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Inspect: Westward Expansion 1790-1853

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1: Westward Expansion was a period in American History when people began to move west and change their ideas of American life itself.

2: Table of Contents Ideas........................3 Natural/Geographic.......6 Social......................10 Political...................14 Economic..................18 Cultural...................22 Technological.............26

3: The idea for National Road was completed in 1850 and was for much of the 1800's, the county's busiest highway. It was 780 miles long and ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. The road stimulated settlement and trade westward because of the ease of traveling on it. The next large highways in the United States was the Lincoln Highway built in 1913, and was the first transcontinental highway for cars. From the time of the building of the National Road, highways have been important pieces of American life.

4: Laissez--faire was the idea that the government should have very little involvement in the country's economic system. President Van Buren believed in this principle during the Panic of 1837.

5: Another new idea was Manifest Destiny. The term was made up by a New York writer, and it was the idea that America should exist from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic Coast. Many considered this America's mission because it would make the country both larger and more powerful. This idea came to light when many Americans wanted to claim parts of Oregon Country

6: Oregon Country was a vast expanse of land located between British Columbia and California, west of the Rocky Mountains. The Columbia river was a major waterway used by the lewis and Clark expedition and lead to the opening of the West for settlers. | Natural/ Geographic

7: When Americans started settling westward they ran into one very controversial problem, American Indians lived on the newly settled land.The Indian Removal Act of 1830 relocated American Indians to Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma. The Trail of Tears was the movement of the Cherokee Nation from their native land, sadly, many thousands of the Cherokees died along the way. (Trail of Tears Picture at the left) | "We wish to remain on the land of our fathers." - Cherokee People

8: The Oregon trail was a route taken by settlers to Oregon Country. The journey was 2,000 miles long and was taken in groups traveling in covered wagons like the one seen in the picture. On the Western side of the Rocky Mountain many settlements were inhabited by travelers of the Oregon Trail looking to settle in the West.

9: Texas achieved independence in 1836 after the Battle of San Jacinto. After Texans elected Sam Houston as president Texas asked the United States to annex their state. The United States refused annexation until 1844 because it would disrupt the balance in Congress between slave and free states

10: The first U.S. Census was taken in 1790 to provide an official population count of nearly four million Americans. In 1790 most Americans lived east of the Appalachian Mountains, but by 1820 many Americans were moving west. The 1820 census reveled that the U.S. population was at about 10 million people, two million of those people lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. | Social

11: River Travel Began to grow as an excellent way to transport goods in the eastern United States. it was far more efficient than road travel, and during the time period many canals connected to rivers were built. The well known Erie Canal (shown at left) was completed in 1825 and linked the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. The canal helped move people and goods westward in a very cost effective manner and helped many settlers move west.

12: During the Indian Removal Act many American Indians refused to honor the treaty and resorted to guerrilla warfare. In the 1840's many Seminoles (picture on the left) joined forces and choreographed surprise attacks on American settlements. In 1835 Seminoles attacked 110 American troops and killed almost all of them. This became known as the Dade massacre and it forced more government action towards the the resisting Seminoles, but eventually by 1842 most of the American Indians living in the Southeast had been moved to the Indian Territory.

13: Some of the first settlers to move west were missionaries trying to spread Christianity. Dr. Marcus Whitman moved to to present day Washington in 1836 to build a mission near the Cayuse people. The incoming settlers and missionaries brought a wave of measles with them that killed many American Indian children. The Cayuse people blamed the settlers for the illness and attacked and killed Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife and 11 other people in the mission.

