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History Year Book

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History Year Book - Page Text Content

S: History Yearbook 1946-1981 The Civil Rights movement

BC: Bibliography: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Home.jsp rosaparksfacts.com http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/timeline/civil_01.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/05/americas_us_civil_rights_movement/html/1.stm

FC: History Yearbook 1946-1981 The Civil Rights Act By: Rae Ganas and Stephanie Hyde

1: White Primary 1946 The White Primary started in 1944, and came to Georgia in the last two years. This means it lasted from 1944-1948. It was not just in Georgia but in all of the southern states. It was the democrats way of keeping the African Americans out of politics.

2: William Hartsfield 1946 William Hartsfield served as Mayor from 1938-1961. In 1952 he led a campaign to win passage of the Plan of Improvement. During his 23 year serve as mayor the color line seperating black from white changed causing the city to grow from 100,000 people to almost 1,ooo,ooo. One interesting fact about William Hartsfield is he never finished high school and never went to collage.

3: Integration of the armed forces 1948 It was not until the civil war that African Americans were required to fight in racially seperate units. In march of 1943 the war department ordered the desegregation of the recreational facilities at military facilities. In 1948 President Truman directed the US armed forces to desegregate as quick as possible.

4: Brown Vs. Board Of Education 1954 The Brown Vs. Board Of Education was actually a name given to 5 seperate cases. The cases were: Brown Vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Briggs Vs. Elliot, Davis Vs. Board of Education of Prince Edward Country, Boiling Vs. Sharp, and Gebhart Vs. Ethal. The facts in all of the cases were diffrenent but the constitution of state sponsered segergation in public schools in all cases. Thurgood Marshell and the NAACP defense and education fund handeled all cases.

5: The Murder Of Emmett Till 1955 Emmett Till was 14 years old when he was kidnapped and murdered by J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant. Emmett Till's murder was used as a rally cry for some of the civil war protests. Bryant and Milam were arrested before the officials had found Emmett's body and were sentanced to jail after they found his body.

6: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Rosa Parks is called the mother of the civil rights. In 1943 she was forced out a segregated bus for sitting in a seat reserved for only whites. On December 1 1995 she was arrested for not giving her seat up to a white man. This was the beginning of the Montgomery Bus boycott.

7: Change Of the Georgia State Flag 1956 The Change of the state flag, the new design was used by the united state confederate army during the war between states.

8: Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference was to raise money for the Civil rights movement operated in the south part of the Civil Movement March.

9: Sibley Commission 1960 The Sibley Commission is,

10: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 1960 The organization adopted the Gandhian theory of nonviolent direct action. In February, 1960, about forty college students staged a sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter with the intention of integrating eating establishments in Nashville, Tennessee. Their numbers increased daily and although hundreds were arrested, by May, lunch counters in Nashville began to integrate. This non-violent strategy was adopted by black students all over the Deep South. Within six months these sit-ins had ended restaurant and lunch-counter segregation in twenty-six southern cities. Student sit-ins were also successful against segregation in public parks, swimming pools, theaters, churches, libraries, museums and beaches

11: Freedom Rides 1961 A 1961 Supreme Court decision to end desegregation not only in travel, but also in bus terminal facilities, prompted a new set of Freedom Rides and SNCC's involvement.

12: Integration of the University of Georgia 1961 University of Georgia incorporated by the General Assembly. It is the first state-supported higher education institute in the United States. John Milledge purchases more than 600 acres of land, which he donates to the University of Georgia. It becomes the school's only home, Athens, Georgia

13: Albany Movement 1961 A civil rights campaign in Albany, Georgia, did not achieve success. The explicit defiance inherent in the student's action galvanizes Albany's Black community. A coalition of the Ministerial Alliance, NAACP, Federation of Women's Clubs, the Negro Voters League, and SNCC meet to form the Albany Movement — whose goal is ending all forms of segregation and discrimination, not just that relating to inter-state travel

14: Ivan Allen, Jr. was elected mayor of Atlanta. His first step towards racial equality was he ordered immediate removal of the "Colored" and "White" signs on all entrances and exits to City Hall. His second step was to remove the restrictions on the African American policemen, and integrated the city's fire department and the city government. | 1962

15: 1963 | The Birmingham , AL protests was called "Project C"."Project C" was the name given to the plan devised by Martin Luther King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to challenge the system of segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. The "C" in the project stood for confrontation, the strategy of nonviolent direct action designed to confront segregation through peaceful demonstrations, rallies, boycotts, and appeals to justice.

16: 1963 | The March on Washington D.C. took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Attended by 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital, and one of the first to have extensive television coverage.

17: 1963 | The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

18: On 22nd November, 1963, President John F. Kennedy arrived in Dallas, Texas. At about 12.30 p.m. the presidential limousine entered Dealey Plaza. Soon afterwards a shot was fired. More bullets were fired and John F. Kennedy was hit by bullets that hit him in the head and the left shoulder. Another bullet hit John Connally in the back. | 1963

19: The 1964 Civil Rights Act made racial discrimination in public places illegal. It also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities. Projects involving federal funds could now be cut off if there was evidence of discriminated based on color, race or national origin. | 1964

20: 1965 - The 1965 Voting Rights Act outlawed literacy tests and poll taxes as a way of assessing whether anyone was fit or unfit to vote.

21: The Selma to Montgomery March was a march for the right to vote. It was lead by Martin Luther King Jr. | 1965

22: 1968 | Martin Luther King assassinated himself with a sniper on the balcony of his hotel room. In Atlanta, King's family and his organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, arranged his funeral

23: In 1969, the U.S. Department of Justice sued the Georgia State Board of Education, demanding that the state withhold funds from systems that refused to follow court-ordered desegregation plans. Communities moved to comply with federal laws, and by1971 all Georgia's public schools were integrated. This made Georgia the first state with a sizable African American population to have a statewide integrated school system. | 1969

24: Maynard Jackson was elected mayor of Atlanta. He was the first African American to serve as mayor of a major southern city. Jackson served eight years and then returned for a third term in 1990. | 1973

25: Andrew Young was first elected Mayor of Atlanta in 1981. He was re-elected for a second term in 1985. During his administration, over half a million jobs were created, and the metropolitan region attracted more than $70billion dollars in private investment and construction. Following his terms as mayor, Young joined Law Companies Group, Inc., one of the most respected engineering and environmental consulting companies in the world | 1981

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