FC: Everything You Need To Know About The Pacific Coast Natives | By: Jordyn Cohen, Tyler Green, Emily Barkhordarian, and Ethan Dubrovsky
1: Geographical Location ............2-3 Methods of Transportation...4-5 Social Structure.......................6-7 Shelter......................................8-11 Food..........................................12-15 Clothing...................................16-18 Beliefs and Legends.............19-21 Special Events......................22-23 Tools.......................................24-25 Art...........................................26-28 Arrival of the Europeans...29-32 Today's Natives...................33-35 A story from the coast......36-37 Let's Cook!.............................38-41 Bibliography.................................42 | Table of Contents | 1
2: Geographical location The Pacific Coast Natives lived in British Columbia. Their land height and sea depth was about 2000 km. The Pacific Coast Natives had a very reasonable temperature range, their range of temperature was 5 degrees – 0 degrees Celsius. In the winter, the snowfall range in British Columbia when the Pacific Coast Natives were there was 100mm – 200mm of the snow height. Their winters were very mild and manageable. | There were several tribes in the Pacific Coast. | 2
3: The precipitation in the Northwest Coast was 2000mm – 1000mm. It rained frequently on the Northwest Coast which made it easy for them to grow a lot of plants on their land. When the Pacific Coast Natives went fishing they usually caught pelagic and estuarial fish. The fish were usually in souls near the surface. This included herring, sardines, swordfish, and salmon. In conclusion, the Pacific Coast Natives had a very easy life while living on the Pacific Coast. | This is a map of where the Pacific Coast Natives lived. | 3
4: Methods of Transportation Dugout Canoes | Dugout Canoes of the Pacific Coast Natives were marvels of skill and artistry. They were graceful and watertight. The shape of the hull varied from group to group. Pacific Coast Natives' canoes were among the most seaworthy craft in the world. They had separately attached pieces of wood in the front of them shaped as birds. Haida canoes where painted on the outside. | This is an example of one of the dugout canoes used by the Pacific Coast Natives. | 4
5: The making of a dugout was a long and difficult job. Several men cut a tall tree using axes and chisels made of stone. They carved the trunk into a roughly shaped hull. Then they moved the rough hull from the forest into the village. In the village a builder took over. First, he finished shaping the hull. Then, he drilled a line of holes in each side of the hull. This is how the Pacific Coast Natives got around. In conclusion, dugout canoes were well manufactured and very important to the everyday lives of the Pacific Coast Natives. | Canoes were used as transportation on the Pacific Coast. | 5
6: Social Structures The social structures of the Pacific Coast Natives were not very complicated, yet extremely organized. The social structures were made up of nobles, commoners and slaves. People in the upper class were special just because they were born into a special family! There were eight main tribes in the Pacific Coast Natives. Each tribe spoke a language some the same, some different. The tribes are Haida who spoke the Haida language, Tsimshian who spoke the Tsimshian language, Nisga’a who spoke the Tsimshian language, Salish who spoke the Salishan language, Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth) who spoke the Salishan language, Bella Coola (Nuxalk) who spoke the Salishan language, Kwakiutl (Kwakwakw'wakw) who spoke the Salishan language, and Wakashan who spoke the Salishan language. The Pacific Coast Natives traced line of decent through mother or father on a tree. | 6
7: Family trees were important because it determined which family got the best sites for fishing, hunting wood and bark collecting, and shellfish gathering. It also determined the right to wear specific ceremonial masks and dance specific dances. Each family claimed specific sites and rights for themselves. Men did the fishing and hunting. Women caught shellfish. Slaves gathered wood/bark and dug for clams. Women of Nisga’a and Tsimshian collected oil. Each group also had its own crest. Crest was painted anywhere that it was possible to paint on. | This is one of the crests used by one of the Pacific Coast Natives' family. | 7
8: SHELTER OF THE PACIFIC COAST NATIVES The shelters of the Pacific Coast Natives were quite large. The Pacific Coast Natives lived in large villages with as many as 30 houses and 1000 inhabitants. The villages were located in mouths of rivers. During the summer, the Pacific Coast Natives sometimes lived in temporary houses on the offshore islands. The houses of the Pacific Coast Natives were mainly made of cedar bark planks. The houses were normally rectangular, but the structure sometimes varied. Inside the houses of the Pacific Coast Natives, strong posts at the front and the back of the house supported a ridgepole; a long timber that ran from one end of the house to the other. Similar poles inside the house paralleled the ridgepole on either side and together they supported overlapping planks of the gable roof. | 10
9: The opening that took place as a doorway was cut into the end of the house facing the shore. The Haida tribe placed a totem pole in front of their house as well. The carvings on the totem poles were believed to be original ancestors of families living inside the houses. Several relatives might have lived in a house that measured 30 meters by 12 meters. Special planks and screens divided one of the houses into small areas or rooms for individual families. The raised platform, where the Pacific Coast Natives slept, extended around the sides. | This is a plank house. | 11
10: The pit near the center of the floor had small fireplaces that could be used for cooking or for extra warmth in the house. In the summer, both of the wall planks and roof planks were carried to the fishing grounds on the shores. There on the shore the house was rebuilt on the frame that was left standing from earlier years. Winter houses were pits inside the ground that were lined with planks. The corner posts and posts that held up the ridgepoles supported the beams. The planks laid over the beams to form the roofs of the houses. | 12 | This is the pit where they could cook and warm themselves up.
