BC: The End
FC: By: Aaron Blandford, Zoie Dance, Kailah Liggons, Khamera Manders, Brittany McClay, and Nicole Rogers | Islam
5: E is for Education | The religious schooling throughout the land was the oldest form of schooling. Children gathered to recite the Qur'an for a few hours a day. The religious teacher which was called a Motowa would listen to the kids recite the recitations. When a student completed the memorization of the Qur'an there was a special celebration that is given for that child. The child became the center of attention and the student was also showered with gifts for a whole week. When a child turned 7 that child was expected to show respect to the religious school and understand ritual cleanliness. At 7 years old children are expected to pray and by 10 years old they have to be chastised to do so. Education was very strict you had to memorize a lot. Rich children and poor children had a different kind of education.The rich child would have a better teacher and they could study for years. The poor students couldn't have the same privileges as the wealthy students. | By:Kailah Liggons
6: By:Kailah Liggons
8: F is for the Five Pillars of Islam. Belief is the first pillar of Islam, this pillar basically talks about believing in only God and believing that Muhammad is a prophet. Worship is the second pillar of Islam which is when Muslims worship God 5 times a day. Dawn,noon,mid-afternoon,sunset,and nightfall. Fasting is the third pillar of Islam is to abstain from food, and drink as well as smoking and sex.Abstinence helps Muslims during Ramadan have a closer relationship with God. Almsgiving is the fourth pillar of Islam which is when you give to the less fortunate. When being Muslim your suppose to donate a fixed amount to charity. Pilgrimage is the fifth pillar of Islam which is to undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca. Before the entering the Mecca the pilgrim dons a special garment made of two white cloths.
9: By:Kailah Liggons
10: G is for God(Allah) Muslims give God another name which is Allah, they believe God is unique and without equal. They attempt to think and talk about God without either making him into a thing or a projection of the human self. For Muslims they established Islamic tradition enumerates 99 names attributes or descriptions of God. | By:Kailah Liggons
12: H is for the Saying of the Prophet(Hadith) The Qur'an is the most important written book to the Muslims , there are different types of Literature including the Saying of the Prophet and even poetry and drama | By :Kailah LIggons
13: Qur'an | By:Kailah Liggons
14: I- Iraq | Baghdad, Iraq was a major city in Islam. Baghdad became the center of education. At the time Baghdad had many libraries, hospitals, and mosques. Most famous Muslim scholars were from Baghdad. Many scholars went to visit Bayt al-Hikah. There they would translate Greek manuscripts, which were preserved so that they would last forever. Scholars in Baghdad made huge contributions to chemistry, medicine, literature, mathematics, and astronomy. | Khamera Manders
15: Jihad is the Islamic word for the holy war. When Muhammad fled from Mecca, he built up his army. Muhammad’s army conquered Mecca, and soon the citizens of Mecca converted to Muslim. The army conquered Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, and many other countries. Even though it took awhile for people to convert to Islam, by 850-900 CE Islam became the largest religion in Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and Tunisia. The jihad was a major contribution to the expansion of Islam. | Jihad is the Islamic word for the holy war. When Muhammad fled from Mecca, he built up his army. Muhammad’s army conquered Mecca, and soon the citizens of Mecca converted to Muslim. The army conquered Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, and many other countries. Even though it took awhile for people to convert to Islam, by 850-900 CE Islam became the largest religion in Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and Tunisia. The jihad was a major contribution to the expansion of Islam. | J- Jihad | Khamera Manders
16: K- Khattab | Khamera Manders | Umar ibn al – Khattab was a great contributor to the Islamic religion. Umar was the second caliph after Abu Baker. He spent his life as a caliph, spreading the word of Muhammad. During his rule the Islamic empire expanded a great deal. Umar intelligently planned out all of his army’s attacks. His planning was the reason why the Islamic army was able to capture the Persian Empire.
17: The Muslim religion was very tolerant to other religions. In the Muslim Empire you could practice your own religion. In order to do this they had to pay taxes. This type of freedom attracted many people to the Islamic religion. Also many people were being persecuted in their own empire, and the idea that everyone in the Islamic religion had equal power caused the to convert to the religion. | L-Leeway | Khamera Manders
18: M FOR- Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. A prophet is a person who has been contacted by the divine or the supernatural. To the Islam a prophet is a human chosen by Allah. Not only is he a prophet of Islam but he is also the founder. He is THE prophet and the ones the Islam call “messenger of God”. Islam is a monotheistic (-belief in one God) religion that bases its culture off of the Quran. The beginnings of Islam start with a simple statement “Ashud Anna La illaha illa Allah”. This statement means, “I witness that there is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God”. Muhammad first had his first he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where here received his first revelation from God
19: Zoe dance
21: N FOR New polity- Hegira is the Muslims way of saying Muhammad’s mark for the beginning of a new polity. A polity is a form of government. Muhammad’s hegira traveled from Mecca to Medina (“ The city of the prophet”) in 622 A.D. the hegira occurred when the hostility of merchant leaders (who got most of their wealth from pilgrimage, which Muhammad prophesied against) and forced Muhammad and his few followers to flee. He was beckoned by the people of Yathrib which is the now day Medina and later ruled. The beginning date of the Hegira marks the date used to make the Hijra. The Hijra is the lunar Muslim calender; the first ideas of it came about around 615.
22: Orphaned. Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. His father died before he was born. His mother, Amina died when she took him to Yathrib or present day Medina, so he might stay with relatives and Visit his fathers’ grave often then he was. When she returns on the long journey home she died from an illness. His nurse (Amina) returned to Mecca with Muhammad and placed him under the care of his paternal grandfather, Abdul Al-Muttalib. A well respected leader who owned property. While with his grandfather Muhammad learned the art of holding state affairs. Which would help him later on with speaking, something he did a lot.
