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Human Anatomy & physiology

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Human Anatomy & physiology - Page Text Content

S: The Body

BC: The End!

2: Skeletal The skeletal system provides shape and form to our bodies, allows body to move, and stores minerals to keep us healthy. Ossification and Reconstruction means the growth of bones. It occurs during fetal developement. Bone is one of the most changing tissues in the body. Two types of cells are resposible for the ossification and reconstructional process. These two cells are: osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The skeletal system maintains homeostasis in the body by providing proper levels of calcium in the body. Fact: Humans have 27 bones in one hand, and 14 in their face.

3: Skeletal Disorders *Talipes Equinovarus Often known as clubfoot, this common disease causes the foot to deform and turn inward. The mildest cases have been associated with intra-uterine posture. *poliomyelitis This viral disease is spread from person to person. It attacks the central nervous system, weakens the muscles, and causes bones to deform, usually in the feet. *Spina Bifida A birth defect that causes incomplete development of the spinal cord. Usually occurs after first month of pregnancy when the embryo's spine does not connect together.

4: Muscle There are three types of muscles: Skeletal, Cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscle is made up of thousands of cylindrical muscle fibers. The fibers are bound together by connective tisse, which run blood vessels and nerves. The muscle fiber contains: Myofibrils, Mitochondria with a smooth Enoplasmic recticulum, and many nuclei. Skeletal muscles are also your voluntary muscles. However, Cardiac and Smooth muscles are involuntary and work automatically on their own. Fact: Obese people spend about $485 more on clothing, and $828 on plane tickets.

5: Muscular Diseases *Fibromyalgia Characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and multiple tender joints. Fibromyalgia may be caused by traumatic events, such as car wrecks. Can also be cause by "popping" the joints. *Polymyositis Characterized by inflammation of the muscle fibers. This is when the white blood cells invading the muscles. Caused by autoimmune factors, and genetics. *Muscular dystrophy This disease weakens the muscles that give the abillity to move and function properly. MD is a progressive disease and will get worse as the person ages, eventually losing the ability to walk

6: Digestive The digestive system, also known as the GI tract, is basically multiple hollow tubes that begin at the mouth and ending at the anus. Your gastro intestinal tract has a lining of glands that produce juices that help digest your food. Saliva breaks food up into smaller molecules, then enzymes produce stomach acid that will break down the food even further. Other enzymes come from the wall of the intestines to break down what the stomach did not. Multiple other body organs such as: Liver, Gall bladder, and pancreas all take role in the digestive system. Whether its working to break down fat or store energy. Fact: The stomach produces two liters of hydrochloric acid daily

7: Digestive disorders *Dyspepsia Also known as indegestion. This is a functional disease, but if not treated, Dyspepsia can lead to stomach ulcers and gastritis (Inflammation of the stomach). *Proctitis Those suffering from proctitis typcially have an inflamed rectum, current often urges to defecate, and bloody stool. *Ulcers There are two different types of ulcers. Peptic ulcers form in the stomach and gastric ulcers form in the small intestine near the stomach. Can cause burning pain in the chest or abdomen.

8: Endocrine The foundations of the endocrine system are hormones and glands. These are the bodys chemical messengers. The hormones produced are: Growth hormones, prolactin, thyratropin, and conticotropin. Glands realease 20 or more hormones in the mouth and are sent to different cells within the body. There are three different types of cells in the endocrine system: Acidophilic, basophilic, and chromatophobic. They all bind different hormones together . Fact: Blood passes through your kidneys three hundred times a day!

9: Endocrine disorders *Adrenal Insufficiency A condition in which the adrenal glands produce inadequate amounts of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Symptoms of this can be: Fatigure, weakness, anorexia, weightloss, and nausea. *Crushing syndrome This is a disease in which there is shock to a tramatic crushing injury. Basically this is the compression of a muscle that cannot be repaired. Complications of electrolyte disturbances, fluid sequestration, and myoglbinuria may occur. *Hyperthyroidism Over production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Those with hyperthyroidism usually are very low in weight.

10: Nervous The nervous system is responsible for sending, recieving, and handling all electrical brain signals to and from your brain. The nervous system is divided into three different parts. The central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system. There are neuron cells in the nervous system. Neurons have dendrites and axons as extensions. Dendrites bring in the infromation and the axons takes it away from the cell body. Now the neurons communicate with each other and make electrochemical processes happen. Fact: There are 100 billion neurons in your brain

11: Nervous disorders *Epilepsy This disorder that affects the brain. The brain is normally poweredby 80 pulses of energy per second. Those who have epilepsy, their brain is powered by 500 pulses per second. The result is usually a seizure. *Bell's Palsy This is a temporary weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face. People suffering from Bell's Palsy are usually recovered in 1-3 months. Causes can be viral infections such as: Herpes, Epstein-Barr, and the common Flu *Tourette syndrome Motor and vocal ticks also called Chronic Tic Disorder. Ther eis a disturbance in the balance of neurotransmitters that makes a person twitch or should repeatedly.

12: Reproductive The reproductive system allows to produce offspring in different variations. The male and female reproductive organs are very different. In the female the egg cell, also known as ova, move its way from the ovaries all the way into the uterus where, if not fertilized to make a new life, is removed out of the uterus, along with the extra lining. The male sex cells are sperm. These sperm form in the testicles, and when ejactualtion occurs, moves through multiple twisting tubes and out through the penis where if these sperm reach the egg in the uterus of the female a baby will be made. Fact: The largest cell in the female body is the egg.

