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Great Leaders of the 20th Century

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Great Leaders of the 20th Century - Page Text Content

S: Great Leaders of Modern History

BC: Published in 2012

FC: Great Leaders of Modern History | MATTHEW LYONS JAY HICKS DREW KINCAID

1: Great Leaders of Modern History | By Matthew Lyons, Jay Hicks, and Drew Kincaid


4: “We make a living by what we get, but make a life by what we give” (Churchill). Churchill’s life could be summed up by this quote. He took on responsibilities that made Great Britain and the world a better place. Sir Winston Churchill, one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century, guided Great Britain through some of its darkest times and continues to influence world leaders and politics today. | "You have enemies? Good. That means you've | 4 Biography of Winston Churchill

5: Churchill’s life was not easy, but he faced his troubles head on and conquered all obstacles he faced. Sir Winston Churchill was born in a coat closet November 30, 1874, two months premature (Humes 9). “Growing up [Winston’s parents] were more focused on politics and London social life than him or his brother, John" (Humes 11). His mother, Jennie, was “neglectful” as a mother, choosing to go out rather than spend time with her son, but he loved her “like the evening star at a distance” (Humes 9). Winston’s father, Lord Randolph, shaped Winston into the man he grew up to be because of the neglect he showed towards him (Humes 9). “[Because of an affair] Lord Randolph and Jennie became social outcasts,” and were banished from many parlors (Humes 11). Since Lord Randolph did not go out to many parties or parlors, this “triggered his transformation from social dilettante to political maverick” (Humes 11). | stood up for something, sometime in your life." | Matthew Lyons 5

6: At age 7 Winston was sent to St. George’s boarding school. He was often punished for poor grades, bad behavior, or disobedience and routinely had bruises (Humes 12-13). On a visit home, Winston’s bruises were seen by his nanny and he was moved to a new school in Brighton where the beatings by the headmaster still occurred (Humes 13). | After boarding school, Churchill began applying for the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, the British equivalent to West Point. He failed the entrance exam twice before making it on the third and final attempt. (Humes 21). “For Churchill, Sandhurst was the start of manhood,” cutting ties with his childhood and leaving behind his rough upbringing (Humes 22). Unlike boarding school, Winston excelled at the military academy finishing 20th out of 130 (Humes 22). | "Short words are best and the old | 6 Biography of Winston Churchill

7: Churchill’s first military experience after graduation was in the Cuban revolution, as an observer for the Spanish army (Humes 25). Before he sailed for Cuba, Churchill stopped in New York City to visit Bourke Cockran, a congressman and his mother’s cousin. Thus “began a mentorship that lasted nearly 30 years” (Humes 24).” For Churchill, Bourke Cockran was the father he always wanted” (Humes 24). Here Churchill learned how to improve his public speaking for which he would later become known (Humes 25). “Once Churchill returned to England from Cuba, he was notified that his unit was being requested in India” (Humes 26). Winston was glad to hear he was being sent to India saying, “I want to seek adventure, find glory, and write about it.” Instead of playing cards or polo like the rest of the officers, Churchill began teaching himself history, economics, and philosophy as if he was at the top England college (Humes 26). When war broke out on the Indian frontline, Churchill joined and led his battalion to victory (Humes 28). Churchill realized “he did not want to be a soldier; he wanted to be a politician” and “follow in his father’s footsteps to the House of Commons.” (Humes 27). Churchill “decided to write a book so he could afford to leave the army and join parliament,” his book The Story of the Malakand, described the war in India and became a top seller back home in England (Humes 28-29). | words when short are best of all." | Matthew Lyons 7

8: In 1889, Churchill ran for parliament. His focus was not on what the British people were looking for and he finished third out of four (Humes 29). Loss in hand, Churchill was hired to cover the Boer War (Humes 29). He snuck onto a military train so he could cover the story before anyone else, but the train was attacked. Churchill organized the troops to return fire and clear the tracks of a broken cart (Humes 31). During the conflict Churchill was captured by the Boers (Humes 31). With luck, he managed to sneak his way back to the British frontline, and “personally lead the march to take control of the prison he was kept at” (Humes 31). Churchill returned to England as a war hero and a refocused outlook on the issues that faced British citizens. In 1890 he was easily elected to parliament (Humes 31). | "Courage is what it takes speak; | 8 Biography of Winston Churchill