11: In the summer, less sizeable planks structures or mat-covered lodges were wanted. The summer homes of the Pacific Coast Natives were not built to be as sturdy as the winter homes. In conclusion, there were many types of shelters that the Pacific Coast Natives had created and now they have been developed them to be even better over the years. | This is an example of one of the houses of the Haida tribe of the Pacific Coast Natives. | 13
12: Food of the Pacific Coast Natives The Pacific Coast Natives had many different food dishes, food sources and appliances that they depended on in order to live well. They ate out of wooden bowls, and they often ate with their fingers. They had spoons made out of wood, or the spoons were made out of mountain-goat horns. Containers were usually wooden boxes or woven baskets that were watertight. They had lots of seafood such as: lobsters, clams, mussels, and crabs. Their supplies of seafood were plentiful because they lived near water and after they fetched it from the water, they were cooked into dishes. Another main food source was salmon, also because the Pacific Coast Natives lived near water. For the Pacific Coast Natives, the salmon was easy to catch and it was easy to preserve. | This is salmon; one of the main resources of fish to the Pacific Coast Natives. It was a main resource because they lived on a shore. | 14
13: Salmon was dried or smoked and made into dishes for the Pacific Coast Natives. The women had an important role in making and gathering food for everyone. Women would gather seaweed and bird eggs. Women also picked wild salad greens, berries, nuts and roots of plants. Chefs and cooks flavored their meat and fish that they were cooking with crushed juniper berries. Because fish was such a common food source, they had lots of fish oil, and they used it at almost every meal. | These are the soapberries that the Pacific Coast Natives used to make homemade Ice-Cream. | 15
14: The Pacific Coast Natives dipped their food into the fish oil. Any food other than berries and salad greens tended to be cooked. Sometimes, the people preparing the food dug a pit in the ground, put stones into the pit and made a fire. Once the fire calmed down, the cook laid the meat or fish onto the fire and covered it with a mat to cook. Food was cooked under a closed fire, sealed with earth or soil on top. Sometimes the meat and fish were roasted or cooked on an open fire rather than a closed one. | These are the mussels that the Pacific Coast Natives had full access to because they lived on a shore, and they are found in the water. | These juniper berries were used by cooks or chefs; they crushed them up and used them to flavour the meat and fish that they were making. | 16
15: Occasionally, meat was boiled in a big container of water, and then red-hot stones were added. In conclusion, the Pacific Coast Natives were known for having many different resources of food and many different ways to cook which have developed more over the years. | This is halibut. It was another main resource of fish to the Pacific Coast Natives because they lived near water so they got a large supply. | This is the fish oil used by the Pacific Coast Natives at almost every meal as a sauce for their food. | 17
16: CLOTHING The Pacific Coast Natives had many different clothing, but normally went naked. They also wore very little clothing, if they were not completely naked. The Pacific Coast Natives frequently went barefoot as well. They wore capes that were something like ponchos. The women wore a second cape as a skirt. Most clothes were made of cedar bark. The cedar bark was pounded and shredded into fibers that were then woven on a loom and made into skirts and coats. The Pacific Coast Natives sometimes added goat or dog hair to their skirts and coats. | This is one of the goat fur coats that the Pacific Coast Natives wore during the winter or when the weather was colder outside. | 18
17: Other materials that were woven in with the bark yarn were bird feathers, goat or dog hair and sagebrush. A fur collar might have been added to the cape to keep the rough material from scratching the wearer's neck. They normally wore symbols on their clothing. Hats were commonly worn. They were used for protection against cold in the winter, and heat in the summer. The hats of the Pacific Coast Natives had cone shaped crowns and wide brims. Hats were made of split spruce roots, and were woven together so closely that they were watertight. In the cooler northern areas, the Pacific Coast Natives made clothes from animal skins. | These are the moccasins that the Pacific Coast Natives wore. It gave them the comfort of being barefoot, but it kept their feet warm in all weather. | 19
