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Greek Architecture in Nashville

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FC: Greek architecture in Nashville By: Scott Eller Humanities 1010

1: Ancient Greek architecture has had a very lasting legacy with many examples of this legacy found in Nashville, Tennessee. In this presentation we will look at some of those examples and I will give you a basic understanding of ancient Greek architecture and its lasting influence.

2: " Between 700 B.C. and the Roman occupation (146 B.C.) all the chief works of Greek architecture were produced. The period in which all the major masterpieces were erected from 480 B.C. to 323 B.C. That incredibly productive era ... in which the Parthenon and other great works were produced" (Greek Architecture).

3: (Parthenon)

4: (Agora)

5: "Classical Greek architecture is composed of three vertical elements-the platform, the column, and the enablature-which comprise the elevation. The relationship of these three units is referred to as the elevation's order. There are three orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian" (Sayre 48).

6: Doric Order (Doric Order) | The Doric order is the oldest and simplest of the three basic Greek Styles. This is a Doric example from the War Memorial in Nashville, Tennessee.

7: Ionic Order (Ionic Order) | This example of the Ionic order was found on the Tennessee State Capitol building.

8: Corinthian Order (Corinthian Order) | Corinthian is the most elaborate of the three orders. As pictured on the tower of the Tennessee State Capitol building.

9: Another signature of ancient Greek architecture is the pediment as pictured above. A pediment, "In classical architecture, is a framed gable usually containing a sculptured panel" (Pediment).

10: The pediment found on the preceding page is found on the Schermerhorn Symphony Center in Nashville, TN.

11: " The design of the Symphony Center was inspired by the world's great concert halls, many of which were built in Europe in the lat 19th century. The sophisticated and modern new building is in harmony with Nashville's tradition of Neoclassical architecture and grand civic buildings while simultaneously reinterpreting the model for contemporary times" (Stinnard 157). This is a prime example of classic Greek architecture with a modern twist.

12: The pediment on the Schermerhorn Symphony Center, lIke many sculptures of ancient Greek architecture, tells a story of the Greek gods.

13: "This pediment depicts the Greek tragedy of Orpheus and Eurydice. Orpheus was the son of Appollo who was a celebrated musician ... Eurydice was his wife. When Aristaeus, also the son of Apollo tried to violate her, she ran from him, was bitten by a snake, died and sent to the underworld. Orpheus was granted a chance by Hades, ruler of the underworld, to regain Eurydice if he could lead her from the underworld without looking back at her. Orpheus looked anyway and Eurydice was lost to Hades and the underworld forever" (email from tour guide of Symphony Center).

14: The symphony center began construction December 3, 2003 and opened September 9, 2006.

15: The cost of construction was 123.5 million which was paid in full with private donations. The principal Architect for the project was David M. Schwartz with Architectural Services, Inc., Washington, DC. (Tour of Symphony Center)

16: The center was named after Kenneth Schermerhorn who led the symphony for 22 years. He died before the completion of the center.

17: The Laura Turner Concert Hall is a building inside a building. Each wall of the concert hall is built with a isolation buffer in order to eliminate all outside noise.

18: Another signature of Greek art and architecture was their sculpture program. This statue, located on the symphony grounds, is called "Birth of Apollo"

19: "Ancient Greek sculpture has exerted a wide influence on Western aesthetics, whether that sculpture is free-standing - like Myron's Descobolus ... or the Nike of Samothrace" (Sculpture 1).

20: World War I Memorial Nashville, TN. Edward Emmett Daugherty, Architect

21: Construction began in 1925 and was completed in 1927.

23: The War Memorial currently houses the war museum and offices. The Nashville Symphony originally performed in the War Memorial theatre.

24: Example of a Doric order column.

25: Memorial plaques that contain the names of all the Tennessee soldiers that died in World War I. A Greek style statue called Victory commemorating those who paid the ultimate sacrifice.

27: The War Memorial was originally built as a tribute to all Tennesseans who died in World War I but dedications were later added in honor of those who died in the Korean and Vietnam wars.

28: Tennessee State Capitol Building

29: Construction began July 4, 1845 Final stone was laid March 19, 1859 Original estimated time to construct was 3 years. Estimated cost was $340,000 while one million dollars was appropriated through the legislature over the 16 years of construction. Design Style: Greek Revival (Zimmerman)

30: Architect: William Strickland Signed a contract on June 18, 1845 for $2500 a year. Died before completion and is interred in a vault in the northeast corner of capital. (Zimmerman)

31: The original limestone was quarried within one mile of the capital at the corner of Charlotte and 15th. (Zimmerman) "Quarry was worked by convict labor totaling about 120 men" (Zimmerman)

33: "William Strickland's scale model of the proposed cupola for the Tennessee State Capitol, shown to the building committee in his first presentation in 1845. The design was inspired by the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, erected at Athens, 333 B.C., and is similar to a tower Strickland designed for the Merchants Exchange Building in Philadelphia about 1838" (Obtained from plaque in Tennessee State Museum).

34: The columns surrounding the capitol are of the Ionic Greek order. The columns on the tower are of the Corinthian Greek order.

35: "It is poetic that the capital building, situated in a city which would later become known as Music City USA, would feature a tower based on an ancient monument to music" (Zimmerman).

36: Waterfield Reliquary

37: The Capitol underwent major renovations in the mid to late 50's with all the exterior columns being replaced. The Waterfield reliquary to the left contains original columns of the Capitol. It is named after Charles W. Waterfield, an architect who worked on the restoration. (Zimmerman)

38: Considering Greek architecture was perfected around 2500 years ago, and that it is still very prevalent today, is a testament to the sophistication and elegance of Greek culture. The Greeks were driven by a fierce competitive spirit as stated in Sayre, "There were no second or third prizes. Winning was all" (Sayre 47). This spirit propelled them to excel in many different facets, and that spirit is alive and well in Nashville and all of American culture.

39: Scott, "Your presentation was very informative and I learned a lot about Nashville and the influence of the Greeks. Thanks for asking me to preview it." Johnny Benson

40: Works Cited Agora. Encyclopedia of World Trade From Ancient Times to Present. Armonk: M.E. Share, 2005. 1 Oct. 2009. Credo Reference. 7 Apr. 2010. Doric Order. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. 12 Dec. 2007. Credo Referance. 4 Apr. 2010. Greek Architecture. The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2009. 22 June 2009. Credo Reference. 4 Apr. 2010. Ionic Order. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. 12 Dec. 2007. Credo Reference. 4 Apr 2010 Parthenon. The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide. Abington: Helicon, 200. 22 June 2009. Credo Reference. 4 Apr. 2010.

41: Pediment. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology, 1992. 8 Jan. 2003. Credo Reference. 4 Apr. 2010. Sayre, Henry M. Discovering the Humanities. Upper Saddle River, N.J: 2010. Pearson Online Resources: E-Text and Toolkit Stinnard, Michelle. Modern facility reflects Neoclassical design. Stone World 24.11 (2007): 156. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 28 Mar. 2010 Zimmerman, Mark. Excerpt from Capital City: Illustrated Guide To HIstoric Nasvhille. Web. 2 Apr. 2010

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Scott Eller
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