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John F. Kennedy

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FC: In Loving Memory... | TIME PRESENTS: John Fitzgerald Kennedy

1: Early Life: Crib to Congress by Tommy Messich On May 29 1917, Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald had a son and they named him , John Fitzgerald Kennedy. He was born in Brookline, Massachusetts and he was ultimately the second of nine children to be born to the Kennedy’s. John’s attended the Choate | boarding school in Connecticut. After he graduated from Choate, John decided to apply to Harvard law school, and since he was such a great student, Harvard accepted him. In 1940, when Kennedy graduated from Harvard, he decided to enlist in the United States Navy. The Navy then assigned him to

2: then Kennedy served two more terms which is three total terms in the House of Representatives. In the year of 1952, John F. Kennedy wanted more than a seat in the House; | the South Pacific as commander of a patrol torpedo boat. After Kennedy’s military days were over, he received a Purple Heart award for being wounded in battle and the Navy and Marine Corps medal for leading survivors to safety after his boat was suck by a Japanese destroyer. During the year of 1946, John Kennedy decided to enter into the world of politics and run for the eleventh district in Massachusetts. Finally Kennedy was elected to the House of Representatives. Since

3: he wanted a seat in the Senate. Therefore, John ran against and ultimately defeated Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. by an extremely narrow margin to become a U.S Senator. After Mr. Kennedy was elected a senator, he decided to marry his long time girlfriend Jacqueline Boulevard in September of 1953. Then He married Jacqueline Boulevard in September of 1953. The Couple had three children, two of whom survived childhood.

4: The Later Years of JFK’s Life By: Kasey Cook Before the year of 1956, John F. Kennedy had multiple back surgeries. They were very serious and almost cost him his life. While healing from these high risk surgeries, Kennedy wrote a book called Profiles in Courage. The book was a bestseller and won the Pulitzer Prize for biography in 1957. It was about eight U.S. Senators who at crucial points in the nation’s history took principled stands despite the wishes of their constituents. On August 16, 1956, JFK nominated Adlai Stevenson for president at the

5: Democratic National Convention. November 27, 1957, Kennedy had a daughter that he named Caroline. Becoming more and more popular, Kennedy was re-elected as the U.S. Senate in 1958. He won 73.6 percent of votes cast, securing the largest popular margin ever received by a candidate in Massachusetts. Two years later, on January 2, 1960, JFK announces his candidacy for president. Kennedy was then nominated to be on the Presidential ballot. He thought Lyndon B. Johnson to be best suited as his Vice Presidential candidate. Together, they believed in restraining arms race, rebuilding science and education in the country, supporting farm economy, and combating urban decay. During his campaign, Kennedy was faced against Richard Nixon in the first televised debate ever. It was obvious that Kennedy had experience with the camera and therefore appeared to be a stronger candidate. With little room to spare, John F. Kennedy became the 35th President of the United States at an extremely young age of only 43 years old. That makes him the youngest President ever and the first Catholic President ever. Some more good news is brought in this exciting year for Kennedy because on November 25, 1960, his son John F. Kennedy Jr. was born. At the closing of the year, on December 16, 1960, JFK announced the appointment of his brother Robert as the U.S. Attorney General. Sadly on November 22, 1963, JFK was assassinated.

6: A Hold On Communism: John F. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy in 1961 By Amber Jenkins During the first year of John F. Kennedy’s presidency, many foreign issues, especially communism, surfaced. With the rise of communism, Kennedy needed to find a solution to help aid the problem. On March 1, 1961, he formed the Peace Corps, which consisted of volunteers who traveled abroad to help developing | countries. Kennedy believed the volunteers would set a good example for people within other countries, and in this, these people would steer away from communism. Shortly after, Kennedy created the Alliance for Progress on March 13, 1961. The Alliance for Progress was an aid program specifically for Latin America. Through this program, Kennedy hoped to encourage economic development and democracy. To reach this goal, the U.S. | used approximately $8 billion over ten years. However, the money was also distributed to other countries, and the conditions within Latin America did not improve. Inevitably, Latin America believed the U.S. displayed a lack of effort, and relations between the two regions continued to suffer. Then, in April 1961, a major invasion called the Bay of Pigs Fiasco occurred. This plan involved members of the CIA, as well as President Dwight D.