24: Prayer was and still is essential in the Islam culture. Prayer (also called Salat)is one of the few many things that help bind the Islam culture and its followers together. Before Muhammad’s death and his many followers he kept trying to attract the Jews to his messages from God, one being that believers worship like the Jews in the direction of Jerusalem very frequently. When he was alive these attempts did not succeed but now Muslims pray in the direction of the Kaaba (a cube shaped building that was said to be built by Abraham and one of the most Sacred buildings) in Mecca five times a day everyday. Their are many rules to the Islam prayer. One rule is that they must be purified before talking to their God, another is they must pray at least five times, there are many more as well.
26: Quran is considered to be the eternal miracle in the Muslim faith. It was revealed throughout a period of about 23 years. The first revelation was revealed in 610 CE, in the Cave Of Hira in the Mountain of Light, in the city of Makkah. It’s been preserved through writing. The Quran is the guidance to all of humanity’s needs, its teachings are universal, it is universal, and it purifies the moral soul, condemns your wrongs, orders your deeds, and establishes justice and fraternity through the obedience of Allah. | Q- Quran | Nicole Rogers
27: Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Muslims fast during this month, fasting teach Muslims to obtain patience, spirituality and modesty. During this month Muslims repent for their past sins and beg for forgiveness from Allah. The date of Ramadan isn’t permanent it varies approximately ten days every year. Muslims participate in Ramadan because in the Quran it states that this is a step they must follow to build a closer relationship with Allah. | R- Ramadan | Nicole Rogers
28: S- Scientist | Nicole Rogers | Scientists- Medieval Muslims produced many inventions that made living more convenient during that time. Dams and bridges were invented to be able to receive water. A different version of aqueducts called qanats, were used to canal a lot of water also. Engineers designed siege engines, like the traction and the counterweight trebuchet. Many inventions started off simple and over time were perfected into today’s easy using machines.
29: Trigonometry- the most famous mathematician was probably Muhammad ibn Musa al Khwarizmi. His book On the Calculation With Hindu Numerals, contributed greatly to deciphering the system of the Arabic numerals. What is known today as algebra was rooted from him. It started as geometric demonstrations then was transformed into Latin, then to what we know today. Other mathematicians made small contributions to modern mathematics. | T- Trigonometry | Nicole Rogers
30: U- Umayyad | The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca, Damascus was the capital of their Caliphate. Eventually, they would become the 6th largest contiguous empire to ever exist. After the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate, they relocated to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba. | Aaron Blandford
31: Vault is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof. The parts of a vault exert a thrust that require a counter resistance. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance. An example are the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance when intersecting vaults are employed. | V-Valt | Aaron Blandford
32: Islamic merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel region since the Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer. The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. | Aaron Blandford | W- Western Sahel
33: Xian, China, obtains a great mosque that has serves the Muslim community for over a millennium. The Great Mosque of Xian was built on Hua Jue Lane as early as the 700s AD. It was made during the reign of the Ming Dynasty in the late 14th century. It contains a fused style between the Chinese and Arabic cultures. Many Muslims have served and prayed in this mosque which is still preserved today | X- Xain | Nicole Rogers
34: The square minaret, which wasn't completed until the reign of Yacoub, was the direct model for the Giralda in Sevilla and the Hassan Tower in Rabat. It is considered the ultimate structure of its kind. The tower is. Six rooms one above the other, constitute the interior; leading around them is a ramp, by way of which the muezzin could ride up to the balcony. The tower is adorned with four copper globes. According to legend, they were originally made of pure gold, and there were once supposed to have been only three. The fourth was donated by the wife of Yacoub el Mansour as compensation for her failure to keep the fast for one day during the month of Ramadan. She had her golden jewelry melted down, to fashion the fourth globe. | Y- Yacoub | Aaron Blandford
35: Zakt or "alms giving", one of the Five Pillars of Islam, is the giving of a small percentage of one's possessions (surplus wealth) to charity, generally to poor and needy Muslims. It is often compared to the system of tithing and alms, but it serves principally as the welfare contribution to poor and deprived Muslims, although others may have a rightful share. It is the duty of an Islamic community not just to collect zakat but to distribute it fairly as well. Zakt is sometimes referred to as sadaqah and its plural, sadaqat. Generally the sharing of wealth is called zakat, whereas the sadqat could mean the sharing of wealth as well sharing of happiness among God's creation, such as saying kind words, smiling at someone, taking care of animals or environments, etc. Zakat or sadqah is worship as means of spiritual purification. It is not a tax burden but rather serves as socio-financial system of Islam by re-distributing the wealth to the poor and needy. See also: nisab. Muslim jurists agree that zakat is obligatory on the Muslim who has reached puberty, who is sane, who is free, and who owns the minimum assigned, nisab throughout Islamic history; denying Zakat equals denying the Islamic faith. However, Muslim jurists differ on the details of zakat, which may include rate, the exemptions, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable. | Z- Zakat | Aaron Blandford
36: http://islam.about.com/cs/history/a/aa040703a.htm (Iraq) http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/Iraq_baghdad_map.jpg (Iraq) Student Handout 2.2- Chronology of Spread of Islam (Jihad) The Life of Muhammad, Map of Middle East (Jihad) http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/conquest1.jpg (Jihad) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar (Khattab) http://www.oneworldmagazine.org/focus/deserts/pix/arab1.jpg (Khattab) McDougal Littell World History Patterns of Interactions page 270 (Leeway) | Work Cited Page
37: http://dclips.fundraw.com/pngmax/Gerald-_G_Balance_Scale.png (Leeway) http://www.accd.ed/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Islam29.jpg (Cover Picture)