S: ~A Book on our Nation's Growth throughout the Years. By Ari Denney Hour 4~
FC: THE ERA OF WESTERN EXPANSION | By Ari Denney
1: Table of Contents: page 1-5: Ideas page 6-7: National/geographic page 8-10: Social page 11-15: Political page 16-17: Economic page 18-19: Cultural page 20-21: Technology page 22-23: Conclusion page 24-25: Works Cited List
2: IDEAS: the beginning of our nation | As industries expanded, many people tried to progress into a new age of technology. Many wanted to make the big move into this era with a modern invention that would change history, although few succeeded. These people helped get the industrial age going. | The idea to use the water to the settler's advantage later came, and helped immensely. Although it wasn't until Robert Fulton invented a practical steamboat, the idea was constantly being improved. | Once the idea for water travel was improved, the thought of where to use these boats was brought up. The rivers mainly ran North to South, when traders really needed them East to West. Then Canals were built and perfected with the thoughts of many people combined to help this new nation succeed in foreign trading. | Then came the new machinery. With this machinery came new ways to use the land. Agriculture and farming new crops were forever improving.
3: Thomas Jefferson (pictured at right) was fiercely opposed to the Bank of the United States since it only helped the rich. He had the idea that it should be removed to stop its power over those who didn't have a lot of money. | John Quincy Adams wanted increase the size of the nation's government and army, but the idea was out voted.
4: IDEAS CONTINUED: | As the explorers started settlements in the western regions Indians were being forced off of their land and into set areas towards the Mississippi. | The Indians were considered not as civilized and needed to move for the United States to expand and continue their ever-growing country. Also, with the Industrial revolution and new life opportunities, the population was doubling before their eyes, leaving no room to split the land between Indian towns, and modern cities of buildings and stores.
5: As water travel and trade became more prevalent, the idea to improve the time taken to travel and comfort for the passengers also became something that engineers were trying to get right. | The Erie Canal was built for a waterway in the west to east directions, because most rivers only went north to south. With these new passages, trade and shipping became a lot easier. This also has to do with waterways connecting to great lakes for further shipment. | With these canals came more ideas of how to better the United State's trading industries and factories. The idea to make factory parts interchangeable also played a part in this .
6: Agriculture was rapidly expanding as the newer machinery came around. People were exploring the West and settling down in towns for farming and agriculture as it became the thing of the time. Many were trying to start a new life by moving, and others just wanted to see what was out there. No matter what the reason, the U.S. was becoming more and more populated with emigrants. | The Missouri Compromise(as shown as the right background) was made and only half of the U.S was used with the help of slaves. They were housed in any old shack, and didn't make much of a difference in space taken up, but made a big impact on how the land was used and worked on because of their endless hours of work. They worked long, hard hours and helped the land become what it is today. | NATURAL/ GEOGRAPHICAL:
7: The land was changing, and fast. As said back a page, the new machinery helped keep the production of new recourses going. When Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin (shown to the right) to split the fiber from the seed, farmers were able to speed their cotton productions. And then while making muskets, Eli discovered the idea for interchangeable parts, which both helped launch the industrial revolution, and give a start to the machinery used today. | While everything was happening, states started to move from owner to owner. Florida ceded to the United States in 1819, Vermont in 1791, Kentucky in 1792, Tennessee in 1796, and Ohio in 1803 to name a few. These changed the land by separating where people lived, and where slaves could be owned.
8: The picture here shows The Convention of 1818. This treaty between the United States and Britain helped smooth the hostility because the border between Canada and the U.S. were established and demilitarized. | The basket shown to the left resembles ones made at social gatherings within both towns who moved and knew each other and natives tribes. | Social tensions and Connections:
9: When the first settlers (U.S missionaries) started moving farther outward, they encountered native tribes whom they eventually converted, until the measles that they were unknowingly carrying spread and caused an epidemic that killed a couple native children. The natives went on to kill off the missionaries, but other settlers still followed in their footsteps into the West for new life. | The picture to the right shows an example of the disease that caused such a shocking outcome- Measles. | As the settlers continued to move into the West and encountered the native tribes, tensions arose with who was to be the dominate people. The new American towns wanted the natives removed, and the American government agreed. Soon removal laws were created. | Social continued...
