FC: TIME Magazine Dwight D. Eisenhower Inside: -Pre-Presidency (pg.2&3) -Domestic Issues (pg.4&5) - Foreign Policy (pg. 8-11) -Post Presidency (pg.12&13) -Political Cartoon (pg.15)
1: By: Adam Flood, Jake Kruger, Joe Tuite, Dave Grasso, Sal Lamagna, Nicole DeLorenzo & Kristy Lagnese
2: Dwight D. Eisenhower's Pre-presidency & Early Life :By Sal Lamagna Dwight D. Eisenhower was born in Denison, Texas on Oct. fourteenth 1890. His parents were David and Ida Eisenhower. In 1892, he and his family moved back to Abilene, Kansas. Dwight attended elementary school there and was given a lifelong nickname “Ike”. He began his military career by entering West Point in 1911. When he was sent to Ft. Sam Houston Texas, he met his wife Mamie Geneva Doud. | They married in 1916 and had two sons. Before World War Two, Eisenhower took part in many military assignments nationally and globally. He eventually joined the War Department and was an assistant military advisor to General Douglas McArthur. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, General George Marshall gave Dwight the duty of planning military operations against Japan. Eisenhower took command of U.S. forces. In the long run he became Supreme Commander of all allied forces. He managed the Allied plan for victory by culminating in the
3: D-Day invasion of France in 1944. Before the War in Europe ended, he became a five star general. In 1945, he became Army Chief of Staff and came back to the U.S. Eisenhower resigned his military commission in 1948 to become president of Columbia University but returned to military service in 1950 to assume operational command of the new North Atlantic Treaty Organization. When he returned to the U.S. to run for presidency in 1952, he left his inheritor a strong and stable NATO.
4: Eisenhower’s Domestic Policy and Issues By: Joe Tuite President Dwight D. Eisenhower had a very extensive domestic platform during his two terms. The first notable domestic achievement was the creation of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on April 1, 1953. He appointed Oveta Culp Hobby as secretary and by doing so she became only the second woman to be in a presidential Cabinet. Later that year, in September, Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The appointing of Justices John Marshall Harlan II, William J. Brennan, Charles Whittaker, and Potter Stewart would follow in later years. On September 1, 1954, Eisenhower altered the former social security plan by extending it to more than 7.5 million people and increasing the benefits for old-age and survivors insurance. A year later, in August 1955, Eisenhower signed a bill into law that increased the minimum wage to one dollar an hour. | On June 29, 1956, President Eisenhower signed the National Defense Interstate Highway Act, which created the interstate highway system. To jumpstart this program 33.5 billion dollars were given in federal funds to build almost 43,000 miles of road. This program would become the largest public works program in the history of the United States. On July 1, 1956, President Eisenhower started Mission 66, a ten-year program to strengthen the National Parks. The Mission 66 program shows that President Eisenhower was an advocate for nature and the preservation of the National Parks system. On September 9, 1957, President Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which would be the first advancement for civil rights since Reconstruction. It instituted a Civil Rights section to the Justice Department, which would work to stop voter interference for African Americans. The act also established the Civil Rights Commission, which would investigate discrimination and work to correct it.
5: While Eisenhower recommended the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in early April of 1958, it was not created until late July of 1958. This agency conducts research for the civilian space program in its own facilities. In September of the same year, President Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act, which offered loans to college students who were majoring is specific areas, such as math, science, and foreign language. President Eisenhower had many domestic occurrences that would shape and impact his presidency. Communism, which was a major issue internationally, was dealt with domestically by President Eisenhower. In February 1953, he refused to pardon Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. In 1954, the government banned the Communist Party in the United States. Also in 1954, the Supreme Court Case of Brown vs. Board of Education would change the public school system in the United States. The Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools are unequal. I | In 1955, a Supreme Court case known as Brown II, again acknowledged integration and ordered the cooperation of local authorities to integrate the schools. Also in 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her bus seat to a white man. This incident would lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which was undeniably a stepping stone toward African American civil rights. In September 1957, President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock Central High School to escort the “Little Rock 9” into the recently integrated school. In 1959, Alaska became the forty-ninth state and Hawaii becomes the fiftieth state. President Eisenhower was no stranger to domestic issues. His domestic policies helped a wide variety of Americans. The domestic occurrences during his presidency were crucial and a turning point in American history.
8: President Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy Issues: First Term By: Adam Flood President Eisenhower dealt with many foreign policy issues during his years as President, especially during his first term. When he entered his years as President, he became a large role in the problems dealing with the spread of | Communism. On February 2, 1953, President Eisenhower announced that the Seventh Fleet patrolling the Formosa Strait will no longer shield Communist China from military action by Nationalist China. Eisenhower firmly believed that Communism needed to be stopped. In August of 1953, Eisenhower announced to the public that the Soviets have tested a hydrogen bomb. The nuclear arms race was officially on. Fearing that this nuclear arms race would go to far, on December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower delivered the “Atoms for Peace” speech at the United Nations. This speech proposed an international atomic energy agency and peaceful development of nuclear energy. Months passed and by March 13, 1954, communist aggression began by the Vietminh at their siege of Dien Bien Phu.Less than a month later, concern grew for Eisenhower as the French garrison surrendered to the Vietminh. In November of 1954, Eisenhower approved the building of thirty U-2 spy planes.