9: “On Churchill’s third day in parliament he stood and gave a speech, something that took his father three months to do” (Humes 33). This irked his fellow party members and put him in “bad graces,” which prompted him to switch parties in the middle of a parliament session (Humes 35). Churchill was a leader in parliament and pushed “revolutionary welfare legislation.” He began to gain more respect (Humes 38) and earned his first cabinet position in 1908 on the Board of Trade (“More” 1). Churchill was known to speak his mind in a straight forward manner. He even spoke out against the House of Lords saying their ability to veto anything parliament passed was unjust. Surprisingly, the House of Lords agreed and removed that power (Humes 44). This outspoken characteristic earned Churchill the title of War Minister in late 1911. His first order was to completely redo the Royal Navy, which caused many people to question him (Humes 45). He also created the “first fledging air force in the world” (Humes 46). During this period, Churchill was given command of a battalion on a nonaggressive front. He began thinking how one could cross “no-man’s land” between the two trenches and came up with the idea of an “armored land-ship with tracks” and the tank was born (Humes 49-52). | courage is also what it takes to listen." | Matthew Lyons 9

10: After the victory of World War one, Churchill began building a bigger name for himself. His next assignment was to calm Ireland and the rebel uprising (Humes 53). He used his great oratory skills to stop a civil war in Ireland and create peace between England and Ireland (Humes 54-55). After a two year hiatus Churchill was back in parliament serving as the Chancellor, which was equivalent to the Vice President of America, but with the added responsibilities of “Secretary of the Treasury, head of the IRS, budget director, and chairman of the Federal Reserve” (Humes 63). Even though Churchill is often referred to as the worst Chancellor in British history, this did not stop him from being re-elected to parliament (Humes 65). | "I have nothing to offer but | 10 Biography of Winston Churchill

11: Churchill began to lose popularity in parliament as he continually spoke out against Adolf Hitler (Humes 72). He begged parliament to produce more war goods to in preparation to fight Hitler, but many wanted to do the opposite and “disarm” and create peace with Hitler (Humes 74). In 1938, when Germany invaded Poland, people altered their view of Churchill and decided he was a “very wise man that should be treated with the utmost respect” (Humes 76-78). In 1939, the British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, resigned. Chamberlains resignation left King George VI to choose the next Prime Minister. The King chose Winston Churchill to rally Britain and the rest of Europe against the Nazis and Hitler (Humes 83-85). After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Churchill went to the United States to convince President Roosevelt and Congress to make removing Hitler their number one priority. He received a standing ovation from Congress (Humes 100-113). With the help of the United States, the allies were able to win the war and keep the world free from Hitler’s rule. | blood, toil, tears and sweat." | Matthew Lyons 11

12: After World War II, Churchill began to speak out against communism and Stalin more and more calling the Soviet Union an “Iron Curtain.” These speeches were not approved of by many politicians, especially in the United States and England (Humes 125-127). Churchill also wanted a European family that was to begin with England, France, and Germany (Schama 1). Winston Churchill ran for Prime Minister one last time in 1951 and won by just a few votes (Humes 130-131). For all his service, leadership, and impact on the world, Queen Elizabeth made Churchill a Knight of the Garter, earning him the new title, Sir Winston Churchill (Humes 138). In 1955, Winston Churchill retired from politics (Humes 139). | "Attitude is a little thing | 12 Biography of Winston Churchill

13: After series of strokes and bad health, Sir Winston Churchill passed away January 24, 1965 (Humes 151). During his funeral people did not mourn his death, but saluted and remembered the greatness of such a noble man (Humes 145). Churchill left behind a legacy as one of the greatest political leaders in history. Had it not been Churchill, who begged and pleaded with Parliament to stop Hitler, the world we live in today would be very different (“Hero” 2, Maitland 1). Winston Churchill’s legacy includes 44 books, 800 articles and speeches (Hutchison 19), Honorary Citizen of the United States (Humes 148), Man of the Year (1941) and Man of the Half Century (1950), as well as Number One Leader of the New Millennium by Times Magazine (Hutchison 10). Churchill has also been graced with the title of the “Greatest Britain ever” by a BBC pole and the “All time inspirational hero” by an AOL poll (Hutchison 10). He is also the “second most written about person in the world, behind Jesus Christ” (Maitland 1). However, it is Churchill’s leadership qualities and his “ability to inspire passion and his power of communication” that has left the greatest impact of all (Hutchison 24). | that makes a big difference." | Matthew Lyons 13

