FC: Elements of Geography | by: Chance Palmiter
1: Geography Element 1: | Thinking Like a Geographer | In their work, geographers will use many tools and skills to help them. Some skills contain things such as asking yourself questions and answering them, finding info, and organizing data. The tools include tings such as the global grid. The global grid is used to answer questions about location. It includes two things: latitude and longitude. Latitude are lines that go across from east to west (or left to right). Longitude are lines that run north to south (or up and down). They are both measured in things called degrees. but, it isn't degrees like temperature.
2: Latitude is pictured above. It runs parallel (never touching) and it never ends. | Longitude is pictured above. It runs from the north pole to the south pole.
3: Geography Element 2: | From Globes to Maps | Part of a geographer's job is to make maps. To make maps you must do many different and hard things. One of those things is copying a map from a round and 3 dimensional globe onto a flat 2 dimensional piece of paper. You can make it viewable from many different positions such as planar (where it shows the Earth centered at a ceratin point), cylindrical (where it's based on the projection of a globe on a cylinder), and conic (where it comes from place a cone on the globe.) Each of these three map projections have good and bad things about them.
4: Pictured above is the conic projection of a map. | Pictured above is the cylindrical projection of a map. | Pictured above is the planar projection of a map.
5: Geography Element 3: | Common Map Projections | Geographers can not accurately show the curved surface of the planet on a map. It is only accurately available on a globe. So, cartographers (people who make maps) have designed multiple map projections. Some of them are: Winkel Tripel: most general map reference, shows only mildly distorted continents. Robinson: shows the continents more distorted and the poles are somewhat distorted. Goode's Interrupted Equal-Area: basically looks like a globe was cut out and laid flat. Mercator: distorts shapes of continents and distance most of all the maps. It used to be the most commonly used projection
6: Winkel Tripel | Robinson | Goode's Interrupted Equal-Area | Mercator
7: Geography Element 4: | Reading a Map | On a map, there are many different features to pay attention to that will help you read the map more accurately. The key is the most important. It tells what each symbol stands for. The compass rose is a symbol that looks like a small "t". It tells the 4 cardinal directions, north, south east, and west. There are also dots that represent major cities including capitals. A scale bar shows the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance. Absolute, and relative location are also a big part of a map. Absolute is a precise point. Relative is the location of one thing compared to another.
8: Compass Rose | Map Key | Map Scale
9: Geography Element 5: | Types of Maps | In geography, there are many different types of maps. The main types of maps are called general-purpose maps. They are typically used for reference. The main general-purpose maps are: Physical Maps: shows the location and shape of earth's features. It shows the elevation and and connects all the points of land equal elevation. Political Maps: shows the boundaries between countries and smaller divisions such as states or countries. Economic Activity Map: shows the distribution of land use and natural resources. Most commonly used to study things such as natural resources.
10: Physical Map | Political Map | Economic Activity Map
11: Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams | Geography Element 6: | Other visuals that geographers use are graphs, charts, and diagrams. A graph: a representation of information. There are many different types of graphs. There are line graphs, bar graphs, and circle graphs. Each graph has its own situation that it should be used in. Charts and Tables: when data is arranged in columns and rows. They display facts and make comparison easy. Diagrams: A drawing or picture that shows how something is done or how something happens in a series of events.
12: Graphs | Diagrams | Charts
13: Bibliography | textbook | Google Images | Wikipedia