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John F. Kennedy

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BC: Magazine made by: Caressa Domke Rachel Moore Tara Munzek Tobi Owoputi Bobby Theiss

FC: TIME John F. Kennedy

1: by Rachel Moore

2: The Early Life and Career of JFK By Bobby Theiss John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, to Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy May 29, 1917. He was the second of nine Kennedy children, so was part of a large family. The next noteworthy event occurred when JFK, as he was often called, graduated from Choate in 1935. This was a boarding school for young men, located in Connecticut. The second Kennedy was considered an average student, though history and English were his strong suits. Some hobbies were tennis, basketball, football, and reading The New York Times. He certainly seemed to be well-rounded and scholarly coming out of high school. John then chose to attend Princeton University. During | his freshmen year, things took a turn when Kennedy withdrew from the school due to illness. He chose to transfer to Harvard, where his brother Joe was enrolled as a student, in the year 1936. Some possible influences to his later career choice include student groups, history, government, and sports. Then, in 1937, JFK traveled through Europe, more specifically France, Italy, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, and England. The following year, President Franklin Roosevelt named Joseph P. Kennedy an Ambassador to Great Britain. JFK took the latter half of his junior year to work in the American Embassy in Paris. Poland, Moscow, and Berlin were places JFK visited. All of this may have influenced foreign policy in the future. Also, after WWII began in September, the Athenia, a British passenger ship, was torpedoed and sank. JFK was | sent to help American survivors by Ambassador Kennedy. This may have been where his outreach to help humanity was started, which would eventually lead to great things such as the Peace Corps. During June of the year 1940, JFK finished Why England Slept. This event occurred after graduating Harvard cum laude with a Bachelor of Science. Why England Slept was originally titled the Appeasement of Munich. This was John’s thesis describing why Great Britain was not ready to fight with Germany. The work became a bestseller. In October of the following year, the President-to-be signed up for the U.S. Navy. Two years later, Lt. Kennedy was a part of WWII in the Pacific, as commander of a patrol torpedo boat, the PT109. John and twelve others hoped to stop Japanese ships from getting troops and

3: supplies to their bases. For his actions and courage, the Purple Heart and Navy and Marine Corps Medal were awarded to JFK. A tragic event ensued on August 12, 1944. JFK’s older brother, Lt. Joseph P. Kennedy, was killed piloting an airplane on a mission over the English Channel. This certainly would have changed John’s life. Things got better in November of 1946, when JFK was voted in as Congressman from the Eleventh District in Massachusetts. This jumpstarted his political career, and Kennedy went on to serve three terms in the House of Representatives. JFK represented the same district as his grandfather, after whom he was named. Another day of unpleasurable significance for John occurred on May 13, 1948. His sister Kathleen was killed in an airplane crash in France, marking another death in the family. This dreadful pair of misfortunes was shaken off a little four years later, when JFK barely beat out Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., to become Senator from Massachusetts. John married Jacqueline Bouvier in Newport, Rhode Island, on September 12 of the following year. Things were looking up. But a scary moment yet again took place on October 21, 1954, when JFK underwent major back surgery, which nearly cost him his life. A second operation was performed around February of 1955. This gave him time to write Profiles in Courage. The book was about eight U.S. senators, who at key times in history, took principal stands despite the feelings of the people they represented. Published in 1956, the novel became a bestseller and received the Pulitzer Prize for a biography the following year. His talents of writing may have been used to influence people later in life. JFK’s political career was taking off almost as much as his literature. JFK nominated Adlai Stevenson for President at the Democratic National Convention on August 16, 1956. Kennedy himself narrowly lost Vice Presidential nomination to Senator Estes Kefauver. Moving to a personal note, John’s daughter Caroline Bouvier Kennedy is born on November 27, 1956. Kennedy was re-elected two years later to the Senate by a record vote. His 73.6% of votes was the largest popular margin ever rewarded to a candidate in Massachusetts. Then, finally, JFK made his presidential dreams public knowledge by announcing his candidacy on January 2, 1960. On July 13 of the same year, he was nominated for Presidency on the first ballot at the Democratic National Convention in LA. He chose Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Baines Johnson, a Texas native, as his running partner. John made issues such as limiting the arms race, reforming science and education programs in the U.S., helping the farm economy, and fighting fallen urban life key. He called his domestic policy the New Frontier. Kennedy also soon acknowledged the issue of him becoming the first Catholic President in the history of America. He was quoted as saying to Protestant ministers in Texas that, “…contrary to common newspaper usage, I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party’s candidate for President who happens also to be a Catholic.” He attempted to downplay the hot topic, which must have gained public respect. The first televised presidential debate, as well as first of four televised disputes between JFK and Republican nominee Richard Nixon, took place on September 26, 1960. Most people who tuned in to the “idiot box” believed Kennedy had won, while the edge was given to Nixon on the radio. The last event of the early life and career of John happened on November 8, 1960. JFK was elected President of the U.S. by a slim margin. At age 43, he was the youngest man ever to be elected President.