9: Then on December 2 of the same year, President Eisenhower signed a mutual defense pact with Taiwan. This affected us because about a month later, the Chinese Communist Air Force raided the Tachen Islands, 200 miles from Taiwan. Then on June 28, 1955, Congress approved the resolution to allow U.S. forces to defend Formosa against Communist aggression. The U.S. government was now stepping up in their role to prevent the spread of Communism. At the Geneva Four-Power Conference on July 21, 1955, President Eisenhower submitted his “Open Skies” proposal to the U.S.S.R. allowing mutual air reconnaissance over each nation’s military installations. The Soviets quickly rejected the proposal. More than a year later, the world was almost faced with a third world war because of the Suez Canal Crisis. This crisis evolved when Britain, France, and Israel invaded the areas around the Suez Canal in conflict with Egypt. After this event, on October 31, 1956, President | Eisenhower deplored Anglo-French Israeli attack on Egypt, promising that the U.S. will not support its traditional allies.
10: President Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy Issues: Second Term By: Jake Kruger Dwight D. Eisenhower’s second term of his presidency was won on November 6, 1956. An array of foreign conflicts and debates arose during this time period for him. A mere two months had passed before Eisenhower already announced his very own doctrine to Congress, the Eisenhower Doctrine. This doctrine stated that U.S. forces would be able to assist Middle Eastern forces in the fight against Communism and was signed on March 9, 1957. On May 14, 1957 President Eisenhower had U.S. forces resume aid to Yugoslavia after being stopped because of Marshal Tito’s reconciliation with the USSR. In the next month between the days of June 19 and June 21, 1957, Prime Minister Kishi of Japan visited Washington D.C. On June 21, 1957 a withdrawal of U.S. forces was signed, which eliminated U.S. ground forces from Japan. On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, into orbit. This caused a great demand for
11: technology and a race for President Eisenhower to somehow get the United States into space just like the Soviets did. It wasn’t until three months later on January 31, 1958 that the U.S. competed with the Soviets and launched our own satellite into space, the Explorer I. June 15, 1958 President Eisenhower met with advisors to discuss the growing crisis in Lebanon and determine a quick solution to the tension. Exactly one month later Eisenhower sent Marines into Lebanon to prevent a rebellion against Lebanese President Camille Chamoun. A twenty-day goodwill tour of eleven nations in Europe, Asia, and Africa for the president spanned a total of 22,000 miles between December 3 and December 23, 1959. A few months later on February 22 to March 7, 1960, Eisenhower took another goodwill trip, this time to South America. A secret program against Fidel Castro was approved by the president on March 17, 1960. On May 1, 1960 the USSR shot down a United States U-2 spy plane and pilot, | Francis Gary Powers, was taken for questioning. When the Soviets called President Eisenhower about it, he lied and said it was simply a weather plane, not knowing that they had the pilot in their possession. On May 16, 1960 Nikita Khrushchev demanded an apology from Eisenhower at the Paris Summit meetings for the U-2 incident, and when Eisenhower declines to do so, the meetings collapse. Another goodwill trip was taken between June 12 and June 26, 1960 to the Far East. Finally, on his final days of presidency, Eisenhower cut all diplomatic ties with Cuba on January 3, 1961. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dealt with many foreign conflicts during his entire presidency, many in his first term and a wide range of situations in his second. In the end, he led our nation through good times and bad times and all in all kept this nation running smoothly.
12: The Life of Dwight: After Serving as President By: David Grasso After serving as the President of the United States for eight years, Dwight Eisenhower retired to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He was most concerned with restoring his rank in the military. On March 22, 1961, Eisenhower signed a special act of Congress, giving him his 5 star ranks as a General of the Army. He believed that in order to keep his honor in the military and as former President, he had to show his support for the troops and restore his military power. Also, Eisenhower was one of few presidents who published presidential memoirs. The publication company that published his memoirs was Doubleday. Doubleday published the first volume of | memoirs titled “The White House Years.” In these stories, he explained the difficulties of being president. November 9, 1965 was a sad day for Eisenhower because he suffered his second of many heart attacks. While he was golfing at Augusta National Golf Club, which is where the Masters is held in pro golf today, he suffered a heart attack. After that day, Dwight would hesitate to play golf and slow down his physical activities. Despite his bad health, Dwight gave a TV address on November 28, 1967 concerning the Vietnam War. He and General Omar Bradley asked Americans to support the troops in Vietnam. His address was appreciated by Congress and might have changed the opinions of the American people.
13: While in his hospital suite at the Walter Reed Army Hospital, Dwight Eisenhower issued a statement dealing with the election. He generously told the press that he supports his former vice president Richard Nixon. He showed his support for his friend despite his conditions, he showed how interested he was in politics. His concern for the future of America and the next president proved how loyal he was to his country. On March 28, 1969, Dwight Eisenhower died at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington D.C. He is buried with full military honors in Kansas at the Eisenhower library. After his presidency, Eisenhower did his best to stay connected with politics and military. Future presidents look up to him as a role model and consider his movements concerning the Cold War as precedents.