S: Indigenous Peoples of Northern Africa
BC: Information Reference List Tuareg. (2011). Countries and Their Cultures, Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Tuareg.html Webster, D. (2010). Tuareg Style. National Geographic, Retrieved from http://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/intelligenttravel/2010/04/tuareg-style.html Tuareg - History and Cultural Relations. (2011). Countries and Their Cultures, Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/Africa-Middle-East/Tuareg-History-and-Cultural-Relations.html Tuareg Economy. (2011). Countries and Their Cultures, Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/Africa-Middle-East/Tuareg-Economy.html Tuareg. (2008). World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, Retrieved from http://www.minorityrights.org/5518/niger/tuareg.html Voice of the Tuareg Resistance. (2008). Indigenous Portal, Retrieved from http://www.indigenousportal.com/Human-Rights/Voice-of-the-Tuareg-Resistance.html Announcing Alamad. (2010). Alamad (NGO), Retrieved from http://alamad.org/?tag=tuareg Peacemaking by Consensus in Mali. (n.d.). People Building Peace, Retrieved from http://www.gppac.net/documents/pbp/1/5_peace_.htm
FC: Indigenous Peoples of Northern Africa | Written by: Jackson Martin, Jeff Bauer, and Greg Westenhoefer
1: Connection To The Land Location Languages Clothing Beliefs and Rituals | Table of Contents | 2 3 4 5 6 | Home/Shelter The Curse of Oil in Ogoniland The Ogoni Struggle Colonialism Sustaining Economic Needs | 7 8 9 10 11 | Impacts of Government NGOs Issues Being Faced Picture Reference List Information Reference List | 13 14 15 16 17
2: Connection To The Land | Tuareg The Taureg live a semi-nomadic lifestyle. They travel with their herds on a seasonal basis, yet have a home area where they grow some food crops. (Tuareg, 2011) | - Tuareg people walking across the desert. | Ogoni The Ogoni territory is located in Rivers State, Nigeria on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The Ogoni people live a good lifestyle as farmers and fisherman. | Ogoni fisherman | Nuba The Nuba people reside in the foothills of the Nuba mountains. The Nuba people are primarily farmers, as well as herders who keep cattle, goats, chickens and other domestic animals. Fishing and hunting is also common for the Nuba people. Nuba people are excellent farmers and are very knowledgeable about the land and the surrounding wild life.
3: Tuareg Most of the Tuareg live in the Saharan and Sahelian regions which is located in Southern Algeria, western Lybia, eastern Mali, northern Niger, and northeastern Burkina Faso. They live on flat desert plains, grasslands, and volcanic mountains. However, many Taureg have migrated to the south because of drought, famines, and political tensions from the governments of Mali and Niger. (Tuareg, 2011) | Location | - This is a portion of the desert plains in Mali, Africa. | - The map of where the Tuareg live. | Ogoni Ogoni territory consists of 404 square miles, stretching across the coastal plains to the northeast of the Niger River Delta. It is inhabited by one million, its population density is the highest in any rural area of the world. | Political boundary of Nigeria | NUBA The Nuba people reside in one of the most remote and inaccessible places in all of Sudan, the foothills of the Nuba Mountains in central Sudan. At one time the area was considered a place of refuge, bringing together people of many different tongues and backgrounds who were fleeing oppressive governments and slave traders.
4: Tuareg The Tuareg mainly speak the language called Tamacheq, which is in the Berber language group. Some other languages they also speak are Songhay, Hausa, and French. (Tuareg, 2011) | Language | - Writings of the language Tamacheq on a slightly withered piece of paper. | Ogoni The Ogoni people are linguistically diverse. The languages spoken amongst the Ogoni people are; Khana, Gokana, Tai, Eleme and Ban Ogoi. | Nuba There are over 100 hundred languages are spoken in the area and are considered Nuba languages, although many of the Nuba also speak Sudanese Arabic, the official language of Sudan.
