FC: By: Jackson Pearce | The Story of Haplogroup N
1: The Mystery of 'N' | What mutations are present in this haplogroup? | Y-chromosomes that display the M231 mutation defines Haplogroup N but if they do not display the LLY22g mutation it defines Haplogroup N1. The main subclades are N1a, N1b, and N1c. The other defining mutation is m128. For haplogroup N it can have both a y-chromosome and mtDNA counterpart.
3: The tree on the previous page shows haplogroup N in Northeaster Asia. There are many different subclades in haplogroup N but as mentioned before there are three main ones; N1a, N1b and N1c. Once all the subclades are combined they end up making up haplogroup N giving this haplogroup many different traits that separate them from any other haplogroup. Haplogroup N has helped shape the world today giving many of earth's inhabitants traits that we see in people everyday. But what are these characteristics?
4: The People of Haplogroup N
5: "Despite the ethnic diversity within each nation, the social fabric of the region by and one is large." Bashar al-Assad
7: Characteristics of Haplogroup N | According to the chart, people that have ancestors in haplogroup N are mostly from Western Eurasia. The way this haplogroup started was by the b2-b3 deletion of the AZFc region. Scientists say that this deletion was the main characteristic that defines haplogroup N from any other groups. | Also, this haplogroup is determined by it's marker at m231 which is the main mutation. The people in this haplogroup today live in Russia, and North East Asia.
8: Where Did They go? Like every other haplogroup, haplogroup N started in Africa. The man who started haplogroup N was known as Eurasian Adam. He received this name because almost all of haplogroup N has ended up in Eurasia or Russia. On the purple map on the next page the darker regions show where the most people from haplogroup N settled. To get there they left north east Africa about 50.000 years ago. About 45.000 years ago they traveled and settled in northern Africa. Some stayed in this area but the rest traveled to Iran with the animals. 40,000 years ago they traveled to Central Asia. The Eurasian clan traveled east until blocked by the Himalayan Mountains. 35,000 years ago the first hunters came into Asia and lastly 10,000 years ago they made it to Siberia.
9: Migration of Haplogroup N
10: The climate was very dry where haplogroup N first started in north east Africa. After they migrated and settled in north Africa they discovered it was very wet and rainy with lots of vegetation and animals. This period of time was known as the Mousterian Pluvial. This later became too wet for them and they had to migrate towards Iran. | The Climate
12: Living Conditions | The living conditions at first for haplogroup N were very tough. They were forced to move due to a drought. When they got to North Africa where it was wet they had to adapt and learn how to fish instead of relying on hunting and farming. This is because there were a lot more swamps and ponds. They also had to make most of their tools out of stone.
13: The men in haplogroup N mostly were fishermen until they moved out of Africa. They later developed farming and hunting when they moved closer to the mountains.
14: Where'd they originate and where are they now?
15: This haplogroup originated in north east Africa about 75,000 years ago by a man known today as Eurasian Adam. He was one of the first people on Earth that helped shape the world today. The people in this haplogroup now are located throughout Russia and Central Asia. There are still many today but most people have mixed with many other haplogroups so their pure DNA is hard to find.
16: Now you know all about one of the most important haplogroups out there. They make up the biggest part of land today and we wouldn't be here without them.
17: Citations: 1. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://psalmboxkey.com/a-keepsake-of-family-history-three-stories-retold/kalwajc-schneider-family-histor 2. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.familytreedna.com/public/N Y-DNA Projec 3. Dienekes. (n.d.). blogspot. Retrieved from http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2004/12/dissection-of-y-chromosome-haplogroups.htm 4. Wells, S. Deep ancestry.