14: "Never, never, never give up." | Winston Churchill has forever changed the world as we know it. He single handedly brought together western Europe into a unified family and strengthened the bond between Great Britain and the United States. He has changed modern politics and warfare. In addition, Winston Churchll popularized patriotism, the pride and love one has for their country. | 14 Biography of Winston Churchill

15: "We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give." -Winston Churchill


18: Mohandas K. Gandhi was one of the most infamous, controversial, and influential leaders of the 20th century. His passion for his beliefs of nonviolence allowed him to start movements across the world, such as the civil rights movement in South Africa and the strive for independence in India. This once unknown method of rallying ignited an inferno of change still used in today’s world. However, the “father” of nonviolent political activism struggled through many conflicts like any other person. Yet because of his dedication and strong heart, Mohandas Gandhi succeeded in becoming the spokesperson for the world yearning for change. | "Freedom is not worth having if it does | 18 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

19: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in the coastal town of Porbandar in western India on October 2nd, 1869 (Furbee 14). He was the fourth child of Karamchand Gandhi, a prime minister to the raja of a few small city-states, and Purtlibia (Mohandas 1). Because his dad held such a high political office, Gandhi’s wealthy family lived in one of the higher castes (“Mohandas” 1). “In 1883, when he was just thirteen, the boy was obliged to marry a girl named Kasturbai, who was also only thirteen. In keeping with Hindu tradition, Mohandas’s and Kasturbai’s parents had arranged the match back when the two were seven years old” (Furbee 20). During his teenage years, Gandhi experienced his first real emotional pain because of the stress in the young marriage (Furbee 21). In 1885, when Gandhi was at the young age of sixteen, his father passed away, and shortly later, Gandhi’s newborn baby died after only a few days (Furbee 21). “Because of his firstborn’s premature death, the young man believed that this was God’s way of saying that children should not marry so young; for the rest of his life, he voiced his disapproval of this tradition, which he had been forced to follow” (Furbee 21). | not include the freedom to make mistakes." | Jay Hicks 19

20: Although Gandhi wanted to study medicine, it was beneath his caste level, and was forced by his parents to study law instead (“Mohandas” 1). Before leaving India to study law in England in September 1888, Mohandas promised his community that he would stay true to the Indian customs while abroad (“Mohandas” 1). In fact, Gandhi stayed as a vegetarian and never fully became accustomed to the English lifestyle (Mohandas 1). After finding a group of vegetarians in England, Mohandas gained a new outlook and satisfaction with the Hindu religion (Furbee 24). As Gandhi began to explore the Bhagavad Gita, he started taking Hinduism seriously for the first time (Furbee 24). | "Strength does not come from physical | 20 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

21: However, Gandhi did not stay in England for long. “In 1893, when a group of Muslim Indian businessmen from Porbandar offered Gandhi a job as a low-level lawyer in Britain’s colony of Natal in South Africa, he jumped at the chance to make a fresh start” (Furbee 30). While his intentions were to stay in South Africa for only a year, he altogether stayed in this region of the world for over 20 years (Lal 2). Because of the horrible treatment to Indians in South Africa, Gandhi decided to step up and fight the situation (Furbee 34). In 1894, Mohandas agreed to work with a group of Indian leaders fight a proposed law that would take away an Indian’s voting rights in South Africa, and formed the organization Natal Indian Congress (Furbee 35). Gandhi circulated petitions against this proposal and received over ten thousand signatures, but was still unsuccessful in stopping the law. However, he did succeed in uniting the Indian community in South Africa (Furbee 36). “[The] NIC named Gandhi as its secretary, the organization’s highest office” (Furbee 36). Gandhi worked the next months tirelessly on very little sleep in order to fulfill the demands of his new position (Furbee 36). | capacity. It comes from an indomitable will." | Jay HIcks 21