5: Clothing | Tuareg The Tuareg wear head wraps called cheches to protect them from the sun, along with flowing gowns called bubus that allow air flow while deflecting heat and blowing sand. The clothing is part of their fashion sense, as well as to protect them from the environment. (Tuareg Style, 2010) | - A Tuareg man wearing a cheche over his face. | Nuba The Nuba, even though Muslim have traditionally worn little clothing. Men wear a sarong and occasionally a skull cap. Young men remained naked while children even girls wore only a string of beads. Older women and young women wore beads and wrap a sarong over their legs and sometimes a cloak tie on the shoulder.
6: Beliefs and Rituals | Tuareg The Tuareg belief system and rituals overlap with Islam. An example would be how they believe in spirits, and most of those spirits are evil, causing illnesses. Some perform fortune-telling with cowrie shells, lizards, mirrors, and the Koran (the sacred text of Islam). (Tuareg, 2011) | - The sacred book of Koran. | Ogoni The Ogoni people belief system revolves aroundd the land. The most important Ogoni deity is Saa, the owner of the earth. Saa is believed to be responsible for the fertility of the soil, good harvest and good growing conditions. Saa is expected to ward off crop failures and natural disasters. | Ogoni flag | Nuba The main religion of the Nuba is islam although the old shamanistic beliefs still prevail. Both sexes practise scarification and circumcision. Men shave their heads, older men wear beards, women and girls braid their hair in strands and string it with beads. Also depending on you tribe or village different face paintings are used.
7: Home/Shelter | Tuareg The Tuareg live rural communities which include several tents and a few cone shaped grass buildings. Some wealthier Tuareg live in oasis areas and have adobe houses. (Tuareg, 2011) | - A Tuareg tent. | Nuba Villages consist of family compounds, and the mens house (Holua) in which unmarried men sleep. A family compound consisting of a rectangular compound enclosing two round mud huts thatched with sorghum stalks facing each other called a shal.
8: The Curse of Oil in Ogoniland | "The once-beautiful Ogoni countryside is no more a source of fresh air and green vegetation. All one sees and feels around is death." | Petroleum, the cause of Ogoni's anguish and suffering was first discovered in Ogoni in 1958. Since then an estimated 100 billion USD worth of oil and gas has been extracted from Ogoni land. The Ogoni people have received nothing in return. This exploitation has transformed Ogoniland into a wasteland. Gases emitted unremittingly from the oil mines have caused a complete destruction of the ecosystem. Acid rain, oil spillages and oil blow outs have devastated the Ogoni territory with it ruining the lifestyle of the Ogoni as farmers and fishermen.
9: The Ogoni Struggle The Ogoni people are suffering greatly at the hands of Nigerian rulers and global economic interest. Mining royalties for Ogoni oil are not being paid to the Ogoni people. Despite great wealth of the Ogoniland the Ogoni people continue to live without electricity, hospitals, housing, schools and drinkable water. "We cannot drink the water from the streams, you can't drink rainwater and there is no piped water. Our right to drinking water has been taken away by the company, our right to farming has been taken away by the company, and our right to clean air has also been taken away by the company." -Dr. Owens Wiwa, human rights activist from Nigeria
10: Colonialism | Tuareg In the late 1800s European exploration and military expeditions in the Sahara and along the Niger River led to incorporation of the region into French West Africa. By the early twentieth century, the French had brought the Tuareg under their colonial domination and lost their rights tariff collection and protection services. (History and Cultural Relations, 2011) | - A group of confused looking Tuareg. | Ogoni British colonialists invaded the Ogoni territory in 1901 and soon there after began unravelling the fabric of Ogoni society. British began controlling the Ogoni even though no treaty was signed. In 1960 the colonel rule ended and consigned the Ogoni to Nigeria. | Nuba Baggara and Jellaba are Arabic-speaking Muslims who migrated to the Nuba Mountains, in several waves since the turn of the 17th century, for slave raiding and trade. There is also a large number of Fellata (West Africans) who migrated to the Nuba Mountains in search for work as agricultural laborers in the cotton fields during the 1920s and as a result of subsequent droughts in the West African Sahel. There were continuous waves of migration from central Sudan to the Nuba Mountains and hence, many eastern Nuba have converted to Islam.
