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I-N-S-P-E-C-T Westward Expansion

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S: Pre-IB History 9

BC: "...A treasured edition for the individual remotely interested in...general American history..." | "It has everything... Amazing!" | "Wow!" | This inspiring book about Westward Expansion contains loads of historical facts and primary sources. Perfect for students or teachers who need a touch up on their history. | Westward Ho!

FC: I-N-S-P-E-C-T Westward Expansion Prepared by Devon Shustarich

1: Table of Contents Ideas Manifest Destiny..............1 Indian Removal..................3 Natural/Geographic Precious Metals.................5 River Travel........................7 Social Southwestern Conflict....9 Indian Resistance............11

2: Table of Contents (cont.) Political Spoils System and electoral changes......13 Indian Removal Act.......................15 Economic The Tariff Debate........................17 The Panic of 1837.........................19 Cultural Mormon Religion... .......................21 Levi Strauss Jeans......................23 Technological/Scientific Interchangeable Parts................25 Cotton Gin......................................27 Conclusion............................................29 | Citations....32

4: Manifest Destiny | Manifest Destiny was the 19th century belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny was the driving force behind the rapid expansion of America into the West. It influenced Americans to take Texas for them selves, causing the Battle of the Alamo, and it gave American settlers the will power to travel into the unknown regions of the United States. 1

5: 2 | This painting, representing American's spiritual belief that it was America's destiny to expand across the continent, was painted by John Gast. It is called American Progress.

6: Indian Removal | During the period of Manifest Destiny, many people saw that in order to migrate west and expand the boundaries of the U.S., new land would have to be obtained through either negotiation or war. This idea caused much hardship for the natives living on the land, eventually culminating into one of the most depressing events in American History, the Trail of Tears. 3

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8: Precious Metals | Precious Metals such as gold, silver, and copper attracted thousands of Americans west to California and other areas of rich land. The Gold Rush caused many new communities, called boomtowns, to spring up almost over night. The sudden flood of new wealth boosted America's economy and gave even the poorest people a chance to strike it rich and enter into high society. | 5

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10: River Travel | There were many advantages of river travel over wagon and horse travel.These include no bumpy, muddy roads, having to cut down trees, and it was much faster because detours weren't required. There were problems however, as most river run north to south and upstream travel was difficult and slow. These factors caused the steamboat to be invented. | 7

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12: Southwestern Conflict | 9 | During the early 1800's, few people lived in the southwest. Most were Tejanos and Native Americans. As time went on, settlers began to populate the area and tensions grew. By 1835, open conflict occurred regularly, but it wasn't until the beginning of the next year that the real battles arose. Tensions between American colonists and the Mexican government caused a 12 day battle now known as the Battle of the Alamo. Shortly before Texas gained it's independence and finally was annexed to the United States, James K. Polk was elected President. Filled with Manifest Destiny, he was determined to take New Mexico for the U.S. The war that ensued lasted for 2 years, finally ending in February of 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

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14: Indian Resistance | As white settlers moved into he southeastern states, they began demanding the Natives who lived there to move west. In the year 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which stated that the Five Civilized (the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole) were to be forced to move west of the Mississippi. The Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Creek submitted and began their dismal move west, but the Cherokee and Seminole resisted. The Cherokee people protested, but it didn't do any good. The government began forcing them west June 6, 1838 on a death march now known as the Trail of | 11

15: 12 | Tears. The Seminole, on the other hand, refused to abandon their homeland and used guerrilla war tactics in the Florida Everglades, eventually causing the government to give up in 1842, having lost more than 1,500 American soldiers lives. The Seminole were the only tribe to successfully resist their removal.

16: The Spoils System and Electoral Changes | At the time of Andrew Jackson's election, the government had become a bureaucracy. He and his supporters were greatly disturbed by this, and in reaction to the outrage,he began firing federal employees left and right, replacing them with his supporters. This, in turn opened up government jobs to people from all walks of life. It is called the spoils system. | 13 | The Spoils System

17: 14 | Electoral Changes | His supporters wanted the government to be much more Democratic as well as open. To accomplish this task, they threw out the old caucus system and replaced it with nominating conventions. Delegates from each state voted for whomever they believed would be the best presidential candidate. Whichever candidate managed to obtain 2/3 of the vote was chosen. This system allowed many more people to participate in the selection of political candidates.The first national party convention was held in 1832, Baltimore, Maryland.

18: 15 | Indian Removal Act | As people began wanting more land and proposing to remove the Indians, Congress took notice. It responded by passing the Indian Removal Act in 1830. This Act allowed the federal government to pay off the Indians to get them to move west. President Jackson sent officials to negotiate their removal, and most felt they should, yet some, such as the Seminole and Cherokee tribes, wouldn't have it (read more on page 12). In 1834, Congress created the "Indian Territory," in what is now present day Oklahoma, for the Natives who moved to live.

19: 16 | The Indian Removal Act

20: 17 | The Tariff Debate | A tariff is a fee paid by merchants who import goods. In 1828, Congress passed a very high tariff on all European manufactured goods. Those in the Northeast praised it because it made European goods more expensive, encouraging Americans to buy American made goods. Those in the South, however, despised it, calling it the "Tariff of Abominations." They argued that even though the tariff meant more people would buy American made goods, it also meant higher prices. In retaliation, Southern politicians and plantation owners argued that they could nullify, or repeal, a state law they considered not in the state's best interest. Even more radical Southerners called to

21: 18 | secede. Southern anger continued to grow over the tariff, so much so that in 1832, Congress decided to pass a new lower tariff with the hopes of calming things down. It didn't. Southerners continued to uprise against the so called "oppression" by passing the Nullification Act, declaring that the South would not pay the 'unreasonably high' tariffs. In order to end the crisis, President Jackson, in 1833, urged Congress to pass the Force Bill, which proclaimed that the president to use the military to enforce acts of Congress. The South immediately gave up, but vowed to strike back later on.

