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Georgia Studies ABC Book

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Georgia Studies ABC Book - Page Text Content

FC: ABC Book | Gabby Tanjuatco Class C | December 15,2012

1: A | The Archaic Indians existed in Georgia from 8000 BC to 1000 BC. They were the first to make and use property and also, the first tribe to fish. Their cultural period is divided into 3 parts: early, middle, and late. The early Archaic Indians were large game hunters for the most part until the bigger animals became extinct. They also moved each season to find food. On the other hand, the middle Archaic Indians moved less frequently because food was easier to obtain. It was during this time that they began to catch fish for food. Small groups joined together to form camps. Lastly, the late Archaic Indians lived in permanent villages. They used tools such as axes to clear trees and brush and clay containers for cooking, serving, and storing food. | Archaic Indians | SS8H1a - Unit 2 |

2: B | The Blue Ridge Region is located in the Northeast corner of Georgia. This region is a part of both the Blue Ridge Mountains and Appalachian Mountains. Brasstown Bald, the highest point in Georgia, is located there along with Springer Mountain, Tallulah Gorge, and Amicalola Falls. This region gets both the most snow and rainfall in Georgia. However, it is a bad place for farming because of the climate and terrain. Tourism, on the other hand, is a big industry in the Blue Ridge Region. | Blue Ridge Region | SS8G1b - Unit 1 |

3: C | The Chattahoochee River starts in northern Georgia from Lake Lanier and flows down to the southwestern part of the state. It forms the border between Georgia and Alabama and is also the primary water source for Atlanta. Georgia's rivers, such as the Chattahoochee, are among our most important natural resources, providing drinking water, hydroelectric power, transportation, habitat for wildlife, and opportunities for recreation. | Chattahoochee River | SS8G1c - Unit 1 |

4: D | Austin Dabney was a slave from Georgia. He joined the military instead of his master and fought at the Battle of Kettle Creek. It was during this battle that he saved Elijah Clark's life. However, Austin was also wounded in the process. While injured, he was cared for by the family of a fellow soldier, Giles Harris. At the end of the war, he was set free and given 50 acres of land, but to repay the hospitality they showed him, he worked for the Harris family for the rest of his life. He even payed for the college education of one of their sons. | Austin Dabney | SS8H3b - Unit 3 |

5: E | The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862 after the battle of Antietam. It freed all slaves in rebelling states, but not border states in fear that they would secede also. The proclamation went into effect on January 1, 1863 and had some major results. With the issuing of this legislation, there was strong African American support of the union and more importantly, Europe stopped helping the South which was what the South was counting on to win the war. | Emancipation Proclamation | SS8H6b - Unit 5 |

6: F | William Few was a self taught lawyer who moved from North Carolina to Augusta in the mid 1700s. He immediately became active in the Patriot movement against the British government. During the revolution, he was a member of the committee that wrote the 1777 state constitution. Few also was a state surveyor and Indian commissioner, a member of the Georigia Assembly, and a delegate to the Continental Congress along with being one of the Georgia signers of the US constitution. | William Few | SS8H4b - Unit 3 |

7: G | Button Gwinnett was born in England and arrived in Georgia in 1765 when he was thirty years old. He failed in a career as a merchant and as a planter, but succeeded as a politician. Gwinnett began his service in the Commons House of Assembly in 1769. When the war began, he was chosen by the Georgia provincial congress as commander of the Georgia Continental Battalion. Later, he stepped down to accept a role in the Second Continental Congress and became one of the Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence. | Button Gwinnett | SS8H3b - Unit 3 |

8: H | Hernando De Soto was a Spanish explorer who came to Georgia looking for gold. Although he failed finding any gold, he had a big impact on the Native Americans of Georgia. De Soto and his men killed many of the Native Americans since they lacked the guns, horses, and armor that the Spanish had. Not only did they die from fighting, but also from the diseases that De Soto's men gave to them. | Hernando DeSoto | SS8H1b - Unit 2 |