11: Sustaining Economic Needs | Tuareg Trade - Tuareg men spend five to seven months on camel caravans for dates and salts, and trade them for millet and other food items, household tools, spices perfume, and cloth. Division of Labour - Men tend to the camel herding, caravan trade, and planting and irrigating gardens. Women inherit and own livestock, choose to participate in caravan trade, and own gardens. (Tuareg Economy,2011) | - Tuareg merchants riding on their camels between cities. | Nuba A mans wealth is measured by cattle so they are kept in a enclosure called a coh for cows and a cohnih for calves, about 10 mins walk from house. The Nuba people rely entirely on the trading and selling of agriculture and livestock. Trading between two different villages is common but most villages are able to produce enough for their village to thrive.
12: Impacts Of Government | Tuareg Different governments have restricted the Tuareg's individual and group rights. They have also remained in total control of the Tuareg people for about one hundred years. As a result, there has been chaos stirring up around Mali such as gun fights occurring. (History and Cultural Relations, 2011) | Nuba In the 1986 elections, the Umma Party lost several seats to the Nuba Mountains General Union and to the Sudan National Party, due to the reduced level of support from the Nuba Mountains region. There is reason to believe that attacks by the government-supported militia, the Popular Defense Force on several Nuba villages were meant to be in retaliation for this drop in support. Since 1986 Government has restricted Nuba growth and development aswell as becoming violent by invading Nuba villages. Many Nubas, however, have migrated to the Sudanese capital of Khartoum to escape persecution and the effects of Sudan’s civil war.
13: NGOs | Tuareg Many NGOs have contributed to the process for peace including: - Building civilian-military relations. - Discreet mediation by national and international figures. - Decentralization of governance. - Promotion of reconciliation through civil society. - A process of disarmament and demobilization. - Investment in the re-integration of former rebel combatants. (Peacemaking by Consensus in Mali,) Alamad is an NGO charity to support the nomad's social-economic development in Niger, especially for girl's/women's education in the Sahara. (Announcing Alamad) | The Ogoni have suffered at the hands of military dictatorship for decades. MOSOP (movement for the survival of the Ogoni people) was formed to demand social justice and equaily for the Ogoni. In October 1990 cheifs and leaders of Ogoni submitted a bill of rights to the Nigerian President calling for; political control of Ogoni affairs, the right to use a fair proportion of Ogoni economic resources for Ogoni development, representation in all Nigerian national insitutions, right to protect Ogoni ecology and environment from further degradation. | Nuba Sudan has suffered, particularly the Nuba Mountains region which has suffered from the conflict and natural disasters. The Nuba Mountains region was closed from the outside world for more than a decade while the on-going wars caused desperate, economic, social, political situations and education loss. Basically all the infrastructures in the area were virtually destroyed. This led to living conditions and education standard to deteriorate badly followed by huge poverty gap among Nuba people. All these culminated the grievances of everyone concerned about Sudan’s welfare and the Nuba Mountains in particular to pool their efforts in a national organisations to rescue the Nuba situation.
14: Issues Being Faced | Tuareg - Droughts and decreasing value of livestock and salt have weakened its economy. - Deadly fire-fights with government forces. - The Tuareg's have attempted to target the region's uranium extraction industry. - Changed rainfall patterns involved in global warming is contributing to more extreme desertification, which means massive losses in livestock and food security. (Voice of the Tuareg Resistance) | - A Tuareg man having lunch. | Nuba There are many isssues that Nuba tribes face with regerds to mechanised farming. Nuba tribes have been inclined to their way of farming for years and to introduce mechanised farming is a burden especially for the lack of knowledge that they have. Also their is a civil war that also hold a burden on the people of Nuba. The civil war in Sudan has a negative affect on these people because with regards to land and human rights
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