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S: Unit 3 Scrap Book

BC: The End

FC: Created By: Ike Forrester, Jacob Sparks, Antonio La Fratta, and Delaney Hilton

1: "There now his majesty can read my name without glasses. And he can double the reward on my head!." John Hancock

2: Section 1: People

4: George Washington | George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 He an American patriot. He is best known for being the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, administering over the writing of the Constitution, and for becoming the first President of the United States. He was also a commander of the colonial forces at the beginning of the French and Indian War. After the Revolutionary War, George Washington became the President of the Constitutional Convention and also became the first President of the United States. He preferred to be called “Mr. President” over other fancier titles. After retiring from his two-term presidential reign, he devoted much of his time to farming and other business interests of his. He died at his home on December 14, 1799.

6: King George the 3rd | King George the 3rd was born on June 4, 1738. His real name was George William Fredrick. He was the leader of the loyalists. He was the main single person that the American colonists hated and constantly pointed to as the cause of the American Revolution. King George the 3rd never wanted to give up on winning the American Revolution even after Parliament knew it was time to give up. King George the 3rd still remained the King of England for many years after the American Revolution. He went on to fight against Napoleon and the French Republic. At the height of his popularity in 1810, he was virtually blind. He died on January 29th, 1820.

8: Paul Revere | Paul Revere was born on January 1st, 1735. He was an American patriot. He is best known for warning the Continental Army that the British were approaching before the battles of Lexington and Concord. He also engraved the famous picture of the Boston Massacre and was one of the leaders of the Boston Tea Party. After the war, Paul Revere opened a hardware and homing goods store and opened a workshop for casting iron and brass to make money. He also supported protecting Boston during the War of 1812. He later died on May 10th, 1818.

10: Nancy Hart | Nancy Hart’s exact date of birth is unknown, but it is believed she was born around 1735. Others argue that she was born in 1747. She was an American patriot. Most of what is known about Nancy Hart comes from a famous story about her in which she shot two of several British soldiers after they demanded that she cook food for them. It is rumored that the other soldiers were hung when her husband and neighbors when they arrived at her house while she held them captive. It is also rumored that she was an unofficial Revolutionary War sniper and that she would enter camps of British soldiers disguised as an old man to gain military information. Shortly after the war, Nancy Hart became a Methodist Christian. One Georgia governor said that she “fought the Devil as manfully as she had fought the Tories.” In the late 1780’s, she moved to Brunswick, Georgia, where her husband died. In 1803, Nancy’s son took her to live with her relatives. She died there in 1830 and was buried in her family cemetery.

12: Governor James Wright | James Wright was born on May 8th, 1716. He sided with the loyalists. He was the 3rd and last royal governor of Georgia, appointed in 1860. Though he was popular among some of the colonists, he was arrested by rebels from Georgia in 1776. He returned to Georgia to govern Savannah for three and a half years after the British captured the city. He left Savannah in 1782 when the British evacuated the city. He was successful in helping to slow the revolutionary movement in Georgia. After the war, he returned to London where he served on a board of American loyalists seeking repayment for their losses in the Revolutionary War. He died at his house on November 20, 1785. Wrightsborough was later named for him.

14: Button Gwinnett | Button Gwinnett’s exact birthdate is unknown, but he is thought to have been born anywhere between 1732 and 1735. He was an American patriot. Being a respected person in Georgia, Gwinnett was appointed the commander of the continental militia in Georgia, a position he declined. He was elected to attend the Continental Congress and became one of Georgia’s three signers of the Declaration of Independence. He also unsuccessfully tried to protect Georgia’s southern border by invading Florida and ran for Governor of Georgia. He died three days after his duel in 1777 with his long standing political rival, Lachlan McIntosh. He died before the American Revolution ended.

16: Lyman Hall | Lyman Hall was born on April 12th, 1724. He was an American patriot. Being a strong supporter of revolutionary politics in Georgia, he received unwanted attention from Governor James Wright and positive attention from patriots. He was elected to the Continental Congress and given the task of supplying food and medicine for the Continental Army and also became one of the Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence. After the war, Lyman Hall was elected to the House of Assembly and eventually became the Governor of Georgia. After serving one more year in the House of Assembly and serving one year as a judge, he retired and went to his private affairs of developing agriculture in Georgia. He later died in 1790.