22: 19 | The Panic of 1837 | When President Jackson decided not to run for a third term in 1836, the Democrats selected a man named Martin van Buren of New York as their presidential candidate. He was inaugurated in 1837. Shortly after his election, the country fell into a deep depression. Land values dropped like a rock, investments took a plunge, and many banks failed. Thousands of businesses collapsed and hundreds of thousands were out of a job. Many more terrible events occurred.

23: 20 | President van Buren, who believed government should interfere as little as possible in the nations economy, responded by persuading Congress to establish an independent treasury in 1840. This helped guard against further bank crisis, but it did not pullAmerica out of the hole immediately.

24: 21 | The Mormon Religion | In 1830, Joseph Smith founded a new religion, or rather an add-on to the Christian Religion, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the state of New York. With his new religion, he hoped to create a kind of utopia. However, most didn't think of it as a utopia for he supported polygamy. This belief was eventually discontinued, yet while in use, it caused many people to become angry and want to throw him and his followers out. When they eventually did, the Mormons moved to Ohio, the to Missouri, and finally to Illinois where Smith was killed by an angry mob in 1844. After his death, a man named Brigham Young

25: 22 | took control, declaring they should move to the Great Salt Lake in what is today Utah. There, they set up communities and called the area that they lived Deseret. Today, many Mormons have migrated to other parts of the country and people aren't so intolerant towards them anymore.

26: 23 | Levi Strauss Jeans | In 1873, a dry goods merchant in San Fransisco named Levi Strauss and a Nevada tailor named Jacob Davis, developed and began selling and a new, more durable brand of jeans. The new jeans were, and still are, reinforced with small copper (now cheap alloys because copper is too expensive) tacks called rivets. They were marketed to mostly farmers and miners, but are now worn widespread by everyone from all walks of life. These jeans were often associated with hard work, but now people can buy "designer" jeans with holes premanufactured in them to have the appearance of being worked in.

27: 24 | Jacob Davis | Levi Strauss

28: 25 | Interchangeable Parts | Interchangeable parts were first brought into use by inventor Eli Whitney, the guy who invented the cotton gin in 1793. Interchangeable parts are identical machine parts that can be quickly assembled to create a finished product (such as an automobile, ratchet wrench, or desk [not a machine]). Because all parts are alike, if a machine part breaks, it is very easy to order and replace the broken part. The need, usually..., to buy a completely new machine is eradicated! Specially trained workers required to operate the machines weren't required anymore! Things could be manufactured much more cheaply. It opened the road to mass production and the assembly line.

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30: 27 | The Cotton Gin | In 1793, a man named Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, gin being short for engine. This simple little machine could quickly and efficiently remove cotton seeds from cotton fiber. It was so efficient, in fact, that it is claimed that one worker using one could do the same amount of work in one day as 50 workers doing it by hand. This amazing technological achievement allowed southern plantations to flourish and decreased the need for slave labor. Production went up and cotton prices went down; everyone wins!

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32: 29 | Conclusion | What were the causes of past events? The steam locomotive was invented and railroads were built as a result of the need to stimulate trade and speed up the transportation of people and goods. The Trail of Tears was caused by Americans' unremorseful greed, belief that land can be owned, and unwillingness to stop expanding. The Gold Rush was caused by the discovery of large, easily accessible caches of gold in the West. The successfulness of the Erie Canal lead to an explosion of canal building, causing the price of shipping goods to drop and the prosperity of communities in the areas around them to increase. Most importantly, the canals helped unite the still young, expanding United States. Many people began migrating west into the unknown because of the uprising belief in Manifest Destiny, crowding in the Eastern U.S., and the low prices of land.

33: 30 | Who has not benefited and why? The largest group of people who had not benefit from Westward Expansion were the Native Americans living on U.S. bought land. They did not benefit because Americans forced them from their homes, stole their land, and offered them reservations of barren desert through treaties that were often broken shortly after being put into use. How did people in the past view their world? Americans: Land can be owned. They are more intelligent and better in every other way than the Native Americans. It is okay to take what you want no matter how immoral and wrong it is to do so if the government creates a law sanctioning the action. Native Americans: The Earth should be treated with respect. Americans are evil invaders. You should only take what you need, and use what you take.

34: 31 | Conclusion Cont. | How did decisions or actions significantly transform peoples lives? The decisions and actions made by the U.S. government and remaining population during the 1800's that had to do with westward expansion destroyed many lives, mostly Native Americans. Yet, on the other hand, they forced change on society. Without that forced change, a lot of the technological and social progress made during this time would have never happened. The Indians still have not fully recovered. | What can we learn from the past? Things we can learn from the past are: 1.) Not all progress is truly progress. 2.) One person can make a difference, 3.) The effects of expansion can be devastating to those around us.

35: 32 | Citations | Appleby, Joyce, Brinkley, Alan, Broussard, Albert S., McPherson, James M., & Ritchie, Donald A. (2005). (2005). The American republic to 1877. Chicago, Illinois: McGraw Hill and Glencoe. Parker, Matthew D. (2005). Indian removal act of 1830. Allard, Phil. (2006, April 10). Manifest destiny noble ideal or excuse for imperialist expansion?.

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