10: Social Continued: | The few natives that outright refused to move, even after U.S. threats, made small villages and lived in poor conditions. they didn't last long, though, as the war killed some and captured many. The very few left after all of this were left to live peacefully. | The removal laws caused the natives to pack up their stuff and make the treacherous journey to the Mississippi border where they were to live, out of the way of any American settlements. This awful journey became know as The Trail of Tears. | The people of this time thought of the relations with the Indians as non important compared to the relations with their new neighbors.
11: Political: | When the government started to clash, ideas for how to run the new country arose and caused arguments a long time ago. Capitalism for one became a hit when businesses grew immensely to larger buildings and company sizes. Free enterprise only increased the capitalism possibilities and increasing it's size and popularity. In 1816 James Monroe was elected into Presidency. The political tensions in the government and between settlers were worn down, bringing them into The Era of Good Feelings. | "At no period of our political existence had we so much cause to felicitate ourselves at the prosperous and happy condition of our country." -James Madison (on The Era of Good Feelings). | After tensions arose again, Madison had his work cut out for him. Sectionalism grew more prevalent as people felt the strong allegiance to their region. Topics that many disagreed on, such as slavery, caused these tensions to rise.
12: Political continued: | During this time period British were still trying to build colonies in the States. The colonists were outraged by this and wanted something done. Since James Monroe was the President at the time, he named the law to control this The Monroe Doctrine. This allowed British colonies that already existed in the U.S. to live peacefully, but any new ones would not be allowed. He made it clear that force would be used if necessary. | To the right James Monroe is shown.
13: As the state's governments started to form in the early 1800s(1815- about 1830), suffrage started to open up to men. This allowed them o somewhat get a say in the country's actions. | The presidential parties were still quite unestablished. When the whigs came together, they knew exactly how to fight to win. They had William Harrison lead until his death by sickness came only a year in. His vice, John Tyler, filled in his position. They won by winning Jackson's votes with their appearance that they were men of the people. They then showed their opponent as selfish. They won by a large number, but were only in power for four years due to their lack of party ties and goals. Many whig members still were regionally loyal. | This is a picture of William Harrison
14: Soon states started to realize the ability to make changes for themselves. South Carolina tried a method almost like blackmail. When the tariffs rose and they didn't want to pay, South Carolina threatened to secede. Henry Clay proposed a deal with them to lower the tariffs but stay a part of the U.S. Andrew Jackson agreed and wanted to make sure that they would go for it, so he persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill , which allowed the President to use the U.S. military to enforce Congress' laws. South Carolina eventually agreed unwillingly. This debate showed the power the U.S. was capable of and willing to use for years to come. | President/General Andrew Jackson | Andrew Jackson got his start as a general. Then when Monroe declined to run a third term, he went up for election. He won. Many liked him because he was a self-made man, and supported democracy with a small government. He brought the ideas of suffrage to all, and helped defeat the too-powerful Bank of the United States. He was also a part of moving Natives peacefully. Although he did support the larger government in a case or two (ex. tariff debates), he was a successful president.
15: Andrew Jackson was very influential. So much so, that he is on the twenty dollar bill.
