases productivity It helps avoid injury or overcome a handicap It improves writing skills It improves reading skills It improves speaking skills
15: Keyboarding Keyboards are a standard type of input on computers. They allow people to input information into computers, use keys for short cuts to a program or tool, get out of programs, delete information quickly, print quickly, and a million other things. Keyboards can be on cellphones too. Some phones have standard keyboards and others have qwerty keyboards. some other phones and devices have touchscreen device, such iPod touches and PDA's.
16: Computer Mouse A computer mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. a mouse consist of an elements of an object held under on of the user's hands. the computer mouse is one of the most common input devices. A computer mouse senses motion, clicks, and send information to the computer SO it can respond appropriately. a mouse today is connected by a USB cord to the computer. A ball is inside a mouse. It touches the desktop and rolls when the mouse moves. There are two rollers inside the mouse. one
17: Computer Mouse (cont.) There are two rollers inside a mouse. One roller is oriented so that it detects motion in the X direction. The other is oriented 90 degrees to the first one so it detects motion in the Y direction. the rollers connected to the shaft, and the shaft spins a disk with holes in it. On either of the disk there is an infrared LED and an infrared sensor. A board processor chip reads the pulse from the infrared sensors and turns the binary data into data the computer understands. The chip sends the binary data to the computer through the mouse's cord.
18: USB Flash Drives A USB Flash Drive is a small, portable flash memory card that plugs into a computer's USB port and functions as a portable hard drive. It can be taken to another computer, plugged into it USB port, and open up a document, spreadsheet, powerpoint, or etc. some of it's advantage is that it's small and can be taken anywhere because it's pocket sized. it also have no moving parts and still can hold a considerable amount of memory. Some disadvantages are that it can only hold so much memory, it can't function by itself, and it can only store memory and transfers it.
19: USB Flash Drives (cont.) USB flash drives can also be called thumb drives, jump drives, pen drives, key drives, or USB drives. Sometimes the free memory can range from 256MB to 128 GB+. The first flash drive was created by IBM in 200, and could only hold 8 MB of memory. USB connectors provides an interface to host computers. USB mass storage controllers implements the USB host controller. NAND flash memory chips store data. Crystal Oscillators controls the devices data output.
20: Notebooks Notebook Computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase or other compartment. they come with battery packs that allow you to work and run them without the computer being plugged into an outlet. But they must be recharged every few hours. Notebooks are more expensive then laptops because they are smaller and more compacted.
21: Tablet PCs Tablet PC's are generally referred to as a laptop equipped with a touch screen that is operated with a stylus or finger tip instead of a keyboard or mouse. Tablet PCs are often used where normal notebooks do not provide the particular function needed. they have capacitive technology, which sense the touch of finger with no pressure required. it has a digital palm recognition technology. this prevents accidental contact from disturbing the pen's input. They are readable in sunlight. They are light weight, but more expensive because they are so small and touchscreen.
23: Accountability is when you take responsible for you're actions. The steps to accountability are: 1. SEE IT: See the truth oft the situation. Understand the situation from all sides. 2. OWN IT: Become accountable for your part in the Situation. DEcide to face the situation and deal with it effectively. 3. SOLVE IT: Be accountable for finding a solution. Focus on your goal and involve others wherever they are affected. 4. DO IT: Implement the solution. Embrace your full responsibility for results and remain answerable for your progress in attaining those results.
25: Victimization is when you try to play the role as the victim so you won't get in trouble and you don't want to take responsibilities for what you have done. Victim Phrases: I don't see any problem. It's not my job. Just tell me what to do and I'll do it. Let's just wait and see what happens. There's nothing I can do about it. Someone ought to tell him/her. It wasn't my fault. I'm doing the best I can. I didn't because.... All we can do is wait and see. That too much work.
