S: Electron Configuration Project Submission from David B.
BC: "Don't cry because it's over, Smile because it happened." - Dr Seuss
FC: Electron Configuration for the Significantly Challenged | A brief study manual for those who find themselves "doltishly" dabbling in such a topic* | * The following comment is written by the author to nicely say "You aren't the sharpest tool in the shed." (insult should be taken deeply so you buy the book)
1: "Science increases our power in proportion as it lowers our pride." --Claude Bernard (1813-78) French physiologist. | Electron Configuration for the Significantly Challenged ELECTRON CONFIGURATION FOR THE SIGNIFICANTLY CHALLENGED by: David Behrens EDITED BY RICHARD JOHN BEHRENS LLD Published by For Such A Time As This Publishers Inc. ISBN: 967-0184657392 Printed in The United States of America Copyright © 2011 by For Such A Time As This Publishers Inc., Upper Saddle River , New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department of the United States.
3: The Pauli Exclusion Principle States that each orbital in an atom can only hold two electrons with opposite spins. As seen in the diagram to the left we see that each orbital when displayed in a Aufbau Principle Chart can only hold two electrons. Each electron as seen must have completely opposite spin movements. | Pauli Exclusion Principle Written By: Wolfgang Pauli From: Austria
4: Hund's Rule Written By: Friedich Hund From: Germany | Hund's Rule for Electron Configuration states that within each sub-level of an elements orbital diagram, one should place a single electron in each orbital before paring them with another electron. When we look at the diagram above we see that each plot receives a single electron before the orbital receives another. Friedrich Hund's concept was one of the last puzzle pieces in Electron Configuration.
7: The Aufbau Principle states that all electrons in an elements orbital system fill the lowest of the energy orbitals first. The is principle was named by classes everywhere (and when I say everywhere I refer to all of Ms. Moore's Classes) as the "Parking Spot Rule". Take a look at the diagram on the left: Energy increases as orbital placement increases thereby, orbitals are filled from the lowest (1s) to the highest (7s). This was one of the most revolutionary discoveries that allowed scientists to place a definition on how electrons are configured in an atom. | The Aufbau Principle Written By: Niels Bohr From: Denmark
8: Aufbau Principle "Cheaters Chart"
9: Electron Configuration "Check Chart"
10: Looking at the Example on the Left let's make a few observations. In the longhand configuration each and every orbital sub-level is listed along with it's power, which determines the energy level filled. The first value stands for the elements row number. The second value, or letter rather, tells the location of the sub-level's block. The exponent shows the elements plot in it's particular row and block. The Chart to the far left can help with longhand notation. Shorthand Notation, cuts out the long work and simply removes all notations before the noble gas proceeding the designated row. As seen on the left Krypton was the designated shorthand as the element was directly proceeding the rest of the notation for the element Tin. | Longhand and Shorthand Notation Configuration
12: Electron Configuration Exceptions | Not all of the elements fit the rules created by the three scientist mentioned. In fact5 two violate the laws and rules set by Pauli, Hund, and Aufbau. Copper and Chromium are both found in nature with a different electron configuration. When both of the elements follow the set rules the element becomes highly unstable, but when an electron is removed from the 3s or 4s and is replaced in the appropriate sub-level the element then becomes officially stable.
14: 1st Example: Tin EC Chart
15: 1st Example: Tin EC Notation
16: 2nd Example: Cadmium EC Chart
17: 2nd Example: Cadmium EC Notation
18: 3rd Example: Rutherfordium EC Chart
19: 3rd Example: Rutherfordium EC Notation
20: 4th Example: Strontium EC Chart
21: 4th Example: Strontium EC Notation