18: The women wore hats, rain capes, sleeveless jackets and skin robes. They traded inland people for shirts, leggings, moccasins, and mittens made from hide. Everyone in a family wore moccasins because it gave them the feeling of being bare-foot but it still kept their feet warm in all weather. Snowshoes were used during the wintertime because they enabled the Pacific Coast Natives to walk on surfaces of deep snow, instead of sinking into the snow. The Pacific Coast Natives wore fur and leather coats. Everyone from the Pacific Coast Natives wrapped themselves in blankets. In conclusion, if it weren't for the Pacific Coast Natives, we would not have survived our first winters here! | This is a hat that the Pacific Coast Natives wore in all weather: they wore them to keep out the wind in the winter, and the sun and heat off of their heads in the summer. | 20
19: Beliefs and legends Beliefs were very important to the Pacific Coast Natives. The spirits inhabited the land and the sea. They always wanted to keep their spirits happy and friendly because they did not want to bring harm to them and their families and village. Some of the spirits would change themselves into fish, animal and other unknown creatures. For example, the salmon spirit shaped as a human lived in a large house at the bottom of the sea. | 21 | The Salmon Spirits provided the Pacific Coast Natives with salmon for food.
20: When the salmon came to the coastal rivers they had changed back up into themselves, as fish. When the salmon came back, he had made a ritual. First it would get caught, then brought onto an altar, facing upstream and were killed. Next, it was cooked, presented to the people and was given a taste. Bones returned to the stream so the salmon would come back each year. Spirits might have also come to a man's dream he had dreamed, but only if he had purified himself. | 22 | Sea Spirits ruled the sea.
21: If so, the man had control over that spirit. Sickness came when a harmful spirit sent silver or bone, a duck egg, or pebble into a person's body while they were alive. The shaman would come and treat the sick person at their home with all friends and families gathered around him. The shaman wore a frightened mask and danced around the sick person. Sometimes he called the spirit of the person to come and help him through the pain. In conclusion, their beliefs were very special and important to them. | 23 | Spirits threw stones or silver to make Natives sick.
22: Special Events Ceremonial Dances Every year at the beginning of winter, the Pacific Coast Natives had a ritual. They believed that a spirit returned to the sky to dance in many villages. Dance ceremony marked the upcoming of winter. Only the secret society were allowed to participate in this special event. The dancers were all wearing masks. Their movements acted out a mystery of spirits. Dance ceremonies were held throughout the year. | It was said that spirits returned to the sky so that they could dance at many villages. | 24
23: Dance ceremonies described how important families got their names. Sometimes the Pacific Coast Natives spilled fake blood to show that a dancer was injured. The shaman healed the dancer and the story went on. Another special event was the potlatch. A potlatch was a great feast that lasted several days, accompanied by ceremonial dancing, singing and speeches. Guests from neighbouring villages were invited. A potlatch was held for a variety of reasons such as naming a new chief. They would also sing special songs. In conclusion, there were many special events that the Pacific Coast Natives celebrated for different occasions! | Masks were worn during dances to tell a story. | 25
24: Tools Most tools that the Pacific Coast Natives used were made out of cedar wood, stone, and shells. Sledgehammers that were used for splitting wood were made out of stone. For hunting, the Pacific Coast Natives used bows and arrows, snares, deadfalls, and harpoons. | The Pacific Coast Natives used wood, stone and shells as their tools. | 26
25: For fishing, they used nets, underwater traps, bone and wood hooks, and harpoons. They also used fish lines, which were made out of cedar wood. Food was served on wooden platters and trays that the women made. They also threw harpoons and shot bow and arrows. In conclusion, the Pacific Coast Natives had many tools that they used. | The Pacific Coast Natives used fishing nets and harpoons to fish. | 27
26: Art Totem Poles A costume of the Pacific Coast Natives are the totem poles they make. The oldest known totem pole was made in the 19th century. Carved totem poles on the huge inside of the houses supports the roof beams of the houses they lived in. Some totem poles were placed right in front of the most special houses such as the Chief, Shaman, and more. | This is a totem pole that the Pacific Coast Natives made. | 28
