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Elements in the Making

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S: Elements in the Making

BC: Join us on a fascinating journey through the world of science, where we will learn about the things that make up the world, and more. On this journey we will help you learn more about the amazing things that make up everything. | Science Rules!!! | " This book really took me on a journey through the world of science." -Anonymous, Science Lover " The amount of fascination this book lead me into was amazing." -Anonymous, Science Student | Compounds Rap | Elements Song

FC: Elements in the Making | By: Joni & Trisha

1: Elements in the Making | By: Joni & Trisha

2: Comments | " This book really helped me explore science, and helped me understand it better" -Anonymous, Middle Schooler " I really struggled in science and this really helped me, and now I love science!" -Anonymous, 6th Grader " I am now amazed with how much science there is in the world, now I truly feel that I understand science now." -Anonymous, 11 year old "Science rules!!!" - Anonymous, 12 year old | 2

3: Dedicated to Mrs. Coffee, Mrs. Sims, and Mrs. Park our 4th, 5th, and 6th grade science teachers | 3

4: Table of Contents | What is an Element?..............6 What is a Compound?............8 Are Compounds Mixtures?...10 Matter is in Almost Everything..........................12 What doesn't have Matter....14 Exploring Matter.................17 Glossary..............................19 About the Author.................21 | 4

6: Have you ever wondered what you breathe in? Have you ever wondered what makes that up? Well, this element is called oxygen, and it's a single element found on the periodic table. With an atomic number and mass, a symbol, and a name. Oxygen is one of the most common elements on the Earth's surface. An element is any pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. Do you think H20 or CO2 are elements? No, these two substances are made up of two or more elements and are called compounds. The elements that make up a single molecule of H2O are two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. A single molecule of C02 is made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. | What is an Element? | 6

7: Examples of Elements | 7

8: What is a Compound? | As we said before, H2O and CO2 are compounds. Can you guess what a compound is? A compound any substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined or bonded in a set ratio (comparing two numbers). It can be broken down into smaller substances. The reason that CO2 and H20 are compounds is because they are made up of two or more elements. As we said before, H2O is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. Then CO2 is made up of carbon and oxygen. Do you know what NaCl is? It's sodium chloride or table salt, sodium is made up of two other elements sodium, and chlorine. So that would make a chemical change with NaCl, to make it a compound because you can't do anything to change it back. | 8

9: Examples of Compounds | 9

10: Are Compounds Mixtures? | Even though mixtures are any combination of two or more substances. It doesn't mean that it applies to all compounds. The most important part to a mixture is that they aren't chemically combined and don't fit in a set ratio. So that means it can't be H2O or NaCl because these are all chemically combined. Trail mix is an example, you can add as much to it, but your not changing the actual state of it. But do you think saltwater or sugar water is a mixture or a compound? Well, saltwater and sugar water are mixtures because even when you dissolve all of the salt or sugar. You can still evaporate the water and separate the salt and sugar from the water.So this would make saltwater and sugar water a mixture. | 10

11: Mixtures | 11

12: Matter is Almost in Everything | Matter is in everything, matter makes up your house, it makes up water, and even can make up helium. Matter is basically anything that has mass and occupies space. Physical and chemical properties can be used to identify, describe, and classify matter. This even means that elements and compounds have matter too. This is because if you think about all the elements in the periodic table, like helium. No matter how much you have, it has mass, and occupies space. Also think about about compounds, NaCl is table salt, does it have mass, does it take up space? Yes it does, of course, mixtures also have mass as well. Both of these have mass, and it also takes up space. | 12

13: The Four States of Matter | 13

14: What doesn't have Matter | Almost everything is made up of matter, but have you ever wondered if there's anything not composed of matter. Studies have shown that there are four forces in physics that don't have matter. Light is one of them, it isn't composed of matter; light particles are known as things called "photons". Photons are also used to explain how electricity and magnetism work, and photons do not have mass. The "strong nuclear force" (which holds the parts of atoms together, and indirectly holds atoms themselves together) is mediated by particles called "gluons", which are not matter (although another nuclear force, the "weak force", responsible for nuclear decay, is mediated by things called "W-bosons" which, although they mediate a force, also have a mass. | 14

15: Gravity is the fourth force, and it is conceptualized as the warping of space and time, and so it isn't made of matter either. "Stuff" we call space-time isn't made of matter: it's a set of dimensions of movement.) There are also forms of unusual matter, aside from the usual "protons, neutrons and electrons" which make up atoms, such as neutrinos or positrons (anti-electrons). These are still matter, but they are not like the matter that we are familiar with on a daily basis. Anti-matter is a form of matter! Matter is anything that has mass, and anti-matter has mass. It's only called "anti-matter" because it has a negative electric charge to it's normal matter counterpart, and annihilates upon meeting it, but it is matter. | 15

16: 16 | Light | Gluons

17: Exploring Matter | You can find a variety of matter at a beach. Which can include the sand, seashells, plants, and even the sea water. The beautiful grainy sand you walk on is a mixture, it can be made up of a substance called quartz and tiny fragments of weathered and eroded seashells. The compounds in beach sand are made mostly of four elements: silicon, oxygen, calcium, and carbon. Like most substances, the beach sand shares a few properties with the elements that makes it up! Seashells contain many other calcium compounds, including calcium carbonate. Quartz is formed from a compound called silicon dioxide. | 17

18: 18 | Sand Mixture

19: Glossary | A Atoms- The smallest particle of an element. (pg. 5) C Chemical Bond- The force that holds to atoms. (pg. 6) Chemical Change- A change in matter that produces new substances. (pg. 5) Chemical Property- A characteristic that is observed when a substance interacts with another substance. (pg. 8) Compound- A substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio (comparing two numbers), and can be broken down into smaller substances. (pg. 5) E Element- A pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. (pg. 5) | 19

20: Erosion- The process in which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil. (pg. 9) M Mass- A measure of how much matter is in an object. (pg. 8) Matter- Anything that has mass and occupies space. (pg. 8) Mixture- Any combination of two or more substances that aren't chemically combined and don't fit in a set ratio. (pg. 7) T Triple Beam Balance- A scale used to measure mass. (pg. 9) W Weathering- Wear away or change the appearance or texture of something. (pg. 9) | 20

21: About the Authors | 21 | Joni grown up in Texas, and had she spent many years as a school student striving to learn more. She is the author of many other books that includes The Divided Nation, and 1-2-3 Blast Off! She lives with her parents, brother, and two dogs. Her hobbies include the love for music, art, and running. | Trisha has spent many of her childhood years singing in many competitions and performances. She enjoys spending time with her friends and being random. She has a true passion for unicorns and narwhals! Her hobbies are reading, singing, and swimming.

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