22: In 1896, Gandhi returned to India for some time to deliver speeches about his witnesses in Africa, but eventually brought his wife and kids back to South Africa. During this time, the whites received news of Gandhi’s rallying in India and upon Gandhi’s arrival, formed an angry mob, and attempted to murder him (“Mohandas” 1). Yet, Gandhi ignored these violent acts against him and lived a simple life on a farm as he worked a menial job for unpaid boarders. He often fasted and voluntarily lived in poverty (“Mohandas” 1). “In South Africa Gandhi first coined the term Satyagraha to signify his theory and practice of non-violent resistance. He described himself preeminently as a votary or seeker or satya, or truth, which could not be attained other than through ahisma, or non-violence, and brahmacharya, meaning striving towards God” (Lal 2). In 1907, Gandhi began to rally again as he urged Indians in South Africa to protest against a law requiring the “registration and fingerprinting of all Indians” (“Mohandas” 2). In return, the South African government threw Gandhi in jail for two months, releasing him only after he agreed to voluntary registration (“Mohandas” 2). During his last moments in South Africa, Gandhi lead movements for a law declaring Indian marriages valid and the abolition of a tax targeted on Indians (“Mohandas” 2). Pleased with his completed work in Africa, Gandhi returned to India in 1915. After this, a short trip to Europe became the only time Gandhi left India, because of his deep focus on India’s struggle for independence (Lal 2). | "You must be the change you | 22 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

23: Gandhi believed that once he returned to India, he would begin starting similar reforms against the British-controlled Indian government, like in South Africa. Yet, his first few months in India were peaceful and undisturbed (Furbee 54). Mohandas traveled around India in its remote corners, only giving speeches that would not stir up any trouble from the government (Furbee 55). “Because Gandhi had come to dress and live so simply and modestly, almost like a traditional Hindu holy man, more and more Indians began viewing him as kind of a saint” (Furbee 56). Soon, Gandhi gained the name Mohatma, meaning Great Soul, which is a name only the greatly, holy obtain (Furbee 56). However, Gandhi refused to accept the recognition, because he thought of himself as being like everyone else (Furbee 56). | want to see in the world." | Jay Hicks 23

24: Gandhi's beliefs and feelings towards freedom could not hold back. “No longer satisfied to remain silent on political matters, [Gandhi] longed to lead the Indian masses on a mission, namely to end British rule in their country” (Furbee 58). Gandhi became involved in many protests and rallies in the next few years, such as at Champaran in Bihar (Lal 2). At Champaran, about a million peasant farmers were forced into paying high rent to their landlords, and were beaten if they did not give in to the landlords (Furbee 58). After learning about this situation, Gandhi brought in numerous teachers and doctors to educate the young and treat the sick. Meanwhile, Gandhi tried to settle an agreement with the landlords using his nonviolence techniques, and was eventually successful in having the owners lower the rent (Furbee 59). Perhaps his most famous was Gandhi starving himself to death if his demands were not met (Furbee 59). In 1919, Gandhi planned a non-violent opposition protest against the British Raji’s Rowlatt Act, which allowed the British to arrest Indians without a warrant (Szczepanski 2). | "Whatever you do will be insignificant, | 24 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

25: In the midst of the peaceful protest, three prominent English businessmen were killed by a mob, in which the British retaliated with the dispatch of a high military commander, General Dyer, to become in charge of the protest (Furbee 63). General Dyer issued a proclamation banning all assembly and announced it to some parts of the city, but not others. Many who did not know about the new proclamation, some 20,000 people, peacefully rallied in a vacant city lot (Furbee 63). When Dyer arrived at the scene, he ordered his men to shoot, in all killing almost 400 Indians and wounding over a thousand more (Furbee 63). “Following the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi responded by not cooperating with British courts, stores, and schools” (“Mohandas” 3). Gandhi also urged all Indians to start producing their own clothes, in hopes to build an independent economy among Indians (“Mohandas” 3). The Indian people eagerly stood up with Gandhi and the Indian National Congress (INC) to help India gain its independence from Great Britain (Furbee 64). | but it is very important that you do it." | Jay Hicks 25

26: Gandhi did not stop. “In early 1930, as the nationalist movement was revised, the Indian National Congress, the permanent body of nationalist opinion, declared that it would now be satisfied with nothing short of Independence” (Lal 3). Gandhi sent a letter to the Viceroy on March 2nd demanding independence, or else he would break the salt laws, which restricted Indians from producing their own salt (Lal 3). On March 12th, after hearing no reply from the Viceroy, Gandhi marched from the Sabaramati Ashram to the Arabian Sea, a distance of 200 miles, starting with only 78 followers (Furbee 71). However, by the time Mohatma Gandhi reached the shore on April 5th, thousands of others were marching | with him (Furbee 72). On April 6th, Gandhi walked out to the edge of the shore, picked up some grains of salt left by the tide, and said, “Watch. I am giving a signal to the nation” (Furbee 72). Gandhi did give a signal to the nation, as millions started following his protests. However, the British Government was still very stable and unshaken in South East Asia. | "An eye for an eye makes | 26 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

