2: A successful start for a successful president Weatherly Yocca On October 14, 1890 in Denison Texas, David and Ida Eisenhower gave birth to one of the most successful military and political men in history, Dwight David Eisenhower. After moving in 1892 Eisenhower graduated from Abilene High School and started working as a refrigeration engineer at Belle Springs Creamery in Abilene, Kansas. Soon after, he attended U.S. Military Academy (USMA) in West Point, New York, where he graduated as 2nd Lieutenant of infantry on June 12, 1915. After he graduated from there, he was sent to Fort Sam in Houston, Texas for military service from September 13, 1915-September 22, 1917 and was promoted to captain on May 15, 1917. Eisenhower continued to follow the military path and become an instructor at the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) camp in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia on September 22, 1917-November 26, 1917 and then for the army service schools in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas on December 12, 1917-February 28, 1918. He was becoming more and more successful as he was promoted to temporary rank of major on July 81,1918 and then to Lieutenant colonel on October 14, 1918. Eisenhower continued on serving as a Tank Corps in Fort Dix, New Jersey from November 18, 1918-December 22, 1918, Tank Corps in Fort Benning, Georgia from December 24, 1918-March 15, 1919 and Tank Corps in Fort Meade from March 17, 1919-January 7, 1922. After being in charge for a while, Eisenhower was lead under General Fox Comer as executive officer to the 20th Infantry Bridge at Camp Gallard, Panama Canal Zone in January 26, 1922-September 19, 1924. During that time he was promoted again to permanent rank of major on August26, 1924. Eisenhower pursued his military career serving as assistants and commanders but to further pursue it he attended Army War College in Fort McNair, Washington D.C. on August 16, 1927-June 30, 1928. After completing that, Eisenhower started working as a special assistant fro General Douglas MacArthur, the chief of staff of war department General staff on February 20, 1933-September 24, 1935 and then the military advisor to Philippine Commonwealth On October25, 1935-December 13, 1939. A few years later, he was appointed to Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, War plans division, war department in Washington D.C. and was later designated as assistant Chief of Staff, war plans division on February 16, 1942 then appointed assistant Chief of Staff, Operation Division in April 1942. As the years passed Eisenhower seemed to progress more and more each day. In June of 1942 he was designated as Commanding General of U.S. Army Forces in the European Theater in London, England and in November he was named Commander-in-Chief of the allied forces in North Africa. After being promoted to permanent rank of Brigadier general and permanent rank of major general on August 30, 1943, he started leading allied expeditionary forces in December 1943 and then under him, allied forces invaded Europe on June 6, 1944. Eisenhower was a 5 star general on December 20, 1933 and was appointed military governor of the U.S. occupied zone, Germany in May 1945 then on November 19, 1945 he was designated to chief of staff of the U.S. army and returns to the U.S.. After receiving a few more promotions, Eisenhower published a book in 1947 called “Crusade in Europe” which became a best selling memoir of his services as Supreme allied Commander, European Theater of Operations. Even though Eisenhower’s military services started to slow down when he retired from active service on May 31, 1952 and resigned his commission as Generalof the army in July 1952 he sped right up again after announcing his candidacy for the Republican party nomination for president on June 4, 1952 where he could take all of his military experience and use it in a more powerful position for the good of his country.
4: Early Years By Josh Scalamogna Dwight Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890 in Denison Texas. In 1892 him and his parents moved back to Abilene, Kansas where Eisenhower attended elementary and high school. That’s where he got his nickname “Ike”. He started his military career by entering West Point in 1911. Before serving in World War II he served in many military assignments. | Eisenhower joined the United States war department as an assistant military advisor to army chief of staff General Douglas McArthur. He became a five star general and resigned from his military commission in 1948 to become president of Columbia University. In 1950 he returned to military service to assume operational command of the New North Atlantic treaty Organization.
