FC: Westward Expansion I-N-S-P-E-C-T The Westward Expansion affected the U.S. with new animals, plants, resources, and new adventures.
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS Ideas............................pages 3--5 Natural/Geographic.............page 6 Social.................................page 7 Political........................pages 8--10 Economic..........................page 11 Culture.......................pages 12--13 Technology/Scientific...pages 13-14 Cause and Effect................page 16 Change and Community......page 16 Using the Past....................page 17 Turning Points....................page 17 Through Their Eyes.............page 18 Work Cited Page.................page 19
2: Ideas... Ideas affect our nations growth with new thoughts on expansion of land, and resources, new efficient technologies, the ideas to start new industries, etc. Interchangeable parts- With the idea to more efficiently and less costly produce muskets, Eli Whitney stumbled across interchangeable parts, causing a huge affect on our countries economy do to how we were able to start mass production and sell at higher prices because of the more efficient production process.
3: Ideas continued.. Efficient power sources- The idea of creating a mechanism powered by a chain reaction, like gears, or powered by our countries natural resources, | like the water wheel, to power invention such as the textile machine. The ideas for new power sources affected the U.S. by giving the knowledge to power with natural energy to future generations. | Ideas continued.. People! Samuel Slater- worked in a factory using Richard Arkwright machines for cotton spinning. He memorized the design of the machines because he had the idea to enter the U.S. and own his own cotton mills. He made replicas of Arkwright's machines, and with his idea, he marked an important step in the Industrial Revolution.
4: Ideas continued... Indian Removal Act- The idea for the Indian Removal Act affected the U.S. because with the land, bought from the Indians by the Federal Government, we were able to settle further west, and use the land for farming and planting cotton, and other trading goods. This idea affected the people's actions because they were now living on new land were they would need to change their ways of getting agriculture and cultures in order to prosper from the land | People! Samuel Slater- worked in a factory using Richard Arkwright machines for cotton spinning. He memorized the design of the machines because he had the idea to enter the U.S. and own his own cotton mills. He made replicas of Arkwright's machines, and with his idea, he marked an important step in the Industrial Revolution.
5: Natural/Geographic POPULATION! The land was affected by the agricultural expansions in the West. Southern farmers expanded to the west to plant cotton, the Western farmers expanded for more lands to raise their pork and cash crops such as wheat and corn. As population grew, the land changed to make the lives people's lives easier, one of the many examples would be the construction of the Erie Canal. The expansion to the west changed the land with every decision made, development, such as building factories, bridges, and settling inn general, changed and shaped the land gradually. LANDS! The land affected the development in the West because the resources differed from the East, making it more difficult to settle. The different land formations and climates also affected development do to how a great amount of the land was mountains and because climates varied through out the West.
6: Social The relationships between people in the U.S. were often needing to be compromised during the era of westward expansion, one example being the Missouri Compromise. Foreign and Native relations were made up of trade and treaties; while expanding west, the trade between the U.S. and the Natives was strong, good relations were made at this time. Later on the Interactions between the Native Americans and the Foreigners in the U.S became forceful; the U.S. was very interested in the land belonging to the Natives, so much that they payed them to leave their lands. This is called the Trail of Tears, and it marked a time where the relations between the Natives and The U.S. were at a low in History. To the people of this time, expansion of land, money, industries, and power were all of great importance. Because at this time all these things meant greater success.
7: POLITICAL CONTINUED... The Tariff Debate,Americans from different parts of the country strongly disagreed on this important topic. The Tariff Crisis made an enormous impact because at this time the tariff placed on European goods was very high, so American were more likely to but American-made goods, which boosted our economy. Northerners welcomed the high tariff, however, the Southerners did no, because the tariff meant higher prices. In the year 1835, the federal government, persuaded a few Cherokee to give up their land. In the year 1838 General Winfield Scott and an army of 7000 federal troops came to remove the remaining 17000 Cherokee from their homes, and lead them West. | Indian Removal
8: POLITICAL The 7th President of the U.S, Andrew Jackson was greatly approved by U.S. citizens; he was a patriot, self-made man, and a war hero. He influenced society by supporting the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and closed the U.S. Bank in 1836 because the ordinary citizens had no say. Jackson sought better conditions for the farmers, merchants, and laborers-the humble members of society- and affected their lives,and ours today, with his actions. "...When laws..make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society-the farmers, merchants, and laborers-who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government." -Andrew Jackson | WHIGS COME TO POWER William Henry Harrison was inaugurated in 1841, died within his first year as president, on April 4, 1841 from pneumonia. During his presidency the country entered a depression that began with the Panic of 1837. Harrison influenced society by being a part of important decisions. Next in office was John Tyler; he was the first vice president to gain the presidency because the elected president died in office. His influence on society was small, and made because he vetoed several bills sponsored by the whigs, his own party. The Whigs satyed in power for four years.
9: POLITICAL CONTINUED... Missouri Compromise- This decision made by Henry Clay resolved the tension between the Southerners and the Northerners on the topic of Missouri being a slave state, or being free of slavery. Henry Clay- An important politician at the time, designed a program called the American System. The program included a protective tariff- to provide the Government with money to build new roads and canals- and a national bank- to control inflation and lend money to build developing industries. Clay also helped John QUincy Adams with his run fro presidency, hoping to gain the position of Secretary of State. Adams became president and elected Clay as Secretary of State, their actions in politics made contributions to society.
