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Italian Renaissance: The Famous Four

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S: Italian Renaissance Art:The Famous Four

BC: Created by Brenda Williams as an example for her Visual Arts Students Spring Semester 2011

FC: aka: The Ninja Turtles | Italian Renaissance Art: The Famous Four | http://www.christusrex.org/www1/stanzas/Ad-Raphael.jpg

1: "A good painter is to paint two main things, namely men and the working of man's mind." Dante's Divine Comedy, from The Inferno

2: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/europe1560_shepherd.jpg

3: Italian Renaissance Art: The Famous Four

4: Masaccio. The Tribute Money. c.1427. Fresco. Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy. Massacio focused his attention of the creation of mass and depth within his work. In The Tribute Money he used both linear perspective (a graphic system of slanting horizontal lines based on geometric principles) and aerial perspective (a decrease in hue, value and intesity) to create a sense of deep space . Masaccio ushered in a new style of representation that became typical of Renaissance art. | The birth of a new style

5: During the Medieval Period the Catholic Church was the primary concern of western Europe. With the turn of the fifteenth century a period of rebirth occurred as people began to reexamine the world around them and to reconsider their role within it. Interest in the classic art and literature of Greece and Rome saw a revival, as did the sciences, mathematics and humanism. This period came to be known as the Renaissance, a period of great awakening. The word renaissance literally means "rebirth". Under the influence of this new direction the arts did not go unaffected. Artists like Masaccio used geometry to develop a system of linear perspective that helped create a more realistic sense of space within their paintings. Greater concern with realism and expression resulting from humanistic thought made its way into all areas of the visual arts, including the work of sculptors like Ghiberti. Though other artists made significant contributions, four artists stand out as typifying Renaissance style; Leonardo, Michelangelo, Donatello, and Raphael. | Lorenso Ghiberti. The Sacrifice of Isaac.1401-02. Bronze relief. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence< italy. Ghiberti's panels for the doors of the Baptistry of the cathedral in Florence reflect Renaissance stye; they feature modeled figures that stand out from the surface and appear almost fully rounded. When Michelangelo say them he said they were worthy to be used as the gates of heaven; the name stuch and they are still today referred to as "The Gades of Paradise". | http://history.hanover.edu/courses/art/mastrib.html | http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/farberas/arth/Images/ARTH213images/Baptistrycompetition/Ghiberti_Sacrifice.jpg

6: The Last Supper Leonardo often left projects unfinished because he was dissatisfied with the results or because he was eager to move on to a new task. He was continually experimenting with technique and media, sometimes with less than satisfactory results. His most famous “failure” was The Last Supper painted on the dining hall wall of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy. This beautiful work had begun to fall off the wall almost before he applied the last bit of paint because the experimental mixture of media, technique and support were physically incompatible. Though his experiment was doomed from the onset, the piece is a magnificent specimen of Renaissance art. Leonardo makes good use of the newly discovered linear perspective to frame Christ at the center of the painting, thus creating an easily recognizable focal point. All the lines of the architecture lead the eye to him and the window behind his head makes an effective frame for his calm silence amid the flurry of activity that ensued when he announced that one of them would betray him. The apostles, arranged in groups of three display skillfully painted emotional responses to the disclosure. | http://i401.photobucket.com/albums/pp93/russellblog/leonardo_da_vinci_last_supper.jpg

7: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Even as a child, Leonardo impressed those around him with his grace, humor, physical prowess and his innate curiosity. He seemed compelled to explore and create. His educational background included architecture, mathematics, sculpture, painting, anatomy, poetry, literature, music, geology, botany, and hydraulics. As a part of his study, he compiled over 120 notebooks filled with drawings and accompanying explanations that covered topics ranging from anatomy to weather to weaponry. Leonardo dissected cadavers, despite the fact that this practice was illegal at the time, in order to learn how muscles and bones facilitate movement. He paid particular attention to the head, especially the eyes and the brains as he was particularly interested in how the eye sees and how the brain reasons. | http://www.abm-enterprises.net/leonardo-da-vinci.jpg

8: As a part of his study, he compiled over 120 notebooks filled with drawings and accompanying explanations that covered topics ranging from anatomy to weather to weaponry. | http://www.asdfing.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/facts_about_leonardo_da_vinci.jpg