27: After some time in jail for his deeds, Mohatma Gandhi sought to stop the creation of a new, Indian-Muslim country called Pakistan. On the other hand, Muhammad Ali Jinnal and his followers favored the new country, and killed thousands of Indians who opposed the new nation (“Mohandas” 4). After the violence spread across the country, The Indian National Congress convinced Gandhi that Pakistan must be formed or else a civil war would break out (Szczepanski 3). After some time, Britain realized the troubles between the Muslims and Hindus they might have to go through if they continue to rule over India (Furbee 87). “On August 15th, Britain granted India independence and the status of a nation in the British Commonwealth” (Furbee 88). However, the newly independent country was still in conflict, with riots, burnings, looting, and killings all across India (Furbee 89). Disturbed by the violence throughout India, Gandhi began to fast in Delhi on January 13th, 1948. While attending prayers on January 30th, thirty-five-year old Nathuram Godse, editor of a Hindu extremist paper, assassinated Mohatma Gandhi (“Mohandas” 4). It seemed as if the whole world stopped for India, as their beloved leader had passed away because of the violence his country started. | the whole world blind." | Jay Hicks 27

28: Mohandas “Mohatma” Gandhi was an extraordinary man who deeply followed his beliefs to help the Indian race. His work included the desegregation of South Africa, and the Independence of India. However, it was his methods that made him unique. No one had ever thought of non-violence as such a serious way to fight for a cause. Because of this, Gandhi influenced many leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. Although his death ended in violence, his work involved the opposite. Today, the world still celebrates Gandhi, an ordinary man who had the passion and will to make a difference for his people, and to change the world as we see it. | "Hate the sin, love the sinner." | 28 Biography of Mohandas Gandhi

29: "Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever." -Mohandas Gandhi


32: Throughout the history of the world, many great leaders have ruled over their countries. There are different kinds of leaders; some are great warriors, where others lead through peace. Leaders are not always loved by everyone; they are sometimes hated. Nelson Mandela is one of those leaders that was not loved by all of his people. He had to work to earn respect and gain loyalty. He strived to end the apartheid that separated the whites and blacks in South Africa. Apartheid is a system of discrimination against a certain group of people. Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest peaceful leaders of all time and ended the segregation of his people in South Africa. We are going to take a look at his childhood, political views, and his presidency of South Africa. | "Education is the most powerful weapon | 32 Biography of Nelson Mandela

33: Nelson Mandela had an ordinary childhood. He was born on July 18th, 1918, in the small village of Mvezo, in the district of Umata, the capital of Transkei (“Childhood” 1). Transkei is located right below the country of Lesotho in the southwest corner of South Africa. His father, Gadla Henry Mpakanyiswa, was the chief of the Mvezo. Nelson’s actual name is Rolihlahla; he was not given the English name of Nelson until he attended his first day of school at age seven (Early 1). He was the first person from his family to ever attend any kind of school. Because of this, his parents were very proud. He would go on to attend many schools and receive a very advanced education. Nelson did not live his whole life in Mvezo. His family moved to the larger village of Qunu when he was in his early childhood (“Childhood” 1). Nelson says his time in Qunu was the happiest part of his childhood (“Childhood” 1). When he was nine years old, his father passed away from a lung disease called tuberculosis. Shortly after his father’s death, he and his mother left Qunu, ending the best part of his childhood (“Childhood” 2). | which you can use to change the world." | Drew Kincaid 33

34: Nelson Mandela is a very educated man to have been raised in rural South Africa. “Mandela has honorary degrees from more than 50 international universities and is chancellor of the University of the North” (“Early” 1). Nelson attended many colleges in his early years. The first college he was sent to was Clarkebury Boarding Institute located in the district of Engcobo (“Childhood” 2). After this he spent the next few years at studying abroad and gaining a new perspective on life. However, “When Nelson was 19 he joined his older brother Justice at Healdtown, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort’ (“Childhood” 3). This was the largest African university located underneath the equator (“Childhood” 3). At all of these schools, Nelson began to form his own ideas about politics and became active in the school government. | "After climbing a great hill, one only finds | 34 Biography of Nelson Mandela