27: The totem poles told histories of families living in the houses, and some told stories of the whole village. The Thunderbird was a common craving, as were eagles, grizzly bears, beavers, wolves and many others. Sometimes, the land animals were changed into sea animals. For example, the bear was carved into a whale with the name of, “The Bear of the Sea”. Sometimes the totem poles were twenty-five meters tall. To make the totem poles lighter, they would hollow out the insides. | Totem poles told stories and histories of the people in the village. | 29
28: The totem poles were carved into many sections. Each section had a plain but very beautiful design. Sometimes, the craftsmen had to work alone because it might have been for special people in the village. In conclusion, totem poles were true artisans, and hopefully Canada will keep on making them. | The Thunderbird is one of the animals the Pacific Coast Natives carved. | 30
29: Arrival of the Europeans When the Europeans arrived there was a big difference in the Pacific Coast Natives’ lives. This is what happened: At the start, the Natives did not know about the Europeans and the Europeans did not know about the Natives. If you went near the island where the Pacific Coast Natives lived then you were provided with wealth and fame. It was during the 18th and 19th century when the Pacific Coast Natives found two ships lost in the fog. The ships were found on the west coast of Vancouver Island. There were ships from Spain, England, America, France, Russia and Portugal. | 31 | The Pacific Coast Natives send a greeting party out to shore.
30: A woman saw the ship and describes it as a “monster”, a monster that had the body of a whale with two trees sticking out of its back and the face of a bear. The Natives sent a greeting party, and set fire to the “monster”. The Natives salvaged most of the items on the ship, including the people. The greeting party led the strangers to the shelter of Yuquot. They traded with the Natives and refitted their ships.The Pacific Coast Natives became rich and traded with other tribes; this started the idea of trading with the strangers. The Natives soon found out that the strangers were Europeans. The Europeans stayed there for a month. They had different beliefs, religions and ways of life than the Natives. The Europeans soon left with otter furs to China. They got a lot of money and came back to trade more. | 32 | The Natives traded sea otter pelt with the Europeans.
31: 33 | The Europeans claim the Natives' land as their own. | The Europeans wanted to capture the island at the start but then found out people were living there. Now all they cared about was money, not the land or lives of the Natives. The diseases smallpox and influenza were introduced to the Natives. The Natives found cures to all of the diseases, however, the diseases destroyed 90% of the Natives. At this time, explorers such as Alexander MacKenzie and Simon Fraser were both working in the fur-trading business and they set up posts in the Natives’ land. Before posts were built, the other Natives in the area gave to the Pacific Coast Natives and they gave to the Europeans. This led to Native women often marrying Europeans so they could get trading advantages. Soon, Spanish, American, English and Dutch had competitions over the sea otter pelt. The Natives enjoyed this and only gave to the highest “bidder”. The sea otter was almost extinct because the Natives were such good hunters.
32: One day the Spanish came with orders not to let the English trade with the Natives. One Native protested and the Spanish shot him. The Natives did not trade with the Europeans for a long time after that. Soon after, the Spanish and English went into war and the English won. An American boat attacked the land of Nootka Sound and there was a lot less trading there. The relationship nearly shattered because of violence. Scientists took this chance to discover new plants, animals, languages, climates and ways of life. Scientists also took this chance to make detailed maps of the land. The relationship ended when the Gold Rush started and with the announcing of the Oregon Trail. In conclusion, The Europeans changed the lives of the Natives in good and bad ways. | 34 | The Europeans brought diseases that took the lives of many Natives.
33: Today's Natives There are many Pacific Coast Natives that are alive today and help us in Canada in many different ways. Robert Davidson and Hattie Kauffman are both Pacific Coast Natives that are alive and work to help Canada. | 35 | Robert Davidson is a sculptor and carves many cultural pieces. Hattie Kauffman is a reporter for a television newscast.