14: The Missouri Compromise took place in 1820 when sectional tension reached extraordinary measures. The South wanted the new state of Missouri to be a slave state, while the North wanted it to be a free state. The argument was finally settled when Missouri became a slave state and the other new state, Maine became a free state. The Missouri compromise also banned slavery north of the 36 30N parallel. The separation of regions by the Missouri Compromise was most likely a component in the start of the Civil War. | Political

15: In 1816 President James Monroe was elected as the Republican candidate. His well known statement, the Monroe Doctrine, was issued on December 2, 1823 and stated that the United States would oppose any new colonies in the Americans of European Nations. Although the United Sates would ignore all existing colonies and the United Sates had no military power to back up the statement, it became a major component in U.S. foreign policy and it is still important today. | President Monroe

16: The Whigs party began to gain national power when William Harrison, a member of the Whig party, was elected president in 1840. The Whigs won the election by gaining the support of farmers and laborers. Their political party chose the cabin as their symbol and campaigned on the promise that their opponent, Van Buren, was a wealthy snob and unfit to run the country. When Harrison died in office and Tyler, his vice president, was sworn in he began making very democratic decisions that other members of the party disagreed with. The party could not agree on their values and eventually lost power.

17: The spoils system is the right of the elected candidate to replace government employees with their supporters. The practice began when President Jackson was elected and he replaced many of the current government employees with his own supporters. When the fired employees began to protest Jackson replied that the the victor of the campaign should have the spoils or the benefits of the victory. He also replied that changing government officials would be a good idea for the democracy. The spoils system is still used today by the winning candidate when he or she is allowed to replace government employees.

18: The Industrial Revolution was the change in the American economy from agriculture and farming based to industrial based. In the mid -1700s production of goods began to change and grow in efficiency from the increase in use of factories. The industrial Revolution began in New England where poor soil made farming difficult, so people began using factories with hydro power to produce goods to sell. The industrial Revolution played a vital role in the economy because it triggered the idea of capitalism. | Economic

19: With the industrial based economy many large business, or corporation, began to develop in th 1830's when many legal obstacles for businesses were removed. The increase in corporations also made buying and selling stock, or shares of a business, much easier. The increase in stock shares also helped many corporations improve financially. The charter of the Second National Bank of the United States also helped corporations grow because it was able to loan large amounts of money to private businesses.

20: The Panic of 1837 began when the value of land severely dropped. After that the country fell into an economic depression and employment and businesses fell. Many banks failed and the businesses lost triggered huge unemployment rates. Crop prices fell to record lows and many farmers accumulated debt and and lost their land. The depression ended when President Van Buren and Congress established the federal treasury to prevent further bank collapse. | The collapse of American banks in the Panic of 1837

21: The California Gold Rush began when 80,000 people went to California in 1849 to search for gold. $6 million worth of gold had been found in California Rivers by 1849 encouraging large numbers of people moving west to mine gold. many of the people rushing to California founded new communities in California which helped the population grow from 20,000 people to 220,000 people in four years. When the Gold Rush ended a few years later the California economy continued to grow in agriculture, trade and shipping, which helped the national economy prosper.

22: Mountain Men were trappers, traders and adventurers who spent their time in the Rocky Mountains. They were independent people who made their living off trapping furs and then selling them at annual rendezvous. The rendezvous were cultural experiences when the mountain men traded stories of adventures and furs to make their yearly income. The mountain men truly were the first people to move westward and live off the land, and they helped many settlers make their way into the West.

23: Spanish Explorers first entered California in th 1760's when Father Junipero Serra started a number of missions (like the one below) in the Southern Portion of the state. The mission system helped Spaniards inhabit California, and by 1820 it had 21 missions with 20,000 American Indians living in them. After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 California continued to receive Spanish influence from the Mexican settlers who built huge properties called ranchos. Even after California became part of the united States the Spanish influence from the 1800's remained, and today many parts of California are inhabited by Hispanic people.

24: Levi Strauss was dry goods merchant in San Fransisco in 1873 when he and a tailer from Nevada, Jacob Davis, developed blue jeans. They were a pair of denim pants that had copper tacks that were pressed into the fabric for extra reinforcement against wear. They were originally marketed toward miners and workers because they were a very sturdy piece of clothing and they were originally associated with hard work. Today jeans are worn in America and other parts of the world not only as work clothes, but for leisure as well. | A picture of Levi Strauss

25: The American Indian game of lacrosse was first observed by French man named George Catlin. The American Indian game had a total of 600 to 700 players on the field at a time, and their nets were 6 feet wide and 25 feet tall. The object of the game was to use ones stick to throw the ball through the opponents net. Today lacrosse is both a mens and womens sport with the womens sport being more similar to the American Indian game because of equipment and playing style.The lacrosse game played today was directly influenced from the American Indian game the George Catlin observed the Choctaw men playing.