9: I | The international cotton expo was created by Henry Grady in his efforts to make a "new south". The 1881 expo was supposed to show off the south's new industries and lure northern investors. At the 6,000 exhibits of the Exhibition, visitors saw new machinery and learned how cotton was mad into marketable products. | International Cotton Expo | SS8H7a - Unit 6 |

10: J | John Marshall was the US Supreme Court Justice who ruled on the Worchester v. Georgia Case. Worchester was suing Georgia for wrongfully imprisoning him and actually won. Worchester was a missionary trying to convert the Indians, but was jailed after he refused to sign an oath of allegiance to the governor when he went into Indian territory. Marshall ruled that putting them in jail was unconstitutional and ordered their immediate release. He also said that their law, not Georgia's law, was enforces within their boundaries thus giving Georgia no right. However, president Jackson refused to enforce John's decision. | John Marshall | SS8H5d - Unit 4 |

11: K | Ku Klux Klan is a terrorist organization founded by General Nathan Bedford, who threatened all those who they considered their enemies, especially African Americans. They planned violent attacks and used intimidation to control African Americans even went as far as murdering them. These white supremacists and segregationists tried to keep African Americans from exercising their new rights, especially to vote. Also against Jews, the KKK even lynched a man named Leo Frank and took pictures with his hanging body. | Ku Klux Klan | SS8H6c - Unit 5 |

12: L | Leo Frank, a Jewish man, was the manager of a pencil factory in Marietta. In 1913, the dead body of young Mary Phagan, a worker in the factory, was found in the basement of the factory by a janitor. Even with little evidence, Leo was charged with the murder only based upon the fact that he was the last person to see her, he was Jewish, and Jim Connelly, the janitor, claims he saw Frank murdering Mary. However, the thing was that Jim's story was always changing even big parts of the story would suddenly change. In the end, Frank ends up being sentenced to death . The governor of Georgia then changes his sentence to life in prison. Outraged, citizens of Marietta decide to take matters into their own hands. They take him from jail, lynch him, and then take pictures with his dead body. | Leo Frank | SS8H7a - Unit 6 |

13: M Walt Whitman | The Missouri Compromise was made by Senator Henry Clay to help settle the debate about Missouri entering the union as a slave state and disrupting the balance. He suggested that Missouri enter as a slave state and have Maine split from Massachusetts to become a separate free state. Also, it established a line spanning across the Louisiana territory to avoid further confusion making all land south of the line slave and all land north free. Both accepted the compromise in 1820. | Missouri Compromise | SS8H6a - Unit 5 |

14: N | Nancy Hart was considered to be a legend of back country fighting. As the story is told, it says that six loyalist soldiers came to her house demanding food. As she cooked for them, she sent her daughter out to supposedly get water but really she blew a conch shell to warn her husband and the other patriots to come. While they ate, she began removing their guns. Realizing what she was doing, one soldier jumped to his feet only to be taken prisoner. Even killing three of them, Hart waited for her husband to come and the remaining soldiers were hanged. She is the only woman with a Georgia county named after her. | N | Nancy Hart | SS8H3b - Unit 3 |

15: O | James Oglethorpe was born to a wealthy and influential family. He then became a crusader for the rights of those less fortunate. His efforts on behalf of the "working poor" led him to found a colony where such people could go to start a new life. He was the only trustee to come to Georgia. | James Oglethorpe | SS8H2a - Unit 2 |

16: The Piedmont Region is located in the middle of Georgia and is home to half the state's population. This is where Atlanta is located and is best known for their red clay and gentile hills. This region has a granite base with the the exposed part known as Stone Mountain. As the second largest region, the Piedmont covers 30% of Georgia's land area and is known as the "foot of the mountains." | P | Piedmont Region | SS8G1b - Unit 1 |