9: http://deficienciavisual9.com.sapo.pt/IMAGENS/r-hist_ophth10_sc43.gif | http://www.jeffprentice.net/teachf/artists/painting/davinciskulls.jpg | http://artdesignidea.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/cats.jpg

10: http://www.wyckoffschools.org/eisenhower/teachers/olejarz/digitalimaging/mona/monalarge.jpg

11: A perfectionist, Leonardo was never quite satisfied with his work. His most famous painting , Mona Lisa, remained a work in progress for over sixteen years. This small oil painting, still in his possession at the time of his death, was one he claimed to be unfinished. The identify of the subject of this piece has been the source of much speculation over the centuries since it was made public. Some suggest that the face with the enigmatic smile is Leonardo's own. Since he never revealed the name of his subject, we will never know. Despite this mystery, or maybe because of it, Mona Lisa remains one of the most popular paintings of the Renaissance.

12: Popes, princes, and paupers stood in awe of Michelangelo. Because of his enormous talent it was said that he could not possibly be human; he must be a god, or at least a demigod. But, human he most certainly was. His single-minded views about art led to disagreements with his contemporaries, including Leonardo. Assistants found his violent temper difficult to endure.

13: Art was the most important element in the life of Michelangelo; he placed art above friends, family, wealth, fame, even his own health. Death, at the age of 89, finally stilled the energy and spirit of the superhuman man regarded by many as the greatest artist of his time. | http://www.dalit.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/michelangelo-creation-of-adam-detail-of-god-and-adam-hands.jpg

14: Details from the Sistine Chapel ceiling: 1.The Creation of Adam 2. The Deluge 3. Daniel the Prophet 4. The Creation of Adam | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

15: In 1508 Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. The walls of the chapel had been painted previously by Botticelli. Lying on his back on scaffolding he worked more than four years to complete the chapel whic was 40 feet wide and about 133 feet long with a rounded ceiling with a smooth surface. On this structure Michelangelo's brush created architectural details modeled with light and shadow so that they appear to project from the surface creating niches within which he painted scenes from the Old Testament scriptures. Michelangelo's painting style featured sculpturally modeled figures that twist and turn with unleashed energy. He painted 145 pictures with more than 300 figures, many of which were over 10 feet hight. | Beginning in 1980 the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel underwent cleaning and restoration. | Over 400 years of dirt and smoke were removed from Michelangelo's frescoes. | For a virtual tour of the Sistine Chapel go to http://www.vatican.va/various/cappelle/sistina_vr/index.html

16: Michelangelo Buonarroti, like Leonardo, was a true Renaissance man, gifted in many areas, including sculpture, painting and poetry. Michelangelo, although known for his painting of the Sistine Chapel, considered himself first and foremost a sculptor. Perhaps his best known piece, the Pieta, was carved very early in his career when he was in his twenties. This exquisite marble carving brings forth the expression of tenderness and emotion; it depicts Mary mourning over the body of the dead Christ. The figure of Mary is proportionally much too large for the Christ she cradles. Michelangelo likely made this choice so that Mary could appear to easily support her lost son; had he made the relative sizes true to life the religious meaning of the piece would be lost to Mary's struggle to support the weight of Christ's body. | http://www.tamsquare.net/pictures/M/Michelangelo-Pieta-detail-.jpg

17: Attacking marble slabs with his hammer and chisel, Michelangelo said he was "freeing" the figures trapped inside th stone. His lifesize carving of the prophet Moses, carved for the tomb of Pope Julius II, shows the leader of the Israelites in a tense state of attention. The intent face gives a hint of powerful emotion, strength and purpose lying just beneath the surface. The draping robes and flowing beard appear soft and flowing; likewise the muscular figure seems capable of movement, belying the rigid marble from which it is made. | http://projectionsystems.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/6a00e553690e1b883401053641c9cd970b-800wi1.jpg | http://www.fineart-china.com/upload1/file-admin/images/new9/Jacopino%2520del%2520Conte-494736.jpg

18: Raphael. The School of Athens. 1509-11. Fresco. Stanza dell Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. The "school" of Athens actually refers to the two opposing philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. These two Greek figures are framed by central arches within the fresco. Lines of perspective further emphasize their importance among the crowded composition. Plato, on the left, holds his Timaeus and points toward the heavens indicating the preeminence of the idealistic; the ancient philosophers flanking him were concerned with the metaphysical world beyond the here and now. On the right side with Aristotle, holding his Ethics and gesturing earthward to indicate his interest in reality, are those philosophers and scientists concerned with nature and humanity. | http://faculty.isi.org/media/images/originals/The_School_of_Athens.jpg