26: Francis Cabot Lowell opened a textile plant in Massachusetts in 1814when he invented the factory system. The factory system is a way of bringing all the steps of manufacturing together in a single location so efficiency increases. The factory system was a very good way to increase production goods and to reduce costs. The factory system significantly helped increase production and was an important part of the Industrial Revolution | Technological and Scientific

27: With the Industrial Revolution many new inventions were bring prototyped like a nail making machine. In 1790 Congress passed a law that issued inventors a patent that gave them the sole legal right of the invention. The patents were to protect the rights of the inventors so they could receive the profit from the invention for a certain period of time. The patent encouraged inventors to continue to develop new prototypes because they would be given the legal rights to the invention.

28: During the Industrial Revolution canals became even more important than rivers because their direction could be chosen. The Erie Canal was a large body of water that connected Troy, NY to Buffalo, NY on Lake Erie. Within the canal a new piece of technology was used, the lock (seen in picture above). the locks were separate compartments full of water that made it easier for ships to pass over higher ground while in the water. The Erie Canal and its lock system helped goods to be transported though out the eastern United States.

29: In 1793 the cotton gin was invented by a man from Massachusetts, Eli Whitney. It was the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the cotton gin was on of the first machines in vented in that time period. The simple machine sorted cotton from the seed in a quick and efficient manner. The cotton gin replaced 50 workers sorting cotton by hand, and it was a very cost effective method.

30: Change and Continuity: What has changed? During Westward expansion much of the United sSates changed in physical condition and in the lives of Americans New ideas were formed to increase the efficiency of productions and of goods and for transportation. With the Louisiana Purchase the borders of the Untied States changed to accommodate new land. Through the period of history many new cultural and social changes were made and American life reflected those changes. Using the Past: How is the past similar to the present? The period of Western Expansion was somewhat similar to the present, even though it happened over 150 years ago. The people of that time period used highways like the national road to get around and to transport goods similar to how we use roads like I-35 today. The people also have some similar cultural ideas today because lacrosse was played during both time periods, and jeans were worn in the 1800's and are still worn today. The world is very different today then it was in the 19th century, but some things have stayed the same. Through Their Eyes: How did people in the past view their world? Different people from the period of western Expansion saw their world differently, but most people saw it as a time of change and growth. The settlers viewed their world as a place where they could control their own land, and they believed that they should settle the unexplored frontier. The American Indians saw their world as a place where they were being taken advantage of as the American settlers were selling their land profiting from it. Even through different people saw the world differently, it is important to understand the many different points of view that people had at this time.

31: Turning Points: How did decisions or actions affect future choices? Many important decisions and actions took place during Westward Expansion that transformed peoples lives. The decision to remove the American Indians east of the Mississippi transformed the lives of those people because they were forced from their homeland. The decision by Thomas Jefferson to buy the Louisiana Purchase from France changed the lives of Americans moving west because it gave them more land to live on. The actions of the settlers moving west transformed the lives of the American Indians living there because more people were buying pieces of territory. Many people made decisions during this time period, and they all helped shape the United States that we have today. Cause and Effect: How did events affect people's lives community, and the world? There were many events that took place during Westward Expansion that affected many people's lives. The Louisiana Purchase affected people because it provided them with more land to move westward. The new advances in travel and technology also affected people because machines reduced worker need and increased efficiency. Transportation became cheaper and more convenient for the general public to use. The changes made during this time period affected people in the 1800's, but they also affect today with the uses of things like canals and roads.

32: Works Cited Frank E. Jr., Sadoski. "Cliinton's Big Ditch." The Erie Canal. Genesee Gateway, 2010. Web. 22 Apr 2010. "Oregon Territorial History." Oregon State Archives. Oregon State Archives, n.d. Web 21 Apr 2010. The national Geographic Society,. The American Republic. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2005. 304-381. print.

33: Westward Expansion 1790-1853

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