5: Eisenhower Abroad By: Beth Kenny During Dwight D. Eisenhower’s two-term presidency, he accomplished many tasks dealing with foreign policy. His main goals were to establish peace and control nuclear weapons while containing Communism. He spent a great amount of his time in office speaking with leaders such as the French Premier, British Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, and Harold Macmillan, Japanese Prime Minister Kishi, and Premier of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, as well as competing with the Soviet Union in the space and weapons races. After his inauguration on January 20, 1953, he went to work right away dealing with | foreign nations. He came into his presidency with the burden of the Korean War and Cold War, which were unresolved from Truman’s presidency. In February of the same year he began meeting with the National Security Council where he often discussed the Korean War. These meetings were a weekly occurrence that lasted until July of 1953. Another burden he carried from Truman was having troops in the Communist country of China. On February 2, 1953, he broadcasted that he would remove the Seventh Fleet, who patrolled the Formosa Strait, and that the US was finished protecting Communist China from the Nationalist China’s military. In July of 1953, Eisenhower made big foreign policy changes when he had the “New Look” policy approved. This policy
6: discussed national security and dealing with the Cold War by using the threat of nuclear weapons to contain Communism. Another major event of Eisenhower’s presidency was the end of the Korean War. On July 27, an armistice was signed in Panmunjon, Korea. This armistice ordered a cease fire, a demilitarized buffer zone between North and South Korea, repatriation of all prisoners, and created a border between North and South Korea at the thirty-eighth parallel. With conflict in Korea settling, Eisenhower’s attention was turned to the problems in the Middle East. From August 19 to 22, undercover CIA help in Iran threw out the Leftist government of Premier Mohammed Moassadegh and had a regime loyal to Shah Pahlevi take its | place. On October 31, 1956, Eisenhower sent soldiers to attack Egypt. Soon after, on January 5, 1957, he presented a solution for peace and stability in the Middle East to Congress. This “Eisenhower Doctrine” as many called it was signed on March 9, 1957 and allowed US troops to aid any Middle East nation that was facing Communist aggression. The final struggle in the Middle East was the Lebanon Crisis. On June 15, 1958, Eisenhower and his advisors discussed the growing crisis. A month later on July 15, US Marines were sent to the country, which feared it was about to be overthrown by the United Arab Republic. Also because of the end of the Korean War, more attention could be focused on troubles in Southeast Asia. The proximity of
7: countries in Southeast Asia caused problems to spread easily. Some of the places in Southeast Asia that Eisenhower dealt with included Vietnam, Taiwan, Formosa, and Japan. In Vietnam on May 7, 1953, Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietminh. This caused the Geneva Conference on Indochina to take place. The conference lasted from May 8 until July 21. On July 21, The Geneva Accords were signed. They established a ceasefire in Vietnam and divided Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel. They also decided that in two years, North and South Vietnam would be reunited with an election. Another important event in Southeast Asia was the signing of the Southeast Asia Defense Treaty on September 8, 1954. The US made several defense pacts in Southeast Asia. | One was signed with Taiwan on December 2, 1954, and another with Formosa on January 28, 1955. The final foreign policy with Southeast Asia during Eisenhower’s presidency involved Japan. After meeting with Japan’s Prime Minister Kishi on June 21, 1957, the US and Japan jointly decided that American troops would be taken out of Japan. Throughout his entire presidency, Eisenhower struggled for peace with the USSR. He made an attempt on July 21, 1955 at the Geneva Four-Power Conference when he announced his “Open Skies” proposition to the Premier of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev. This plan called for equal air reconnaissance over the US and USSR’s military installations. Although Khrushchev
8: immediately refused the offer, Eisenhower’s attempt was honorable. Almost a year later in June of 1956, Eisenhower consented to the use of U-2 spy planes over the USSR. After one of these planes was shot down, Eisenhower’s attempts for peace with the Soviet Union ceased. Unfortunately his problems with the country were not through. On January 1, 1959, Soviet-trained dictator Fidel Castro defeated the Batista regime in Cuba. On March 17, 1960 Eisenhower created an anti-Castro program that secretly took action against the dictator. Eisenhower finished his term with traveling abroad and spreading goodwill to places such as South Africa and the Far East. Also in his last year, he created the Commission on National Goals. The purpose of | the group was to “develop a broad outline of national objectives and program for next decade and longer.”