26: Victim Phrases (cont.): What more can I do? Do you think I don't have anything else to do? If it were me, I'd do it differently. That's unfair. No one else ever does that. Somebody should do something about that. That's just not the way my other teachers do it. If I do a great job, they'll expect it all the time. I would have but... That's too hard.
27: Telltale Signs of Victimization: Being held prisoner by your circumstances. Feeling a loss of control over present circumstances Paying no attention when others, directly or indirectly, provide feedback about what could or should have been done to achieve better results.
28: Tables Tables are spreadsheets with boundaries. - Align (Justify): the arrangement of data in relation to a fixed point. Example: Left align arranges all data so that the left side of all data begins at the same point. - Column Data: it's aligned from top to bottom. - Columnar Headings: they are used to identify the data in each column of a table, they appear underlined and immediately above the column data. - Main Heading (Primary Heading): it's keyed in all capital letters, this is the main title of the table. - Row: the data aligned from left to right.
29: Tables (cont.) - Secondary Heading (Sub Heading): they are keyed in initial capital letter, this heading, if used, appears a double space below the main heading and above the column headings/body. - Tables: a simple way to organize information using rows and columns to align data in an easy-to-read format.
30: Font Font refers to the type, or letters, in which a document is printed. It consists of the typeface, style, size, and effect. Font attributes are used to change appearances of font. Font attributes: Watermarks appear behind or on top of the document's text. Bold is when the text prints darker than other text Textboxes are used for labels or as callouts in documents. Italics is when the text is printed at a slope toward the right. 3-D effects are used for enhancement purposes.
31: Font (cont.) Drop Caps begins a paragraph with large initial caps. Underline places a line under text as it's keyed. Wordart changes text to graphic object. Superscript places text slightly higher than other text Subscript places text slightly lower than other text. CHANGE CASE is used to change the case of letters. Bold Italics is when the text is darker and letters slope to right. Strikethrough is when it draws a line through text
32: Font (Cont.) Small Caps is small capital letters Shadow is shadow text.
33: Memorandums Memo is short for Memorandums. Memos are written to people within same business/organization. The top margins are 1" or 2". The side margin are 1". Within paragraph it's single-spaced. Between paragraphs it's double-spaced. The memo heading guide words are (TO:, FROM:, DATE:, SUBJECT:). After the memo headings guide words: - Memo's body - Reference initials - Attachment/enclosure notation - Distribution list
34: Memo Templates - Templates are forms that allow you to move quickly from one data entry area to another. - Word processing programs have several memo templates. - They generally include guide words.
35: Electronic Mail E-mail is short for Electronic Mail. E-mails are easy to create and easy to send. Parts of an E-mail: - Heading - Body - Attachment - Copy notation - Forward/reply
36: Letters There are two types of letters: Business and Personal Business. Business Letter: A letter that is representing a business. Personal Business Letter: A letter that is to a business but you're representing yourself. Letters can be in Block or Modified Block Style. Block Style: Everything starts at the left margin. Modified Block Style: Everything can start at the left or centered margin.
37: Letters (cont.) Basic Parts of a Business Letter: - Return Address (Sender's Address, single spacing) - Date (It depends) - Letter Address (Person sending to Address) - Salutation (Greeting, double spacing) - Body (single spaced, with double spacing between paragraphs) - Complimentary Close (The Closing, quad spacing) - Name of Writer (Your Name)
38: Letters (cont.) Margin of a Business Letter: - 1” side margins - 2” top margin or may be centered vertically with Center Page - 1” bottom margin Special Parts of a Business Letter: - Reference Initials - Attachments (it is physically stapled or paper chipped to the letter) - Enclosure notation(s) (might have fallen out because it’s not stapled to it.)
39: Letter (cont.) Basic Parts of a Personal Business Letter: - Letterhead - Date - Letter Address - Salutation - Body - Complimentary (At the center line) - Name of Writer (at center line) Punctuation: Open punctuation is no punctuation in the Salutation and Complimentary Close. Mixed Punctuation means you use a Colon (:) for the Salutation and a Comma (,) for the Complimentary Close.