16: Economic: | This was a time of expanding into a new era of technology. The ideas that were brought up led to inventions, which led to jobs to operate them. For instance, when Eli Whitney invented interchangeable parts, jobs were formed to build and replace them. This helped the Industrial Revolution along. Stock from the rapidly growing businesses were beginning to be sold. | This is an example of a stock
17: Also, around this time the second Bank of the United States was chartered(1816) because of the immense success and power that it had built. And then came the ranchos. They owned large farm lands and hired Mexicans for their labor in exchange for food and shelter. The conditions were similar to Southern plantations. Then came the Panic of 1837. This depression hit hard and scared many with the sudden lack of jobs but did not last too long as the California Gold Rush of the mid-1800s caused mass floods of people to mine gold. In record times new towns were built to support the people coming and staying. | This shows the California gold Rush
18: Cultural: cultural differences in the early USA | Before any Americans started to settle, Native American tribes lived all over the United States. They lived peacefully until their removal. They then moved into reserved parts of the country that were constantly reduced in size. The conditions on these lands and in the areas where they awaited their removal were very poor. These waiting areas where they kept them locked up had such poor conditions that many died even before they left to their new reserved lands. Some Indians, the Cherokees in particular, rebelled because they believed that they shouldn't have to move, while the majority believed it was their duty to take the payment and go. The Indians that stayed behind were put into war and hardships. The few left after this lived in peace for awhile. These events drastically changed the Indian population.
19: Then in the early 1800s, many Americans moved to Texas when new land at very cheap price were offered to try to populate the state. To move there though, they had to learn their language, abide by their laws, and convert to their religion. The Americans tended to be loose with these laws and many moved into Texas. This scared their government so they discouraged any Americans to live there by banning them, and encouraging Mexican families with lower prices. Eventually Americans were allowed back in and Texas became a state. | In the 1760s Spanish missionaries and explorers moved into California to start colonizing and spreading their religion. They were the first Europeans in California. After building a string of missionaries across California, they converted many natives. Although they were at peace with the Indians, the Spaniards still saw the Native Americans as the less dominate people, as said by a mountain man visiting, They were"slaves in every sense of the word,". The Spanish explorers believed they had the rule over them and could use their land. Later the explorers built ranches and hired the Mexicans as workers with food and shelter as pay. It very closely resembled our Southern plantations of the past.
20: ~Technology of the time~ | This was an era of many inventions. People found ways to make everyday life easier with new machinery and technology. Especially when the Industrial Revolution was going on, new scientific advancements were discovered that became necessary to that particular time and our country's growth technologically. | TECHNOLOGY/SCIENTIFIC
21: One of the first inventions to start the revolutionizing of the US was Samuel Star's thread spinner in 1789. This made thread, and in the long run clothes, much quicker. In 1793 Eli Whitney found the cotton gin and was very famous for it because it was so useful to separate the seeds from fiber with a machine. Then he found the idea of interchangeable parts that revolutionized all machinery to come. Then came Robert Fulton's steamboat. It helped the trading goods get from place to place easier, and made your travel less bumpy. In 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell Came up with the factory system to mass produce your items. | Samuel Slater's thread spinner | Francis Cabot Lowell's Factory
22: In conclusion... Thinking like a historian: | CAUSE AND EFFECT: What caused the industrial Revolution? Workers, water power, location on the new lands, and the inventions these formed all pulled together to cause the abundance of new machines and inventions. As settlers saw the possibilities and ideas were brought over from other countries, our nation evolved in front of their eyes. | CHANGE AND CONTINUITY: What has changed in the design of the steamboat ever since Robert Fulton's design? The new steamboats are much more powerful, fast, fuel efficient, and comfortable, also now we have many more routes to travel and more goods to trade.
23: USING THE PAST: What can we learn from past presidential systems and decisions? Some systems such as bureaucracy show us that to make decisions for a country, you need to get educated officials who know what they're doing and don;t only do what their elector wants because they don't know what's going on. Also we have seen the way that even though they could've gone for more terms, those early presidents refused to go for more than 2 terms. This shows how balanced our government is. | TURNING POINTS: How did the decision to decline the National Bank of the US to continue affect our choices today? Today we see the affects of a large bank. The National Bank was too powerful and did nothing for the people with less money. It was not equal or fair. Now we have banks that profit only by how much you want to put in and there's not the huge society gap that cannot use them, they are open to everyone.
25: Works Cited | Grey, Edward. "HALL OF FAME/ inventor profiles." invent now. Untied States Patent and Trademark Office, 2002. Web. 25 Apr 2010.