S: History of Schooling in America
FC: History of Schooling in America Kymberly Chamblee CUR 507 July 2, 2012 Dr. Odas Parsons
1: This digital book is a time line of the history of schooling in America.
2: 1779- Thomas Jefferson proposes Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge
3: Jefferson proposed three years of free education for all non-slave children. The most talented went to grammar schools at the public's expense. He believed this was the best means of identifying leadership. The three years of school taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. The reading instruction used Greek, Roman, English, and American History. The important function of the schools was to teach reading. He wanted a basic education for the mass of the population (Spring, 2010). His idea of giving scholarships to the best and brightest is still applied today. This was the building block of beginning the structure we have today where schools are free for all.
4: 1790- George Washington proposes National University
5: George Washington proposed a national university for students to attend from all areas. The universities purposes were for training political leaders. Creating national universities was hopefully going to change from the elite British ruling to the educated (Spring, 2012). This has helped create universities where students can specialize in a field. Having universities in the United States allows for a wide range of studies for many career fields.
6: 1837 Horace Mann becomes Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education
7: Horace Mann was also known as the "father of the common school" because he advocated for schools that were the same for all religions and social classes. Mann was Massachusetts first secretary of education. He wanted there to be a core library in the school where students could borrow books (Spring, 2010). Schools today are a beautiful mix of races, economic standing, and beliefs. Our society is a melting pot, and it is important for students to learn to work with many types of people.
8: 1873- First public school kindergarten is created to fight urban poverty
9: Susan Blow started the first public kindergarten in Missouri where she paid all expenses for this experimental class. Within three years she had more than one thousand students and after a few years every public school in St. Louis had a kindergarten. She believed this system would help with the dropout rate (Wikipedia, 2012). She helped build the foundation of our current early childhood education and without kindergarten many students would not be prepared for the rest of school. It is the building block of a child's education.
10: 1909- Home Economics Association is founded to reform families and cities
11: In 1909 the Home Economics Association was founded to reform families, help with the changing lifestyles of women, urban condition, and the American diet. These classes taught cooking, sewing, scientific methods of cleaning, and budgeting (Spring, 2010). Home Economics classes are still popular with students today. Most students have a career in mind, but some may want to be a homemaker. This class teaches life skills no matter what career path is chosen. Everyone needs to know how to run a home.
12: 1918 - National Education Association's "Cardinal Principles of Education"
13: The National Education Association's "Cardinal Principles of Education" report was a plan for high schools to be institutions for socialization. This was done by adding dances, athletics, clubs, and other extracurricular activities (Spring, 2010). When students apply to colleges the admissions boards are looking for good grades and the extracurricular activities they were involved in. It is important to be a well rounded student who has varied interest. These activities allow students to learn to work together and to give them leadership opportunities.
14: 1926- National Education Association recommends teaching sex education
15: Sex education in schools was recommended by the National Education Association in 1926 to combat the decline of the family and regulate sexual impulses (Spring, 2010). There have been many debates regarding if school is the appropriate place for sex education. I think that it is important to inform the students so they can make informed choices about their behavior. One of the benefits is hopefully to reduce the risks of their behavior such as, unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. I would rather have students be informed with facts than making choices from what they see on T.V. or hear from their friends.
16: 1964- Head Start begins as part of federal War on Poverty
17: The "War on Poverty" gave way to the Head Start program to help children who come from low income homes begin school on equal terms as other children. This program helps with developmental education, nutrition, family support, and social services (Wikipedia, 2012). This is a valuable resource for families who cannot afford preschool. Today's students are expected to learn to read, add, subtract, and write in kindergarten. Students who start school without some foundation before kindergarten are at a disadvantage. It is a valuable support system for families of young children and can help them in many ways.
18: 1975- Education for all Handicapped Children Act
19: In 1975 the Education for all Handicapped Children Act became a federal law. This stated that "handicapped" children would receive a free public school education. It was to be suited to the student's needs and be in the least restrictive setting (Sass, 2012). All students have the right to a public education and this law helped to protect the rights of students who have special needs. I cannot imagine denying a student the right to an education.
20: 2001- "No Child Left Behind" federal legislation
21: President Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into federal legislation. It expanded the federal role in education, aimed at improving student achievement, and holding schools accountable for student progress. This allowed schools in poor communities to receive more funding (Edweek, 2012). There have been many debates in the education community about "No Child Left Behind." I believe schools should be held accountable but I want to see a change in how they complete this task. I know that all children are able to learn and it is my job as a teacher to help him or her to reach their full potential.
22: References | Editorial Projects in Education. (2012). Edweek. Retrieved from http://. http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/no-child-left-behind/ Sass, Ed.D, E. (2012). Cloudnet. Retrieved from http://. http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/educationhistorytimeline.html Spring, J. (2010). American education (14th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database Wikipedia. (2012). Retrieved from http:// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_Blow Wikipedia. (2012). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Head_Start_Program&oldid=498491606
23: Images References | (Untitled photograph of school children). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from : http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/_lcd23/ (Picture of George Washington). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/georgeone_for_books_ Thomas Jefferson: The Virginian. (Painting). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://discoverexceptionalism.com (Picture of Horace Mann). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://www/ait.net/technos/tq_09/2eakin.php (Untitled picture of kindergarten). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://www/bsd.k12.ca.us/ (Untitled picture of home economics). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Home_Economics_1911.jpg Gallup High School (Photograph), Retrived June 28, 2012, from: http://teachgmes.org/district/schools/galluphigh.html (Untitled picture of books). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://gprhe.org/comprehensive-sex-education/ Head Start Logo. (Image), Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://detroitdataguru.wordpress.com/2011/09111/detroit-children-and-families-lose-once-again.head-start-logo-2/ Clipart_Reading Circle. (Image), Retrieved June 30, 2012, from: http://councilforexceptionalchildren.net (President Bush signing No Child Left Behind Act). Retrieved June 28, 2012, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Child_Left_Behind_Act