35: At Nelson’s first school, he was kicked out after being involved in a boycott (“Early” 1). Boycotts and strikes were always Mandela’s preferred types of protest. He was not a fan of violence; he strongly agreed with Gandhi’s pacifist point of view. He respected Gandhi’s point of view on leadership. When he was confronted with people wanting to take violent actions he usually committed to a “non-violent mass struggle” with violence as a last resort (“Early” 2). For his political beliefs and strikes against the government’s apartheid he was sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was encaged on the infamous Robin Island where he spent over eighteen of his twenty-seven year sentence (“Early” 2). Robin Island was a dreaded place to be sentenced. All Nelson had to do was to sit and stare at grey walls. Even if you were lucky enough to be in a good cell you still had nothing to think of but hopelessness (Nelson 381). He spent time in a few other prisons before he was released when the apartheid was over. Many times he was given the chance to have his sentence reduced but “Mandela refused the offer releasing a statement that he cannot accept personal freedom when the organization of their people remains banned” (“Early” 2). He was not fighting for himself but for a nation of his people. This willingness to sacrifice eventually lead to him winning over the hearts of the country and becoming the president of the new South Africa. | that there are many more hills to climb." | Drew Kincaid 35

36: Nelson Mandela led the nation of South Africa to new heights during his term as president and changed how it was viewed by other countries. After he became president, he led the country under democratic rule. He was a firm believer in democracy. The statement “I have cherished the idea of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities,” shows how he felt about freedom and equality(“Mandela’s” 3). Mandela changed the previously all white government into a multi-racial democracy (“Mandela’s” 1). For his thoughts and actions regarding the desegregation of his people, he won a Nobel Prize in 1993 (“Mandela’s” 1). | "In my country we go to prison first | 36 Biography of Nelson Mandela

37: He has significantly changed how the country is viewed today. He used the World Cup of rugby to show off his new country in the summer of 1995. The South African team, backed by president Mandela, won the World Cup. Mandela has done much for the country in many ways. When he took over the country, it was looked down upon by other countries. However, through the guidance of a great leader, South Africa has become a shining star. | and then become President." | Drew Kincaid 37

38: There have been many glorious leaders throughout history. Some have ruled with force and others by democracy. All types of leaders have been successful in benefiting their countries. Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest peaceful leaders ever and ended the segregation of his people in South Africa. He did this in a manner to please everyone. He refused to use violence unless it was his last option; a peaceful democracy was his choice of ruling the government. | "It always seems impossible until its done." | 38 Biography of Nelson Mandela

39: "Let freedom reign. The sun never set on so glorious a human achievement." -Nelson Mandela

40: Hey! I am Jay Hicks, a 10th grader at Siegel High School. I enjoy many activities such as theater, but leadership has always fascinated me. I started getting involved with student government at school, and am now president of the sophomore class. The hardships and accomplishments Mohandas Gandhi went through inspire me, and I hope he does the same for you. Gandhi showed that we did not have to be in politics to be a leader, but just a citizen who cares. Remember, no matter where you come from or what position you are in, you can be a leader through you heart and your actions. | ABOUT THE AUTHORS | 40

41: I am Jonathon Andrew Kincaid but I go by Drew for short. I am 15 and a tenth grade student at Siegel High School. I live in the city of Murfreesboro, in the state of Tennessee. I enjoy playing baseball for my school and during the summer. I choose the topic of Nelson Mandela to write about because I think he is influential leader with a powerful story. He has much in common with the other great leaders in the book. You should learn some basic facts about him and his life in this part of the book. I hope you enjoy this and have a good time learning about Nelson Mandela. | Hello! I am Matthew Lyons; I'm currently a sophomore at Siegel High School in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. I'm on the baseball team as well as other activities and clubs like student council, national science club, and Junior Classical Latin club. I have a 12 year old brother and a 7 year old sister, who we adopted from China. My family and I love to travel and have visited Japan, as well as exploring across the United States. | 41

42: ACTIVITY | Connect the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle together to create this image! | 42

43: Keep ALL of the pieces of the puzzle in this connected bag! | 43

44: GLOSSARY | Assassinate- to kill or harm; usually done so against a politically prominent person. Boycott- an agreement to not participate in an activity British Commonwealth- the official name of the empire of Great Britain. Castes- social groups limited to persons of the same rank, occupation, political importance, and economic position Chancellor- legal official Civil War- a war between regions within the same country Democracy- a system of government where the whole population is involved Desegregation- the elimination of laws, customs, or practices under which different races or groups are restricted to specific parts of society. Fasting- to hold oneself back voluntarily from food. Hinduism- the main religion of India House of Commons- the citizens of Great Britain who are elected Landlord- a person who owns and leases land, buildings, etc. | 44