10: ECONOMIC Many worked in factories but most worked and lived on farms; more than 60% of the U.S. population worked on farms in the 1820's. Northeastern Farms tended to be small and usually marketed locally. Southern Farms focused on cotton production, as cotton demand and production grew, industries needed greater employment which led to economic growth. TRADE The trade fueled our economy, it gave us resources and opportunities we might, otherwise, have gone without. The trade between the U.S. and the Natives, and the U.S. and Britain were extremely important in the development of the U.S. At this time Jackson was fighting the US. Bank. During the 1800"s, during Jackson"s and Van Buren's presidencies, economic depressions took place. At this the economies stability was questionable. An huge economic problem at this time was how in order to pay the Bank of the U.S, the Banks had to demand payment of debts by the farmers in the Midwest. This caused a restriction on money circulation and cutback on the amount of credit available to farmers and speculators, slowing the economy. The credit squeeze along with increase foreign production led to falling demand for U.S. crops, severely damaging the economy at the time.
11: Cultural California Gold Rush, an official Monterey reported, "The farmers have thrown aside their plows, the lawyers their briefs, the doctors their pills, the priests their prayer books, and all are now digging gold." This new "fad" was in full swing by 1848, and ended within a few years. Life in California was never the same, agriculture, shipping, and trade kept expanding to meet the needs of miners. Many who had come for the gold stayed and farmed there, or to run a business. During this time "Levi's" were very popular. RELIGIONS Mormon was the main religion at this time. It started because a group came from Utah to fulfill their vision of a holy life.
12: Outside of work there were many conflicts such as: The Battle of th Alamo, The Battle of San Jacinto, The war with Mexico, The Capture of Mexico City, and more. After the conflicts a peace treaty was signed between the U.S. and Mexico and the U.S, with the Gadsden Purchase, reached its present-day size. The "fads" for the economy was cotton production, Mississippi and Alabama supplied over half the nations cotton production by the year 1820.
13: CULTURAL CONTINUED... Native Americans- Cherokee culture was very strong during this time. This all began to change when the white men came with new technologies and ideas on how to wisely use the land. The white men changed their ways of life with the new techniques for farming, and build of settlements. Life for the Cherokee, outside of work, was difficult and sad, do to how the white men were slowly taking over their lands. | Americans- Americans, outside of work, lived much like how we do today; they had the same roles in government as we do today, and they lived in a world where people were constantly trying to exceed expectations.
14: Technological/Scientific The new Technologies affected how the people in the U.S. lived, and still live, on a daily basis. The new technologies were designed to make life simpler for working men, women, and factories.
15: Inventions Many inventions were made in the time period of the westward expansion, but to name a few would be the textile mill, the cotton gin, and the Clermont Steamboat. The textile mill- Was designed to bring work and workers together. Brought about newer energy sources, water wheel and gears. This invention revolutionized society at the time because it was the most efficient clothing factory at the time. The Cotton Gin- A machine designed to extract the cotton fibers from the cotton, did the work of 50 people in one day. Revolutionized society at the time because it lessened the man labored hours from hundreds to a days time. The Clermont Steamboat- Was a huge success and was able to steam its way up the Hudson River from New York City on its way to Albany in just 32 days. These inventions revolutionized society by how they simplified work and everyday activities.
16: CAUSE AND EFFECT | What were the causes of past events? The past event of settling Oregon was caused by the mountain men; because the mountain men killed of most of the beaver and couldn't trap, they were forced to settle in a different location, and with their knowledge of the western lands, some mountain men found work. CHANGE AND COMMUNITY Who has not benefited? In the westward expansion the Native Americans did not benefit, except from the earlier trade, During the expansion the Natives were taken away from their homes, forced to live on unfamiliar lands. The Americans, however, did benefit from the expansion. They gained land, population, and the opportunity to grow their economy, which they took advantage of by building factories and cotton plantations.
17: USING THE PAST How is the past similar to the present? How is it different? The past and present have many similarities, such as: We still have presidents, and conflicts dealing with how to run the country are dealt with much the same as they were in the past. The differences between the past and present are of the following: In the present, we tend to handle interactions with other countries in more civilized manners, today we have less battles/wars. TURNING POINTS How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? The actions of the people during the California Gold Rush transformed the lives of those who lived in California by crowding their lands with new communities, greater populations, and by boosting their economy. The merchants in the area made huge profits at this time because the miners had no place else to go to get food. A great change in the peoples lives was when slavery was banned by the California constitution, made in 1850.
18: THROUGHT THEIR EYES How did their world views affect their choices and actions? The American world view at the time was that the land to the west should belong to them, and that they deserved it because the land would be beneficial for their development. Their actions were influenced by their world views because they took advantage of the Native Americans and took their land so that America could grow economically, in population, and grow in power. The choice to expand westward was affected by the Americans thirst for more land and greater opportunities.
19: Work Cited "Western Economy: Boom and Panic." Westward Expansion (1807-1912). Spark Notes, n.d. Web. 26 April 2010.