S: The Gold Rush
BC: The Australian Gold Rush
FC: The Gold Rush | By Alexandra Finlay-Jones
1: Australian Gold Rush The Australian gold rush went from 1851 till 1865. People came from all over the world to look for gold... It says that they had GOLD FEVER!
2: Back-breaking work (A very difficult type of mining) | Shaft mining was very hard work. The miners would build a giant hole in the ground which went straight down. They would bring up buckets from the mine and look to see if there was any GOLD!!!!
3: The windlass is a pole across the top of the hole, with a handle that could be turned to wind up the rope holding the bucket. | A bit more detail on-Shaft mining! First the miners would measure out and mark a square claim on the ground. Next using shovels and pick the miners would dig a shaft which went straight down. The soil was put in a wooden bucket and hauled up by a rope, then to be washed to find the gold. Some miners would have a tool called a windlass. The windlass would be put over the shaft. | A windlass
4: Alluvial mining | Alluvial mining is mining where you look for gold on the surface of the ground. You would pan through dirt and wash it to see if you have any gold.
5: As more miners cam to the gold fields, the gold near and on the surface had run out. By the end of the 1850's most of the easily mined gold in Victoria and New South Wales had already been dug up. There was still plenty of gold but beneath the ground. Large gold companies took over mining work. They hired miners who dug shafts hundreds of metres deep. Expensive machines broke up the rock and separated the gold. | Reef Mining
6: Going to the Gold fields People came from all over the world looking for gold. The would come on horses, camels, most people just came by walking. | What is gold? Gold is a precious yellow metallic element, highly malleable and ductile, and not subject to oxidation and corrosion.
7: What you would need If you are in search of gold here is a list of what you will need. .A miners permit .metal pick .shovel .bucket .cradle .wind glass .pan .food .water shelter .blankets .
8: In the 1800s clothes would show how wealthy you are but not in the gold fields. When people went to the gold fields they would wear clothes that were comfortable and hard wearing. Men whore lo0sse and brightly colored tops made out of cotton which would be open at the neck. Then would also wear pants like leggings that go down to the knee. They would also wear long boots. The ladies would wear layered Hetti coat and hooped skirts. | Clothes
9: In the gold fields people would bring flour to make bread they would get sheep to eat as meat and some people made little vegetable gardens to have fresh food. To drink people would have fresh water sources but others would drink tea. alcohol was banned in the gold fields, but still miners would get drunk. Most people did not have much to drink so this does not apply. | Food
10: After dark, at the diggings there was thousands of campfires. People would cook their evening meals out side their tents. By 1853 many miners built mud-brick chimneys against one end of their tents to keep them warm and allow them to cook when it was raining. | Heating and Cooking
11: Home on the diggings | The poorest diggers slept on the ground out in the open. But wealthy miners brought a tent to the gold fields. Others slug blankets or canvas over gum-tree branches and held the sides down with a wooden peg. A trench was dug all around so water could not get flooding in during storms.
12: By Late 1852, there were 12000 children in the Victorian Gold fields. As The number of children grew schoolhouses were built. Children could attend from the ages of 7 to 12, most people stayed for 1 to 2 years. | In the 1850's only 1 out of every 4 children could read and write. Schools were not free, and poor families could not afford the fees. However some people were willing to pay. | Education
13: Children started school at the age of 7. They learned reading, writing and arithmetic in the first class. In the higher grades they were taught geography, history and grammar. Handwriting was also a important job. Young children wrote with chalk or lead pencils on flat pieces of stone called slates. Older children learned to use a metal nib pan dipped in ink. Blots or smudges were not allowed. Teachers were very strict. Children would be punished if they got a wrong answer or if they had untidy work. Writing lines was one of their punishments. Naughty boys were hit with a long wooden stick called a cane. Five or ten cuts were given on the bottom or hand. Naughty girls were sometimes caned or slapped on the hands or legs.
14: A Day in the life at a gold fields school | I rush to the school house work has already started. Sister Jaime tels me to sit in the corner till the lesson is over. Finally 10 o'clock the lessons is ove. But sister Jaime keeps me behind I get the 10 cuts, on my hand with the cane. After break it was spelling we had 100 speedy words test. I got 1 wrong I had to write lines saying, I am dumb I should be smarter. Soon after it was maths. It was a review, every thing was going fine until i see a spot of ink on my work. I quickly tear it off so no one sees. Finally the school day was over and I could just rush home and cry to my sister.
15: Hands and nails must be clean. Any dirty children will be sent home | Children must carry a handkerchief at all times. | Boys must remove their caps before entering a classroom | The Rules | A child must not speak without the teachers permission
16: Law and order | Crime was normally limited to drunken fights and theft. Alcohol was banned by law at the gold fields. But some tents would sell it secretly. Drinking and fighting were the common problems, especially at night. Miners slept with bags of gold under their heads to keep them safe from thieves. Bush rangers lurked in the bush, but the diggings were mostly free of any serious crime.
17: The Rules | 1. Licenses to be carried t all times 2. Only one claim per person 3. Groups of miners to work on only one claim at a time 4. Claims to be only 8x8 feet square 5. Claims are to be worked on every day except Sunday 6. No working on Sundays
18: Diggers would tell stories or share memories around the camp fire. Some miners would play the violin or flutes, or sand folk songs. Some people would shot up gunshots in the air. | Gambling Two up was the favorite gambling game. Diggers bet a sum of money on whether 2 pennies tossed up in the air would land on heads,tails or a head and a tail. Miners also played card games like poker. Soon miners would start betting their horses. Boxing saloons were set up in tents. Brave diggers would challenge champions, audiences would pay to watch. | Entertainment
19: Here is one of the songs they sang. | The miner he goes and changes his cloths And makes his way to the shaft For each man well knows he's going below To put in his eight hours of graft With his calico cap and his old flannel shirt His pants with strap round his knee His boots watertight and his candle alight His crib and his billy of tea. The platman to the driver will knock four and one The ropes to the wind glass will strain As one shift comes up another goes down And working commences again
20: Glossary | anvils- heavy iron blocks baccy- slang term for tobacco bayonets- blades attached to the end of rifles bob- slang term for English money boles- drums or barrels of windlasses. colony- area settled by a group of people corrode- break down or wear away crib- frame work lining a mineshaft furnace- a very hot oven graft- very hard work mullock- rubbish left over when gold has been removed from the ground ore- mineral/rock containing metal shaft- opening or passage leading to a mine