4: Kennedy’s New Frontier on the Home Front By Tobi Owoputi John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. His set of foreign and domestic policy programs was called the New Frontier. Kennedy’s domestic programs mainly focused on civil rights, science, and the economy. Kennedy’s greatest domestic contributions helped the Civil Rights Movement. On July 24, 1962, he issued an order that banned gender discrimination in federal agencies and departments. The president also issued another order prohibiting discrimination in the sale of houses owned by the federal government on November 20. On September 30 of that year, John F. Kennedy sent federal troops to the University of Mississippi to escort James Meredith, the first African American to attend the university. Another | instance where he sent federal troops to a university was at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. The governor of Alabama at that time, George Wallace, stopped two African American students from enrolling at the school. Kennedy sent the state’s National Guard, and the students joined the university. The same day, JFK said that the subject of civil rights was a “moral crisis.” Kennedy sent several laws to Congress supporting civil rights. On February 28, 1963, he proposed laws that would better enforce the Voting Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960. These acts helped to increase the amount of minority voters. On June 19, 1963, he sent the largest and most complete civil rights bill to Congress. The bill would desegregate all public facilities, and allow the government to force schools to integrate. Another event that occurred during John F. Kennedy’s presidency was the March on Washington. About | 200,000 people attended the event, where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous “I Have A Dream” speech. Science was a major part of Kennedy’s domestic programs. Early in Kennedy’s presidency, Alan Shepard became the first American in space. On May 25, 1961, he told Congress of his goal to have a man on the moon before 1970. Although Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, the space shuttle Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 20, 1969, completing his goal. The economy was another issue important to JFK, as shown by his actions. On April 11, 1962, he ordered steel companies to lower their prices after United States Steel announced a 3.5% increase in the cost of steel. Eventually, the companies removed the price increase. Another economic act by Kennedy was described in his State of the Union address on January 14, 1963. He called for a large income tax cut, saying that the current tax rates were too high and slowed economic growth.

5: Before the end of his term, President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963. His Vice-President, Lyndon B. Johnson, was sworn in as the next President after Kennedy’s death. Three days later, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Washington D.C.

6: JFK’s Policies Abroad By Caressa Domke John F. Kennedy was a Cold War President. As such, he needed a good foreign policy to protect America and prevent the spread of communism. His first big achievement in foreign policy was the Alliance for Progress. On March 13, 1961 JFK proposed America align itself with Latin America in hopes that the relationship would lead to progress in the containment of communism and the spread of democracy. From April 17 to April 20, 1961 rebels attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro’s reign over Cuba. The US sponsored this rebellion and this invasion of Cuba. Unfortunately the invasion failed. Kennedy accepted the responsibility and admitted to the failure. The president and his wife journeyed to Paris in May of 1961 so JFK could meet with Charles de Gaulle and discuss | both Berlin and their willingness to retaliate against any Soviet threat to the city. The president’s wife, Jacqueline, could easily speak French and was familiar with French culture. She was, therefore, popular with the French people. JFK even jokingly introduced himself to a French audience as “the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris.” In a further attempt to end the Cold War, JFK went to the US embassy in Vienna on June 3, 1961 to meet with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. During the meeting Khrushchev threatened to sign a peace treaty with East Germany, which would deny any allies from gaining access to West Berlin. The erection of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961 marked a loss in the War on Communism. JFK choose not to directly challenge the construction of the wall which | was meant to hold in people fleeing from Communism. JFK shows his endorsement of peace by addressing the UN General Assembly on September 25, 1961. He hopes for a complete disarmament, and challenges Soviets to a race for peace. Vietnam was very vulnerable to falling under the iron curtain, so on November 22, 1961 JFK approves a plan to send US military advisors into South Vietnam in an effort to flush out internal corruption and stifle the Viet Cong guerrillas which were destroying the Ngo Dinh Diem’s government. On October 16, 1962 a US spy plane captured pictures of a Soviet nuclear missile site in Cuba. JFK promptly ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba which prevented Soviets from bringing any more military supplies to the island. The crisis was soon resolved by October 28, 1962. In

7: exchange for the Soviets dismantling the missile sites, the US agreed to remove nuclear missiles from Turkey. The Cold War took another turn for the worse on December 31, 1962. Ho Chi Minh promised he would wage guerrilla warfare for ten years if he needed too. JFK had underestimated the passion which Ho Chi Minh had for his government’s success. JFK again shows his foreign policy favors peace by announcing his strategy to reach peace at a commencement address to a University on June 10, 1963. He calls on the Soviet Union to work with the US in an effort to reach a nuclear test ban treaty. He promises the US will refrain from testing in the atmosphere as long as other countries promised to refrain as well. On June 26, 1963 JFK visited West Berlin to address the | large crowd that gathered waiting for his speech. From the steps of the Schoenenberger Rathaus in the Rudolph Wilde Platz he announced “all free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin; and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words, ich bin ein Berliner!” The last major event to occur in the way of foreign policy during JFK’s term in office was the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem November 1-2, 1963. The Southern Vietnamese government was overthrown during a coup, killing President Diem along with his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. JFK’s administration quickly recognized the new government days after the coup.

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