18: George Walton | George Walton was born in 1741. His exact date of birth is unclear. He was an American patriot. George Walton was elected secretary of the Georgia Provincial Congress and was also made the President of the Council of Safety. He served as a soldier in the Continental Army and also was a governor of Georgia. He was one of three Georgians to sign the Declaration of Independence. After the war, he was sent to work with the Cherokee nation in Tennessee. He was also appointed Chief Justice of his state and elected governor once more. He was also sent to serve in the United States Senate. He later retired and died in Augusta in 1804.

20: Thomas Paine | Thomas Paine was born on January 29th, 1737. He was an American patriot. He is best known for publishing his work Common Sense, a pamphlet that defended American Independence and criticized the British government and leadership. He is also known for writing The Crisis, a work that inspired the Continental Army. Paine’s plain language helped the American people realize that breaking free of Great Britain was the only option for America. Slightly before the American Revolution ended, Paine went to France to help promote the French Revolution through his pamphlet The Rights of Man. He was later imprisoned in France in 1793 and was freed in 1794 because of the effort of James Monroe, the United States Minister to France. He returned to America to find that his efforts to help the American Revolution had long been forgotten. He died in 1809 in New York.

22: Benjamin Rush | Benjamin Rush was born on December 24, 1775. He was an American patriot. Being active in the Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia, Rush attended the Continental Congress and became one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He also became Surgeon-General of part of the Continental Army. After he resigned from the position, he secretly campaigned for George Washington’s removal as head of the Continental Army. Once he was caught by Washington, he avoided any activities related in any way to the American Revolution. After the war, Rush was elected treasurer of the United States Mint, a position that he served until 1813. He continued his medical and teaching profession for the rest of his life. He also tried to bring about the abolition of slavery. He died in his house at the age of 68.

24: Section 2: Causes

26: On March 5 1770 a group of about a thousand colonists gathered in front of the custom house where a sentry for Britain hit a colonist that was tormenting the sentry. The colonists then gathered around the sentry. The sentry called for backup thus eight British soldiers and captain Preston arrived and took formation in front of the colonists. After trying to break up the mob one soldier was hit with a piece of wood by a colonist and fired into the crowd and then the rest of the soldiers proceeded to fire into the crowd but Captain Preston stopped them. Afterwards to please the crowds Governor Hutchinson arrested the soldiers and promised the people that there would be a trial. John Adams and Josiah Quincy took the defense of the soldiers and Preston. The soldiers went to trial in September and they and Captain Preston pleaded innocent. The eight men and Preston were tried separately and only two were found guilty. | This affected the colonies and threw them into an outrage because British troops fired into a crowd of unarmed citizens and most leaving untouched by punishment.

28: This act affected Georgia because Georgia couldn't print its newspaper. As a result of that Georgia colonists could not know what was going on in other colonies or in Georgia. | The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Ship's papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. The money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier near the Appalachian Mountains The actual cost of the Stamp Act was relatively small. What made the law so offensive to the colonists was not so much its immediate cost but the standard it seemed to set. In the past, taxes and duties on colonial trade had always been viewed as measures to regulate commerce, not to raise money. The Stamp Act, however, was viewed as a direct attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures. If this new tax were allowed to pass without resistance, the colonists reasoned, the door would be open for far more troublesome taxation in the future. | This affected the colonies because even though the tax itself wasn't that much money if they did not fight back it could lead to larger future taxation.

29: Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea were applied with the design of raising 40,000 a year for the administration of the colonies. The result was the resurrection of colonial hostilities created by the Stamp Act. Reaction assumed revolutionary proportions in Boston, in the summer of 1768, when customs officials impounded a sloop owned by John Hancock, for violations of the trade regulations. Crowds mobbed the customs office, forcing the officials to retire to a British Warship in the Harbor. Troops from England and Nova Scotia marched in to occupy Boston on October 1, 1768. Bostonians offered no resistance. Rather they changed their tactics. They established non-importation agreements that quickly spread throughout the colonies. British trade soon dried up and the powerful merchants of Britain once again interceded on behalf of the colonies. | The affect of this was that the colonies established a no importation agreement and didn't buy from the British. | THE TOWNSHED ACTS