40: Word Editing Tools Word has three features that automatically change or insert text and graphics as you type. AutoCorrect: - Automatically corrects many common typing, spelling, and grammatical errors - Automatically inserts text, graphics, and symbols. AutoComplete - gives one an opportunity to insert entire items such as: - Dates AutoText: - Automatically enters entries when you type a few identifying characters.
41: Word Editing Tools (cont.) AutoText: the storage location for text or graphics you want to use again and includes - mailing addresses used often - standard contract clauses - long distribution lists for memos Spell Checker: - checks spelling as you type - underlines unknown words with red line - recognizes proper names -ignores words with numbers or Internet and file addresses
42: Word Editing Tools (cont.) Grammar Checker: - checks grammar errors as you type - marks errors with green underline Revision Mark: - shows where a deletion, insertion, or other editing change has been made in a document Comments: - notes or annotations that an author or reviewer adds to a document Find and Replace - finds and/or replaces - text, specific formatting, and special items such as paragraph marks, fields, or graphics - all forms of a word
43: Word Editing Tools (cont.) - fine-tune a search by using wildcards (for example, search for "s?t" to find "sat" or "set"
44: Simple Reports Unbound Report: Typically short reports prepared without binders or covers. A multi-page report may be held together by paper clip or staple. Unbound Report formatting: - Top margin on first page 2” - Top margin on succeeding pages is 1” - Side margins are 1” - Bottom margin is 1”, but may vary depending on page break decision. - Avoid windows and orphans. - Additional formatting requirements: Center the title of the report in ALL CAPS, then quadruple space after the title before beginning the body of the report.
45: Simple Reports (cont.) - Double space the body of the report. Side headings are underlined and keyed in initial caps. - Paragraphs headings are indented .5” from the left margin and end with a period. Capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word only. (Bold It) - Key references/bibliography on the last page or on a separate page of the report in hanging-indent style. - To site sources, use textual citations within the report or key endnotes on the last page or on a separate page in hanging indent style.
46: Simple Reports (cont.) - Page numbers (usually preceded by a last name) are located at the top right margin, .5” from the top, followed by a double space. The first page is usually not numbered. Bound Report: Typically longer reports are bound with covers or binders. Bound Report formatting: - Top, right and bottom margins are the same as for an unbound report. - The left margin is increased to 1.5” to accommodate the binding. Academic Style Bound/Unbound Reports
47: Simple Reports (cont.) No title page used for Academic style reports. Instead, key a heading in the top left corner on the first page. Double space between lines and include the following: - Name of Student - Name of Instructor - Course Title - Date in military style (21 November 2004) Double-space the body of the report-no exceptions. Outlines: A type of enumeration that organizes information. Outline formatting: - The top margin is 2” or vertically centered.
48: Simple Report (cont.) - All other margins are the same as the report. - Main and side entries or headings are used to organize information. Key important words in initial caps. Formatting for Main Entries in an Outline: - Preceded by capital Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.) - Use either ALL CAPS or initial caps and bold - Double space before and after a main entry. Formatting for Secondary Entries in an Outline: - Preceded by capital letters (A, B, C etc.)
49: Simple Report (cont.) - Lower level entries are preceded by Arabic number (1, 2, 3, etc.) and lower-case letters (a, b, c, etc.) Only capitalize the 1st letter of the 1st word when keying these. - Single space all secondary entries. Title Page: Only a Business Report (not an Academic Report) should include a Title Page. Title Page formatting: - Center the page horizontally and vertically. - Include the following information (minimum): - Report Title - Writer's Name - Date
50: Simple Report (cont.) - The course name and teacher's name may also be included. Table of Contents: An outline of the side and paragraph heading in a report with their respective page number. Table of Contents formatting: - Follows the Title Page. - Margins are the same as for the report (using a 2” top margin). - Center the heading in ALL CAPS. - Each entry refers to a major section and should be keyed in initial caps. - Use right aligned tabs for creating leaders from the entry to its respective page number.