17: Sequoyah developed the Cherokee syllabary making it the Cherokee's first written language. Comprised of 85 symbols, it took over twelve years complete. He even spent six months teaching it to the Cherokee people. By 1830, 90% of the Cherokee people could read and write thanks to Sequoyah. | Q | Sequoyah | SS8H5d - Unit 4 |

18: R | The Ridge and Valley region is located in the northern part of the sate in between the Appalachian Plateau and the Blue Ridge regions. This region is known for its apples and carpet. It has high narrow ridges with low open valley hence the name, and also forests making farming limited. Elevations range from 700 to 1000 feet in the Ridge and Valley region. | Ridge and Valley Region | SS8G1b - Unit 1 |

19: The Stamp Act was passed in 1765 and required stamps to be put on all printed documents and materials. To get the stamps you had to pay taxes. This made people throughout the colonies really mad. They believed that they were being taxed without a say in the matter. Protests started in Georgia. However, Georgia was the only colony who actually sold stamps. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766. | S | Stamp Act | SS8H3a - Unit 3 |

20: T | Tom Watson was a well known trial lawyer. He supported the agricultural way of life and liberal causes like public education and the ending of the convince lease system. In 1882, he was elected to Georgia's General assembly and was particularly concerned about the welfare of African American farmers. Then in 1891, Tom was elected to the US house do representatives as a democrat. Again in 1891, Watson joined the populist party who represented the common man and everyday farmer. He is most famous for his Rural Free Delivery Bill. However in 1905, Watson returned to the Democratic Party and was now against all minority rights. | Tom Watson | SS8H7a - Unit 6 |

21: U | The University of Georgia was chartered in 1785 by Abraham Baldwin. It also was the nation's first state funded university meaning Georgia's government helped fund the university and provide the land. The University of Georgia was then opened in 1801 but only to white male students. | University of Georgia | SS8H5a - Unit 4 |

22: V | The supreme court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, made "separate but equal" the law of the land. It said that keeping the races separate was legal as long as equal facilities were provided. Homer Plessy, the suer, challenged Louisiana's law after he was removed from a first-class railroad car, even though he was only one- eighth African American and seven-eighths white in heritage. With this ruling, racial segregation became established by law and custom. | Plessy v. Ferguson | SS8H7b - Unit 6 |

23: W | Walt Whitman | James Wright | James Wright, a loyalist, was the third, and final, royal governor of Georgia. The forty-four-year-old was a very good leader and truly cared about the prosperity of the colony. He finished the palisades and defenses around the colony. Under his rule, Georgia's population grew and the colony prospered. | SS8H2c - Unit 2 |

24: X | Alexander Stevens was a Georgia legislature, who initially opposed sucession, yet became the Vice President of the Confederacy when Georgia voted to secede. Originally a lawyer, it wasn't until he was twenty-four years old that he was elected to the state legislature. After being in the legislature for a few years, he ran for and was elected to the US House of Representatives. Belonging to the Whig party, Stevens believed in a strong national government.He opposed state nullification of national laws and defended the institution of slavery. | Alexander Stevens | SS8H6a - Unit 5 |

25: The Yazoo Land Fraud was when four companies bribed Georgia government officials to sell them land for about one and a half cents per acre that didn't even belong to Georgia. The future states of Mississippi and Alabama was where the land was located regarding the land fraud. All lawmakers involved were voted out of office and the land became the property of the federal government with Georgia's boundary set at the Chattahoochee River. | Y | Yazoo Land Fraud | SS8H5b - Unit 4 |

26: Z | Alonzo Herndon was originally born a slave. However in 1905, he bought ATL Mutual Insurance for around $100, even though he knows nothing about insurance. Alonzo then hires African American college students, who actually know about insurance, to help hum run the company. Today it is called ATL Life and is now worth over $200 million. When he died, he was the richest African American in the United States. | Alonzo Herndon | SS8H7c - Unit 6 |

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