45: Looting- to rob, as by burglary or corrupt activity Mob- a disorderly crowd of people who are against something Pacifist- a person who doesn't like fighting Parliament- the federal government of Great Britain Petition- a request made for something desired; it is usually signed by many people Philosophy- the thoughts or ideas someone acts or lives by Politics- the acts that elected officials take Premature- occurring to soon or before it is ready Proclamation- a public or official announcement Retaliate- to return with an even more destructive force against something Riot- a noisy, violent public disorder caused by a group of people. Saint- a person of great holiness or virtue. | 45

46: WORKS CITED | "Early Childhood Education." The Famous People. Web. 3 Feb. 12. Furbee, Mary, and Mike Furbee. The Importance of Mohandas Gandhi. San Diego: Lucent, 2000. Print. "Heroes and Killers of the 20th century: Winston Churchill." Moreorless. Moreorless. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. Humes, C. James. Winston Churchill. New York: DK Publishing Inc., 2003. Print. Hutchison, Ian. Maintaining Sir Winston Churchill’s Leadership Legacy for the Benefit of Future Generations. Churchill Leadership Ltd. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. Lal, Vinay. "Mahatma Gandhi." Manas: India and Its Neighbors. UCLA, 2001. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. Maitland, Rebecca. Historic Richmond. Historic Richmond Association. 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2012 "Mandela’s Childhood". Mtholyoke. Web. 12 Feb. 12. "Mandela’s life and times". Bbc.co. BBC News. 28 Jan. 11. Web. 15 Feb. 12. Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk To Freedom. New York: Little, Brown and Company.1994. Print. "Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale Power Search. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. "More information about: Winston Churchill." BBC History. BBC History. Web. 13 Feb. Schama, Sinmon. “Why you should care about Europe.” Newsweek. 158 (12 Dec. 2011): 34. Infotrac. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. Szczepanski, Kallie. "Biography of Mohandas Gandhi, the Mahatma." Asian History. About. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. | 46

47: PHOTO CREDITS | Armritsar Massacre. Photograph. Never Forget 84. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. As A Boy. Photograph. Mahatma Gandhi- The Great Soul. Gandhi Memorial, 2006. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Bourke-White, Margaret. Mohandas Gandhi Reading. 1946. Photograph. A Good Day to Die. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Churchill's Funeral. 1965. Photograph. Daily Mail. 7 July 2009. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. France. Photograph. Winston Churchill Quotes. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Gandhi in His Teens. Photograph. MalluMagic. 2010. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. GETTY. Winston Churchill. Photograph. Telegraph. 30 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Kirkland, Wallace. Leader of India, Mohandas Gandhi. 1942. Photograph. Anglonautes. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Leaving the Admiralty. Photograph. The Guardian. Comp. Topical Press Agency. 26 Dec. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Mandela in 2008. 2008. Photograph. Wikipedia. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Mastabasta. Mandela. Photograph. The Positivity Blog. 2009. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Mohandas Gandhi. 1947. Photograph. Los Angeles Times. Comp. Associated Press. 13 Apr. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Nelson Mandela. Photograph. Bio. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Rugby World Cup. 1995. Photograph. The Telegraph. 19 Oct. 2007. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Scanpix. United Kingdom Postage Stamp. Photograph. Nobel Prize. Nobel Prize, 1 Dec. 1999. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Sir Winston Churchill. Photograph. Classic Forgotten. 2002. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. South African Light Horse Regiment. 1899. Photograph. The New York Times. 9 Nov. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. TIME. Man of The Year. 1931. Photograph. NNDB. 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Winston Churchill (1874-1965). Photograph. Discovery Channel. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Winston's Life. Photograph. Emerson Kent. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Young and Handsome Gandhi. Photograph. UNP. 2 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Young Chuchill. Photograph. School for Champions. 6 Feb. 2006. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Young Mohandas in Videshi Outfit. Photograph. Rang 7. Comp. Biju. 4 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Young Winston Churchill. Photograph. Princess Propaganda. 15 Aug. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. | 47

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  • Title: Great Leaders of the 20th Century
  • Biographies of Winston Churchill, Mohandas Gandhi, and Nelson Mandela Written by Matthew Lyons, Jay Hicks, and Drew Kincaid.
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  • Published: about 7 years ago