30: On April 5, 1764, Parliament passed a modified version of the Sugar and Molasses Act (1733), which was about to expire. Under the Molasses Act colonial merchants had been required to pay a tax of six pence per gallon on the importation of foreign molasses. But because of corruption, they mostly evaded the taxes and undercut the intention of the tax — that the English product would be cheaper than that from the French West Indies. This hurt the British West Indies market in molasses and sugar and the market for rum, which the colonies had been producing in quantity with the cheaper French molasses. The First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer Lord Grenville was trying to bring the colonies in line with regard to payment of taxes. He had beefed up the Navy presence and instructed them to become more active in customs enforcement. Parliament decided it would be wise to make a few adjustments to the trade regulations. The Sugar Act reduced the rate of tax on molasses from six pence to three pence per gallon, while Grenville took measures that the duty be strictly enforced. The act also listed more foreign goods to be taxed including sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric and printed calico, and further, regulated the export of lumber and iron. The enforced tax on molasses caused the almost immediate decline in the rum industry in the colonies. The combined effect of the new duties was to sharply reduce the trade with Madeira, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and the French West Indies (Guadelupe, Martinique and Santo Domingo (now Haiti)), all important destination ports for lumber, flour, cheese, and assorted farm products. The situation disrupted the colonial economy by reducing the markets to which the colonies could sell, and the amount of currency available to them for the purchase of British manufactured goods. This act, and the Currency Act, set the stage for the revolt at the imposition of the Stamp Act.

31: The effect of this act was that the colonies boycotted these items to make Britain stop their taxes. | In March 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act to address the practical concerns of such a troop deployment. Under the terms of this legislation, each colonial assembly was directed to provide for the basic needs of soldiers stationed within its borders. Specified items included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider and candles. This law was expanded in 1766 and required the assemblies to billet soldiers in taverns and unoccupied houses. | The effect of this act was that many colonists didn't like having the soldiers in their home and requested it to be repealed | The Sugar and The Townshed acts | The Sugar and The Townshed Acts

33: Section 3: Events

34: The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the first battle of the revolution. It is often referenced to the "Shot Heard 'Round the World". When the British were on their way to Concord to intercept Revolutionary War Rebel Leaders they were stopped by three hundred minute men. THe British drove off the colonists, and continued marching. When they arrived in Concord, they found no rebel leaders and no supplies but instead, over a thousand angry colonists. The British were they beaten and driven away from the city.

35: Battle Of Lexington and Concord

36: The French arrived at Savannah declaring to the British holding the city, "Surrender or die." A few days after arrival, the French began firing but the gunmen were drunk and unable to fire correctly. Several days after this mishap, the ALlies directed an attack at night but began shooting one and other because it was dark. Finally, after suffering ships being destroyed, scurvy, and lack of food, the French and Americans attacked Savannah but the officers were inexperienced causing the difficult attack to be a failure. The French general would not surrender because of hi pride and instead allowed his men to be killed. LAter, after only an hour of attacking the French withdrew from the British' smaller forces, the French and COntinentals began arguing with one and other, this ended the Siege of Savannah the bloodiest battle during the American Revolution.

37: The Siege of Savannah

38: The Battle of Kettle Creek took place on Sunday February 14, 1779. This was a surprise attack against the Tories form the Continentals. The Tories had been winning but then their leader was killed causing mass confusion among the Loyalists. | The Battle Of Kettle Creek | THe Battle of Kettle Creek took place eight miles form Washington, Georgia.

39: This battle was meant more to be a random attack on the British, a surprise, but in the end it turned into full combat. | This battle was important due to the needed supplies and moral booster given to the COntinentals.

40: The Battle of Quebec

41: The battle of Quebec was an attempt by the Americans to take the city of Quebec on December 31, 1775. Due to the frozen river forcing the COntinetals to have no naval support, General Guy Carleton had to rely on a small force of regulars and the local militia. THen due to poor weather and timing, the attack went poorly causing over four hundred men to be captured along with many of the officers dead. Five months later, months full of fighting, the AMericans were forced to retreat because reinforcements for the British arrive on ships. THis was the Continentals Army's first military defeat.