51: Simple Report (cont.) - Number the page at the bottom center using lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.) Bibliography: A listing of the material used in the report (textual; citations, footnotes, endnotes, and related material which may have been used but not cited), located at the end of the report. Bibliography formatting: - Margins are the same as for the report (using a 2” top margin) - Center the title in ALL CAPS followed by a quadruple space, (Precede by a QS if references begin after the report body on the report body on the same page.) - List references in alphabetical order by author last name.
52: Simple Report (cont.) Bibliography formatting continued: - Include a page number at the top right. - Single space each entry; Double space between entries. - Key each entry using a hanging indent (1st line begins at left margin; subsequent lines are indented by .5”) - Underline or italicize books, magazines, and newspaper titles. - Use quotation marks around titles of articles, poetry, and essays.
53: Simple Report (cont.) Works Cited: A listing of only those works that were cited in the report; located on a separate page at the end of the report. - Follow the same formatting as that of a Bibliography. The difference is that you will only include those sources that were quoted or paraphrased. Do not include other reference materials on a works cited page.
54: Simple Report (cont.) Documentation of Source: - Enclose direct quotes of up to 3 lines in length in quotation marks. Quotes of 4 or more lines in length (long quotations) should be single-spaced and indented .5” from the left margin. - An ellipsis () is used to indicate material that is omitted from a quotation. - There are 3 methods of referencing cited material within the body of a report: - Textual Citations - Footnotes - Endnotes
55: Simple Report (cont.) Textual Citations: - Typically keyed within parentheses immediately following the quoted material. - Includes the name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number. Example: a textual citation. (Smith, 2003, 45) Footnotes: - When using footnotes, complete documentation for a reference is placed at the bottom of the same page. A divider line (preceded and followed by a DS) typically separates footnotes from the report body.
56: Simple Report (cont.) - Superscript numbers are used to consecutively identify each footnote. Indent the first line .5” from the left margin. - Single-space each footnote; double-space between items. Endnotes: - Like footnotes, endnotes contain complete documentation for a reference. However, endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the report. - Use the same margins as for the 1st page of the report.
57: Simple Report (cont.) - Endnotes are formatted like footnotes with a corresponding superscript number and a 1st-line indent. - Single-space each endnote; double-space between items. - Include a page number at the top right. Note: - Always consult style manuals for specific formatting requirements as there are several accepted methods. - Become familiar with your particular software. There are many automatic formatting features which provide ease in designing and formatting.
58: Special Business Document - Job Application: An employment form used by employers to document information pertaining to job applicants. -- Legal document used as proof of EEOD -- Employer-driven - Résumé: Usually a one-page document, a resume is a summative document which usually outlines six major areas describing an applicant. -- Personal Information -- Objective -- Education -- School/Community/Employment Awards, Honors, and Accomplishments -- Work Experience -- References
59: Special Business Document (cont.) - Purchase Requisition (Request): A form to be completed by individuals within a business to request that items or services be purchased. - Purchase Order: A form prepared by a business (buyer) and sent to another business (seller/supplier) to order items or services. - Invoice: A form that the seller/supplier completes and sends to the buyer during the month indicating how much is owed for items bought or services rendered and the due date for payment/payment terms.
60: Special Business Document (cont.) -- In households, known by another name. -- When invoices are used on an “as-ordered” basis, Monthly Statements are sent. - Agenda: Includes the order of topics to be covered at a meeting and the individuals responsible for each topic. - Flyers: A one-page document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. Can be sent to individuals within a targeted interest group, but may also be posted for the general public to view.