13: Reproductive disorders *Endometrial cancer Most common kind of uterine cancer. Located in the body of the uterus. This cancer occurs in the inner lining of the uterus. *Premature menopause Premature menopause is basically the failure of the ovaries to produce anymore eggs before or at the age of 40. This is not normal. Radiation, chemotherapy, and multiple other surgerys can cause premature menopause. *Epididymitis A hollow tube located at the back of the testicles that semen passes through that becomes inflamed. Men who get this is mostly from unprotected sex and multiple sex partners.

14: Circulatory system The circulatory system is made up of the vessels and muscles taht help and control the flow of the blood around the body. Mains parts include: Heart, arteries, capillaries, and veisn. Blood travels through the aorta full of carbon dioxide to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and heads back to the heart through veins. The red blood cells of the circulatory system act like UPS trucks carrying packages back and forth between the heart and lungs, along with all the other parts of the body. Carrying oxygen rich blood back and forth. However, if there is a cut or infection the white blood cells go to work. Fact: In one drop of blood, there are about 5 million red blood cells.

15: Circulatory disorders *Supraventricular Trachycarida Abnormal fast heart rhythm. The heart will beat around 100 beats per minute. Symptoms include: racing heart, dizzy, fainting, chest pain, and sweating. *Ischemic Heart Disease Fatty deposits accumulate in the cells lining the wall of the arteries. Fat builds up and hardens over time, narrowing the arteries. This will eventually lead to lack of blood to the brain. *Hypertensive Heart Disease High blood pressure increases hearts workload. Overtime, the heart muscle thickens and left ventricle becomes enlarged. This results in less blood being pumped.

16: Respiratory The respiratory systems job is to supply blood with oxygen so that the blood can deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. When you inhale, you fill your lungs with oxygen. When you exhale, you release carbon dioxide. This is why they say its good to talk to your plants. The respiratory system includes: mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and the diaphragm. The alveoli cells engulf dust and bacteria. Then they are disposed of by lymphatic vessels. The muscous membrane, lined with cuboidal epithelial cells, catch unwanted germs and bacteria. They are disposed of when you sneeze! Fact: More than half a liter of water a day, is lost through breathing.

17: Respiratory disorders *Lung Cancer Lung cancer is basically, tumor cells of each type of lung cancer grow and spread differently. It takes multiple different treatments to possibly cure. Symptoms include: Chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, or bloody sputum. *Pneumonia The infection of one or both lungs. Usually caused by bacteria, virus, or sometimes fungi. Symptoms include: Fever and chest pain. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S *Bronchitis The inflammation of the bronchial tubes. It's a chemical reaction that produces redness, swelling, and pain.

18: Integumentary The integumentary system consists of the Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous layers. The epidermis is 20-30 cells thick. The top cells are dead, but the deepest layer of the epidermis is the stratum germinativum. They produce mitotically; This is where the skin grows. The Dermis has its own blood supply. Sweat glands and hair roots are present here. The subvutaneous layer is the very bottom. There are large groupings of adiopose tissue, or connective tissue that stores fat. The main function is to protect bodily organs and maintain body temperature. Fact: Every minute you breath in 13 pints of air.

19: Integumentary disorders *Skin Cancer Skin cancer occurs when the molecule found in cells that entails genetic information becomes damaged and the body cannot repair itself. There are several different types of skin cancer: Basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. *Wrinkles Sun exposure increases wrinkles, smoking also. Wrinkles are thin, creased, sagging skin on the face, neck, and hands. *Melanoma This is the most serious type of skin cancer. This type of cancer occurs when one is excessively exposed to ultraviolet lights and rays.

20: Excretory The excretory system is the system that gets rid of all the bodily wastes. This body system involves the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, kidney, liver, and bladder. The cells produce water and carbon dioxide as by-products of metaolic breakdown of sugars, fats, and protiens. Basically, the body takes in food, digests it, remove and concentrate the harmful and toxic wastes, then releases it through the anus or the bladder. Fact: In your lifetime, your digestive system may handle about 50 tons!

21: Excretory disorders *Gout You start to accumulate more than the usual amout of uric acid. It isn't water soluble so it gets stored in the body, like toe joints. It causes pain and deformation of the joints, kidney stones also. *Uremia Characterized by the inability of the kidneys to filter the blood substances, resulting in uremia and electrolyte imalances. *UTI's A urinary tract infection occurs when the bacteria living on or around the rectum and vagina gets into the urethra. Symptoms include: Sudden urge to urinate, burning sensation while urination, and soreness.

22: Immune The body's natural guardian against disease. It consists of a complex network of specialized cells that protects the body from foreign invaders. You immune system can remember, for example: If you've had chicken pox as a child your body will remember the cells of the chickenpox and prevent you from getting it again. Do you ever wonder how the immune system works to make all these fighter cells that protect you, and remember the stuff that has made you sick before? Millions and millions of cells pass information back and forth to create a system of checks and balances. Fact: Every immune system cell has its own distinctive molecule to identify itself.

23: Immune disorders *Asthma Asthma is a lung condition that causes a person to have difficulty breathing. Ashthma affects the bronchial tubes. Those who are suffering from asthma have extreme pressure on their chest and have a suffocated sensation. *Anaphlaxis Signs of anaphlaxis include: difficulty breathing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and swelling. If you have serious allergies you are more at risk for anaphlaxis. *Immunocompromised This defeciency is basically lacking a fully effictive immune system. Having a weak immune system can make you susceptible to multiple life threatening diseases.

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Heather Little
  • By: Heather L.
  • Joined: over 9 years ago
  • Published Mixbooks: 1
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About This Mixbook

  • Title: Human Anatomy & physiology
  • This mixbook will explain parts of multiple organ systems, how each system is made of different cells and uses. Also, explaining different illnesses and what causes those illnesses within different body systems.
  • Tags: human anatomy, physiology
  • Published: over 9 years ago