42: This battle was the final straw in the war against the British; this siege is the reason we won the war. THe British, a few weeks before this battle , removed their navy form the area and the French navy took control. Lashimbo and Washington, both generals, brought together a force a myriad of siege artillery and over 16,000 men all located in Williamsburg.Cornwallis, a mear twenty four miles from the Continentals, had decided to set up his fighting forces in a European conventional war fare attack. | The Siege | The Siege

43: Including sixty five guns, trenches, and palisades, yet that night, they retreated, giving up their outer defenses and weaponry. Cornwallis was out numbered four to one and had pulled his men back to have enough men in Yorktown till reinforcements arrived. Within days, Yorktown was under heavy fire from the Continentals. | They continuously fired thirty-two pound cannon balls firing day and night. This continued for nine days. That night, a British fort was taken, ending the defensive line outside of Yorktown. Due to large numbers of desertions and the constant firing , the British surrendered. Due to illness, Cornwallis didn't surrender but sent his second in command instead. He gave his sword to the French for in the English' eyes , this had been a French victory. They wouldn't take it. Instead said that it belonged to Washington. ThisOne week after the surrender, reinforcements arrived from England but they were too late. | of Yorktown | of Yorktown

44: Section 4: A New Beginning

46: The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation were drafted by the continental congress from 1776 1777. It was finally ratified by congress in 1777. However the Articles of Confederation had many weaknesses, for one it gave far too much power to the separate states and not enough power to the central government. This weakness was a significant road block stopping the U.S. from becoming one united nation. For example, the central U.S. government could not have a national army or navy, they could not issue a national tax, and Congress lacked strong leader ship. The states carried almost all of the power; they could have their own currency, set taxes for other states, and if the U.S. congress decided to declare war the states had the right to stay out of it. So if war was ever declared by the U.S. during the time period when we were governed by the Articles of Confederation there was always the possibility that only the state of Rhode Island would fight for the U.S. As you can see these issues needed to be addressed and quickly before Rhode Island got angry.

48: The Constitution of the United States of America In May 1787, representatives from every state but Rhode Island met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. However simple revision would not do to unite the states into one unified country so the old ideas were scrapped and the Constitution of the United States was born. The U.S. Constitution was the first of its kind, a revolutionary new system of government run by the people, for the people. The Constitutions legendary first ten amendments the Bill of Rights gave citizens of the United States complete freedom to express themselves. The Constitution was also unique because it allowed itself to adapt as new problems arose. The governments set up by the Constitution divided power equally between the three branches of government witch were: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The Legislative branch of government known as Congress creates laws. The Executive branch is made up of the President and his cabinet approves laws and is in charge of national defense and foreign policy. The Judicial branch which contains the supreme court and is in indirect control of all of the courts in the nation they have the job of deciding if a law is constitutional or not. In this way not all branches of government has more power than another which keeps the U.S. from breaking out in civil war(mostly{just wait till unit 5}) GA signers of Constitution William Few and Abraham Baldwin

49: Abraham Baldwin | William Few

50: Georgia's first state constitution Georgia's first state constitution was ratified by the state government in May of 1777. The state constitution was changed from the previous bicameral legislature to a unicameral legislature. Most of the laws were based of the U.S. constitution however, the power of the state governor was extremely limited. This was because in the pas t Georgians disliked their previous governors, this was because their last governor James Wright was a loyalist and governed the city of Savannah while the British controlled it. Georgia's new constitution got rid of Georgia's original eight parishes and replaced them with 8 all new counties. The new counties were; Wilkes, Richmond, Burke, Effingham, Chatham, Liberty, Glynn, and Camden. All of these counties were located on the Atlantic coast, and bordered the Savannah River.

52: Cited Sources used by:(in order of importance) Jacob Sparks(Team Leader) Delaney Hilton (Happy Birthday) Antonio LaFratta(proud owner of The Son Of Neptune) Ike Forrester (No Caption Necessary )

53: Works Cited "United states constitution."Wikipedia. Wiki media, 02 10 2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. London,Bonnie. Georgia and the American Experience. Georgia: Clairmont Press, 2005. Print. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. n.p. The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and University of Georgia Press, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011 n.p.. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. “William few.” Wikipedia. Wiki media, 1 9 2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Few> “Abraham Baldwin” Wikipedia. Wiki media, 1 9 2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Baldwin > “Articles of Confederation” Wikipedia. Wiki media, 1 9 2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation > n.p.. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. . n.p.. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington>. n.p.. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Hart>. n.p.. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Revere>. n.p. The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and University of Georgia , n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-669>. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-669>. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/gwinnett.htm >. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/walton.htm >. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/hall.htm >. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.ushistory.org/paine/ >. n.p. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d.. Web. 5-6 Oct. 2011. < http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/rush.htm >.

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