61: Special Business Document (cont.) - Invitation: A document sent to specified individuals to inform them and request their presence at an event or occasion. A response (reply) is often required to indicate whether or not the individual(s) will attend. - Announcement: A document created to inform individuals of an event or occasion. No response is usually required. Often sent to individuals within a targeted interest group. - Minutes: A summary of the events and business conducted during a meeting. The official record of a meeting, generally kept by the secretary of the organization.
62: Special Business Document (cont.) - Itinerary: A list which includes the dates, times, schedules, lodging, and method of travel to be used on a trip. - Enhancements: Visual addition to attract a reader's attention to specific text. - Orientation: The determination of a how material is arranged on a page. -- Portrait-taller than wide -- Landscape-wider than tall
63: Agendas - Leave a 2” top margin. - Use a columnar format. - Arrange the topics in chronological order or in a logical sequence if no times are used. - Key the time information in the first column. - Key the descriptive information in the second column. Begin keying the entries at the tab stop. - If the descriptive information is very short, center the program horizontally. - If the speaker's name or the room number is keyed in a third column, use the right align feature of your word processing program to align the column at the right edge.
64: Minutes - Because minutes are often kept in a three-ring binder, set margins for a bound report (LM= 1.5”; RM= 1”) - Key the organization's name 1” from the top of the first page. Double-space and key MINUTES OF THE REGULAR MEETING in all caps. Double-space and key the date. Double space after the heading. - Key side headings in all capital letters. Double-space before and after the side headings. - Single-space minutes. - Quadruple-space before the closing to allow for signature. Start keying the closing at the center. The closing includes the secretary's name and title. - Key page number 1” from top on additional pages.
65: Spreadsheets - Spreadsheet: A program that allows you to use ROWS and COLUMNS of data to manage, predict, present information. Advantages of Computer Spreadsheets: - Fast and Accurate - Can answer “What Is.?” - Can answer “What If.?” Can Answer “What Is.?”: - Students’ current grade (school) - Individual athlete statistics (sports) - Transportation schedules (business) - Current $ available for spending (personal) - Census results
66: Spreadsheets (cont.) Can Answer “What If.?”: - Student population increases (school) - Win/loss record change (sports) - Product sales decrease (business) - Hourly wage rate changes (personal) Spreadsheet Terms: - Active Cell: the cell ready for data entry. - Alignment: when data is entered into a cell that default alignment is labels to the left and values to the right. - Cell: intersection of a row and column and is identified by a cell reference. - Cell range: A selected group of cells that form a rectangle. - Cell reference: The column letter and the row number (Example: B12)
67: Spreadsheets (cont.) - Column: Identified by letters that appear at the top of the spreadsheet. (Vertical) - Formula: Equation with symbols for math operations. (Example: =B6+B7+B8+B9) - Function: Special formulas that do not use operators to calculate a result. i.e. A shortcut formula. (Example: = sum(A6:A9) - Label: Text, symbols, dates or numbers not used in calculations. - Rows: Identified by numbers on the left side of the spreadsheet. (Horizontal) - Value: A number entered into a spreadsheet cell that will be used for calculations.
68: Spreadsheets (cont.) Spreadsheet Fundamentals - Formulas: A tool for calculation with the numbers on your spreadsheet. Four Basic Calculations: Add + A1+B1 Subtract - C3-C4 Multiply * C4*D4 Divide / D5/D4 Order of operations You can also parenthesis in you calculations where the order of operation Please () Excuse ^ My * Dear / Aunt + Sally -
69: Databases - You have to set aside a space for you data before you do anything. -Its main purpose is to hold data. - You have to find a designated place in the database to store each thing and organize it correctly. - They can be used to keep inventory. - They can be used to keep hold of memberships. - Databases can help you find information on people and things.
70: Databases (cont.) Four things in a database: - Reports are in Databases. (Access Data of customers and information on things) - Tables are in Databases. (Access Data) - Queries are in Databases. (Question) - Forms are in Databases. (Detailed information about customers and things to be filled out to be stored in the database for future purposes)
71: Microtype Average Grades