S: Hurricanes by Artemis and Hera
FC: HURRICANES | BY: Artemis and Hera
1: Hurricane stages
2: The first stage of a hurricane is a tropical disturbance. A tropical disturbance is a cluster of rain bands. (Rain bands are heavy thunder storm clouds)
3: The second stage of a hurricane is a tropical depression. A tropical depression is where winds reach 25-38 miles per hour.
4: Next, it becomes a tropical storm. A tropical storm has to have 39-74 mile per hour wind and thick fog. In other terms, a tropical storm is a baby hurricane.
5: Finally it becomes a hurricane! The winds vary from 75-200 miles per hour. Usually, there is intense rain and storm surges. A storm surge is an abnormal rise in ocean waters. The most intense hurricane was an unnamed one in 1918. | This is a satellite picture, taken from outer space!
6: Hurricane Categories
7: Categories 1 Hurricane Cesar-1996, Hurricane Klaus-1990, and Hurricane Agnes-1972 Category 2 Hurricane Diana-1990, Hurricane Fifi-1974, and Hurricane Carol-1954 Category 3 Hurricane Katrina-2005, Hurricane Fran-1996, and Hurricane Alicia-1983 | Category 4 Hurricane Michelle-2001, Hurricane Keith-2000, and Hurricane Floyd-1999 Category 5 Hurricane Andrew-1992, Hurricane Hugo-1989, and Hurricane David-1979 The categories were invented by Herbert Saffir and Robert Simpson in the 1970's. That's why it is called the Saffir Simpson scale!
8: Amazingly, nature can build a flooding, devastating, powerful force called a hurricane! Hurricanes are caused by a combination of warm water evaporation, clouds, winds, and the rotation of the earth. A hurricane is produced when it gathers warmth and energy from warm waters. The water has to be at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit and 200 miles deep.The warm air evaporates. This begins to power an infant hurricane.
9: The baby hurricane makes clouds and wind. Winds are created by air rushing into a low air- pressure zone right by the water. The evaporated water forms clouds as it rises into the atmosphere. The warm air pushes the clouds and winds up making the newly formed hurricane travel. Due to the earth's rotation, hurricanes spin counter-clock wise in the northern hemisphere, and clock-wise in the southern hemisphere. This is called the Coriolis effect. Once a hurricane reaches land it begins to weaken because it doesn't have the warmth and energy it needs from the water. Once a hurricane has begun, it starts to rain because the clouds can't hold all of that water any- more. They can be 600 miles wide and last for several weeks (including the storm surge). If the right conditions exist hurricanes can be deadly, expensive and destructive!
10: This is a powerful hurricane from satellite view.
11: See how a bit of warm water can become so destructive?!
12: Even though hurricanes can cause terrible damage they can bring benefits to the earth. Even though they can be millions of dollars in damage they can also relieve drought. They bring water to dry areas and help the vegetation that survived be lush and green. Farmers benefit from this new soil. Hurricanes can also shift the land, forming new mountains, but also flattening others. Hurricanes can also churn the water, making the surface water temperature less welcoming for other hurricanes. Lastly, they move warm air from the poles to the tropics, which is crucial to the prevention of global warming. Even though hurricanes can cause a lot of damage, they can still be beneficial in some ways!
13: Lots of benefits!
14: Hurricanes happen all around the world, but they are called different thing in different places. In the Arabian sea and Indian ocean they are called Cyclones. The word Cyclone comes from Greek, meaning "circle." In the Eastern Pacific and the China Sea they are called Typhoons. Typhoon means "great wind" in Chinese. Hurricanes occur in every tropical ocean, except the South Atlantic and the South-East Pacific because the water isn't warm enough. Of all category 4 and 5 hurricanes to make landfall in the United States, 83% hit Florida or Texas. Florida is hit by 40% of all the U.S. hurricanes.
15: This is a map of tropical storm warnings and hurricane warning!
16: All of these red lines are one hurricane, from where it forms to where it dies.
17: red=hurricane yellow=tropical storm green=depression
18: A storm surge is one of the most powerful affects of a hurricane! A storm surge occurs after a hurricane, and its damage includes entire cities, (sometimes states) to flood and die. A storm surge is where at least half of all the hurricane related deaths come from. They are caused by an abnormal rise in ocean waters.
20: This is a "dropwindsone." It's a tool meteorologists use when they predict hurricanes. It can read the pressure, heat, and how fast the hurricane will travel.
21: Using technology meteorologists can predict some hurricanes, but not all. Meteorologists use tools to figure out the wind, air temperature, moisture, and air pressure. People who fly planes into storms are called "hurricane hunters." The National Hurricane Center is where warnings come from. Another way to predict them is to compare the current images (from the hurricane hunters) to the hurricanes in the past. This is called The Dvorak Method, created by Vern Dvorak. Some other things that help are: Satellites orbiting the earth, Doppler radar (temperature is shown in color), and dropwindsones (see left). It's difficult to predict hurricanes because they can change path or intensity in the wink of eye, but meteorologists work on it for our safety. cv kljhbhj
24: WORST HURRICANE IN THE US Hurricane Katrina caused lots of damage even though it was a category 3!
25: WORST HURRICANE IN THE WORLD 40 years ago, a half million people died from a cyclone named Bhola. In 1970, it came crashing through Eastern Pakistan with 115 mile per hour winds. That means it was only a category three hurricane but it still destroyed 85% of the homes! The storm surge raised the sea by 39 feet! The thing we found interesting was that cyclone Bhola helped split Pakistan into two countries! After the disaster struck,the people on the west wouldn't help the people in the east. So Eastern Pakistan became Bangladash, a very poor country that still gets many cyclones.
26: This is the path where Cyclone Bhola started and died.
28: The estimated casualties in the US are about 40 per year. There used to be more deaths before we could predict hurricanes better.The average number per year doesn't really mean much though, because on the years that a big hurricane strikes the United States there might be many, many more casualties and other years there might be none. There are usually more deaths from the flooding from a storm storm surge then from the hurricane itself.
29: Every year hurricanes cause almost 5 billion dollars in damage. Katrina was the most expensive storm so far. In 2005 she caused 81 billion dollars in damage. Hurricane Andrew in 1992 caused 26.5 billion in damage, but that's when things weren't as expensive, (that's called inflation). Hurricanes take a big dent out of today's money.
30: *Imagine meteorologists trying to report these hurricanes without names!
31: Naming In 1953 meteorologists began consistently giving names to tropical storms. Then they had only women's names until 1979. Now they go in alphabetical order and they alternate from boy to girl. There are 6 lists that get reused. If there are so many storms in a given year that they run out of letters in the alphabet, meteorologists begin using the Greek alphabet. When a hurricane causes intense damage, that name is removed from the list and will never be used again. It is replaced with another name that begins with the same letter. In 2005, there were 28 named storms. This was the most active hurricane year, and the only time that meteorologists had to use the Greek alphabet. Naming hurricanes helps people keep track of different storms.
32: Interesting Facts About Hurricanes #1. Hurricanes are 1,000 times more powerful then a tornado. #2. Almost one third of Americans live on or near the Atlantic or Gulf coasts. #3. Many people didn't evacuate before hurricane Katrina because shelters didn't take their pets. #4. In 1994, Typhoon John was the longest lasting storm in history. It lasted for 31 days! #5. Christopher Columbus wrote the first known report of a spotted hurricane.