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INSPECTing Our Way West

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S: INSPECTing Our Way West by Kary Sheppard

BC: & that's all folks!

FC: INSPECTing Our Way West | Kary Sheppard

1: Table of Contents | What a beautiful view! | INSPECT: Ideas...2-7 Natural...8-11 Social...12-13 Political...14-17 Economic...18-19 Cultural...20-21 Technology...22-23 Conclusion/Bibliography ...24-27

2: *Finding an efficient way to travel across the US for future American settlers was a major hot topic. Would it be easier to travel by river? By land? What kind of transportation would be used? | Ideas

3: Steamboats: river travel approved. Some kind of boat was needed to get from the East to the West, and back again. Canals (& other waterways) were also a new way to travel where no water originally flowed. Man-made,,.and ingenious

4: Idea= State Sovereignty

5: Another idea, brought forth by Southerners, was state sovereignty. This was the idea that states have autonomous (independent) power. John C. Calhoun was one of these chief supporters. The idea was adopted in 1820. These same supporters later became strong opponents of various national programs (high tariffs).

6: Having known the land for hundreds of years, the Native Americans lived on the most fertile land. When the American settlers traveled West, they felt they needed to have the Indians' land. With this mindset, the federal government was persuaded to relocate the Native Americans living in the Southeast to beyond the Mississippi River.

7: In a rash act, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which allowed the fed government to relocate the Indians to the Indian Territory(small area of land in OK). This deed was carried out by thousands of soldiers, and was known as the Trail of Tears. | tribe chief | Removal of Native Americans | "We wish to remain on the land of our fathers." -Cherokee

8: Natural/ Geographic | The natural/geographic aspects of the transitional lifestyle of settlers were major factors. The surroundings and resources affected not only how American settlers made a living, but also their entire way of life. A new food and large game animal that was now available was the buffalo. These humongous animals were abundant and made for a large target. Settlers took advantage of this, and ate them.

9: Farming the Land Though farming didn't really change the land, it sure did change the ways that Americans lived. They now were responsible for caring for their crops and fields. Farming was a big deal for some people too, because it provided a sense of responsibility and ownership. Common crops included corn, cotton, and tobacco, as well as normal vegetable gardens to support a family.

10: The Oregon Country | The huge area between the Pacific and the Rockies north of CA was the Oregon Country (present-day OR, WA, ID, MT, WY, and BC, Canada). Many Americans wanted ownership of this vast land, and this desire caused Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to negotiate with the various countries, who controlled the land, for ownership.

11: When granted ownership of this land, settlers would gain access to lush, dense forests and a wide variety of natural resources. The next big step in gaining land was to get Alaska.

12: Social | To enjoy themselves and have some fun, often times men would participate in various sporting games, but most commonly, wrestling. The Americans brought over this strong tradition from England, and also found that the Native American boys enjoyed the sport as well. Wrestling served as a popular activity at county fairs, holiday celebrations, and in military training. | Wrestling

13: Leisurely activities for women included quilting and sewing parties. The only cloth that settlers had was whatever they had brought or was imported from England. As a result, all textiles were expensive, and the early American housewife learned to make use of every bit of cloth. These parties provided a chance of recreation, to exchange new recipes, and gossip. | Quilting Party

14: Political | The seventh president of the US, Jackson divided everything political into two parties: Democratic and Republican. He was the military governor of FL, and the toughness of war rubbed off on his presidency, giving him the nickname Old Hickory. | Andrew Jackson

15: He was a major force on the homefront of Americans, the first president to really be there for the citizens. Yet he passed the Indian Removal Act and high tariffs. | <- a political cartoon from the Jackson Era | (above) a Jackson campaign poster

16: In order to maintain the transportation systems of America, the government came up with the plan that they should care for ways of traveling, like tending to old canals, roads, and railroads. Also a national bank was to be set up to keep the country out of debt. Tariffs were to pay for these improvements. | Internal Improvements

17: Spoils System | With the spirit of democracy infiltrating the government, democrats wanted to open up various jobs for all Americans;they found that the US government had become a bureaucracy (where nonelected people carry out laws). President Jackson had replaced officials with his supporters, and this system became known as the spoils system.

18: Economic | Two major positions come into play- capitalism and free enterprise. Capitalists are people who put money (capital) into a business to make a profit. Free enterprise is when individuals are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. These things were revolutionary, because never before had the American people had such freedom and lack of restrictions in the market.

19: Also at this time was the Industrial Revolution. This was the tremendous change from an agrarian (pro-farmer) society to a more industry-based one. People left their farms and homes to work instead in the mills and earn wages. Various new technologies and ideas made the manufacturing work experience much more efficient.

20: The sport lacrosse was initially invented by Native Americans. The Choctaw tribe's version of the game was very physical and much-enjoyed. It was played with two tall goals, sticks, and a ball. The game lasted until one team reached 100 goals, or until one hour's time was up. Many Native American people enjoyed playing recreational games, and this one seemed to be a huge fad. It's interesting to think that lacrosse came from right here in Northern America!

21: If/when these items could be afforded, women felt trendy in corsets, bustles, and balloon sleeves. Men wore cravats (kind of tie) and styled bushy facial hair. One would have looked at with jealousy if seen reading a novel by Charles Dickens, Charlotte Bronte, George Eliot, or Oscar Wilde, because these authors were well-known and much-admired. | ~Latest Fads~

22: The power loom was invented in 1785 by Edmund Cartwright. This invention could weave thread into cloth. | Technology/ Scientific | Many new ideas and inventions helped us evolve into the advanced society we are today. Here are some of the early ones:

23: The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney of Mass. in 1793. This was a simple machine that removed seeds from cotton fibers. It did the amount of work of 50 workers in half the time! | The spinning jenny was a revolutionary invention by James Hargreaves in 1764. This machine spun thread, and made it possible to perform multiple steps in making cloth by machine, saving time and money.

24: Concluding... | Throughout history, there is always change. In the 1700-1800s in the US, that change came in the form of Indian Removal and westward expansion. For the Native Americans, this change was in no way beneficial, really. They were forced to leave their long-time homeland and were treated poorly and disrespectfully by the Americans. The lives of the Indians were significantly transformed by the decision and enforcing of the Indian Removal Act, which was passed by President Jackson.

25: The Native Americans were put into stockades and tricked into signing treaties that gave up their land, and were unwillingly transferred to small "reservations" in western states. To the Americans, the world was something you could own or obtain through power and a high political standpoint. We can either take this ugly (and also great) past and learn from the mistakes that our ancestors made, or be condemned to repeat it. We shouldn't judge others based on their differences, but treat each other with respect and courtesy.

26: Bibliography | Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic. Chicago: McGraw Hill, 2005. | "Official USPS Abbreviations." United States Postal Service. 1998: www.usps.com | Primary Source= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 20, 1848. news.google.com

27: Westward Expansion~

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