19: Raphael

20: Raphael studied as an apprentice to the master Pietro Perugino. By1501, Raphael was considered a master himself. His first documented work is the Baronci Altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, located in Citta di Castello. Today, only a few sections and preparatory drawings remain. In 1504 Raphael moved to Florence, where he adopted the innovations of Florentine painters, especially those of da Vinci. Like Leonardo, Raphael created softly shadowed forms recreating the appearance of reality . He painted figures convincingly integrated into their settings and related naturally to each other. Raphael's artistic development continued when he moved to Rome in 1508. There he was influenced not only by the idealized, classical art of the city's ancient past but also by the more energetic and physical style of Michelangelo, whose works he also had studied in Florence. Raphael's art came to represent an ideal of perfection, the very epitome of grace and balance. | Raphael. The Entombment, from the Baglioni Atlarpiece. 1507. Oil on wood. Galleria Borghese, Rome

21: http://raphaelbiography.com/images/Raphael_5.jpg

22: http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/timage_f?object=26&image=183&c=gg20 | Raphael's The Alba Madonna was probably painted while he was working on a series of Vatican Frescoes. It is an exemplifies painting at the peak of the Italian Renaissance. Raphael chose a primary color scheme to represent balance. Subtle shading techniques make the figures seem round, solid, and lifelike. The Christ child symbolically gazes toward the cross he holds and an emotional tension pervades the scene.

23: Raphael’s Saint George and the Dragon—one of the most often recognized images of Saint George—was intended to be seen at close range. It features a highly detailed and precise setting popular with Italian patrons. The rearing horse and the rider's fluttering cape can be traced through Raphael's studies of Leonardo's work. St. George was patron saint of England and of the English Order of the Garter. The ribbon tied around his calf reads honi, opening of the order's slogan Honi soit qui mal y pense (disgraced be he who thinks evil of it). Previously thought to be a commission from the duke of Urbino as gift for King Henry VII after the received knighthood. It now seems it was meant for the king's envoy instead. Regardless of its purpose, the commission signals Raphael's growing prestige. | Raphael. Saint George and the Dragon, c. 1506 Andrew W. Mellon Collection

24: http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/medieval/art/donatel2.jpg | http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/sgrais/images/Relief/DonatelloPazziMadonna.jpg | http://images.artnet.com/images_US/magazine/news/artmarketwatch/artmarketwatch1-27-06-5.jpg | Donatello began his career as an assistant to Ghiberti on the first doors for the Baptistry of Florence, but soon surpassed the skills of his master to become the greatest sculptor fo the Renaissance. Perspective and realism were important to Donatello's style. When carving pieces that would be viewed above eye level, he carved the upper part of the body longer so that it appeared more realistic from the floor, keeping the image from looking short and awkward. Donatello was greatly influenced by Roman sculpture, which was in turn influenced by that of the Greeks. His Madonnas have a Classical feel, but, as his style evolved they became more realistic and showed a great deal more emotion. Donatello's David possesses a youthfulness so graceful as to seem almost feminine; the head of Goliath upon which his foot rests stands testament to the strength of the young David. The difference between the muscularity of Michelangelo's David and Donatello's boyish version are striking.

25: http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/farberas/arth/Images/110images/sl4images/donatello_david_det2.jpg | http://www.class.uidaho.edu/engl257/Ren/donatello_david.jpg | Donatello | Donatello

26: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles | teenage mutant ninja turtles | L-R: Michelangelo, Raphael, Leonardo and Donatello, the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, named for the four most prominent artists of the Renaissance, originated in 1984 as a comic book by Mirage Studios. In 1987 CBS picked them up as a TV series and in 1988 they became popular action figures. They hit the big screen in the early nineties. TMNTs became an iconic part of preteen pop culture during the last decades of the twentieth century. | http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KW4BT2oDIy8/TZ9x3v76zOI/AAAAAAAAABY/df47icQP4vY/s1600/The+Ninja+Turtles+2012.jpg

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  • Title: Italian Renaissance: The Famous Four
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