34: Robert Davidson helps us with the love of art and entertainment. He is from the Haida tribe and is a sculptor. All his work is traditional to his tribe and all the materials he uses are traditional to his tribe. His totem pole, "The Red-Cedar Salmon” is famous and was carved in 1993. His totem pole was the first to be raised in Masset, Queen Charlotte Island in 1969 in almost a century. | This is Robert Davidson. He is a sculptor. | 36
35: Hattie Kauffman helps us by telling us all the information that is happening in Canada in the morning. She is from the Nez Perce tribe and is a Correspondent for CBS, “This Morning”. She won the Emmy Award in 1990 and is a role model for all Natives in the telecommunication business. In conclusion, both of them are still alive today and help us as do a lot of other Natives that we do not know about. | This is Hattie Kauffman. She is a reporter. | 37
36: A story from the Pacific Coast: The Dreamer A long time ago a man was fishing in his canoe. He was headed out to open sea. His fishing rod was stretched out from the front of the boat and he drifted this way for 4 days until he became very hungry and thirsty. He began pulling the rope into the canoe. When he came near the end of the rope he saw a Killer whale that he had hooked. When the Killer whale came back above the water the fisherman climbed onto it, screaming, "Let me go. You have no right to do this to me." He started to hit the whale with his paddle. The whale made a loud noise and dove into the ocean. | 38
37: The fisherman thought that he would die. When he finally opened his eyes he was on the beach near the white rock and he could see his canoe washing up on the shore further down the beach. He began jumping up and down, laughing. He was so happy to be alive that he ran back to the village and as he ran he hollered that Killer whale had spared his life. When he reached the village he found all the people in the big house having a potlatch. He began singing a song about his encounter with Killer whale and soon he was dancing, telling the story of how Killer whale took him under the ocean to visit the spirit houses of the undersea kingdom. | 39
38: Let's Cook HALIBUT SOUP Ingredients: -4 large potatoes -An onion -1 kilogram of halibut, cubed -355 millilitres of evaporated milk -1 can of cream of celery soup (undiluted) -water Equipment: -cutting knife -cooking pot -stove -fork | This is an example of a Halibut Soup dish. | 40
39: Step-By-Step Instructions: 1.With an adults help, chop up the potatoes and onions, and place them in a pot. 2.Add water to cover the potatoes. Boil until the potatoes are tender. 3.Reduce the heat to medium. Add the halibut, and cook until a fork goes into the fish with ease. 4.Add the evaporated milk and soup to the pot. Simmer for 5 minutes. 5.Add the pepper to taste. | 41
40: Let's Cook SOAPBERRY ICE-CREAM Ingredients: -250 millilitres of soapberries -63 millilitres of water -sugar Equipment: -bowl -spoon or potato masher | This is blue soapberry ice-cream. | 42
41: Step-By-Step Instructions: 1.Place the berries into a bowl. 2.Add 63 ML of water to the berries. 3.Add a dash of sugar on top for sweetness. 4.Mash the berries, water, and sugar together until it foams into a salmon-coloured froth. 5.Enjoy your soapberry Ice-Cream! **Soapberries ripen in the mid-summertime. That is the time when they are ready to be picked and used to make delicious Ice-Cream. | This is pink soapberry ice-cream | 43
42: BIBLIOGRAPHY | 44 | Canadian Encyclopedia- Student Edition. (1998). Canada: McClelland & Stewart Inc. Cass, J. (1983). Oyai-Indians of the North Pacific Coast. In J. Cass, Oyai- Indians of the North Pacific Coast (pp. 1,2,8,15,16). http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/customcode/Media.cfm?Params=A3native-people.swf (Canadian Encyclopedia, Northwest Coast, Canada’s Native peoples) (1998) (n.d.). Retrieved from http://indigenousfoundation.arts.ubc.ca/home/culture/totem-poles.html Ruddell, N. (1995). Raven's Village. Canada: Canadian Museum of Civilization. The Pacific Coast First Nations. (2003). GeoWat Innovative Teacher Publishing Inc. Webster, C. (n.d.). Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture. Calgary, Canada: Weigl.http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc3.html BC Archives & Royal BC Museum. (n.d.). European Contact. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from FirstNations:http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/contact.htm BC Archives & Royal BC Museum. (n.d.). People of the Northwest Coast. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from First Nations: http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/wc_peop.htm Ciment, J., & LaFrance, R. (1996). Encyclopedia of the North American Natives. New York City, New York, U.S.A: Scholastic. Francis, D. (2000). First People and First Conatacts. (B. Cruxton, Ed.) Don Mills, Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press. Miller, H. & Reese, M. Natives and Europeans on the Northwest Coast, 1774-1812. Washington: University Of Washington Department Of History; Center For The Study Of The Pacific Northwest. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.coghlanart.com/dreamer.htm Stanford, Q.H. (n.d.). Canadian Oxford School Atlas. Oxford University Press 2004 The totem-pole- Indians of the Northwest Coast