7: Eisenhower. After Eisenhower’s presidency ended, Kennedy carried on the top-secret plan. It required 1,500 trained exiles to attack the Bay of Pigs, which was located on the southwest coast of Cuba. From April 17 to April 20, 1,200 of the exiles were captured, and the rest were killed. The plan had been flawed, which led to disaster. This reflected poorly on Kennedy’s administration, yet he accepted the failure as his own. Two meetings took place within the following months. First, Kennedy and Charles de Gaulle met in Paris, France, and this meeting lasted from May 31 – June 2, 1961. The main discussion involved the city of Berlin, which needed to be protected from any Soviet threats. The next day, June 3, 1961, Kennedy met Nikita Khrushchev, the communist leader of the Soviet Union, in Vienna, Austria. At this meeting, Khrushchev mentioned a treaty that would prevent Allied access into West Berlin. This threat became reality when the Berlin Wall was erected. The construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13, 1961. Stretching twenty-seven miles, this wall, which was built with cement and barbed wire, effectively separated East and West Berlin. The main purpose of the Berlin Wall was to keep citizens of West Berlin from fleeing the communist government. Even with this physical barrier, many people tried to escape. Numerous were killed by guards in the process. Soon, Kennedy sent troops to West Berlin to control the chaos. Kennedy greatly protested the Berlin Wall, which represented a physical “iron curtain.” As communism spread, more troubles emerged for Kennedy. Issues in Vietnam required attention, and Kennedy tended to this on November 22, 1961. Vietnam had been divided into the regions of North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam followed communism under Ho Chi Minh, while South Vietnam pursued a democratic government beneath Ngo Dinh Diem. When the North Vietnamese, also called the Viet Cong, released guerrilla attacks on the South Vietnamese government, Kennedy decided to send military advisors to South Vietnam in order to strengthen them. Numerous foreign problems faced Kennedy within his first year of presidency, and additional issues surfaced for the remainder of his term. The largest threat at the time was communism, which Kennedy attempted to control through the creation of the Peace Corps. However, communism continued for many years to come.

8: Cold War Strategies: President John F. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy from 1962-1963 By: Mandy Erhard On January 5, 1962, the thirty-fifth president of the United States was named the “Man of the Year” by Time magazine. President John F. Kennedy (JFK) lived up to this title especially in the area of foreign policy during the rest of his months in office from 1962 to his assassination on November 22, 1963. President Kennedy had many tough issues to face in the world when he began his second year in office. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was in full swing, and no end seemed to be in sight. In

9: fact, the Cold War began to escalate in 1962 when Fidel Castro, the Cuban dictator, made a pact with Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet Union’s premier, to install nuclear missiles on Cuban soil. In Europe, the Berlin Wall was a controversial topic between the democratic nations and the Soviet Union, with every democratic nation calling for the wall’s demolition. In addition, the conflict in Vietnam became more stressed with Ho Chi Minh’s declaration that North Vietnam would wage guerilla warfare for ten years if needed, and with the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam, in November, 1963. The Cuban Missile Crisis initiated on October 16, 1962. | American U-2 spy planes flying over Cuba spotted Soviet missile sites under construction. Kennedy addressed the issue, proclaiming that if the missiles were ever fired in the Western Hemisphere, he would consider it an act of war and he would declare war on the Soviet Union. Even though the missile sites were being created in Cuba, JFK knew that the Soviet Union was supplying Castro with the missiles. Because they did not dismantle the missile sites, but instead furthered their construction, President Kennedy ordered United States naval warships to blockade Cuba against the incoming Soviet ships. On October 28, 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis reached

10: its climax. A Soviet ship loaded with missile parts approached the U.S. blockade. The entire world knew that if the Soviet ship attempted to cross the barricade in any way, World War III would have begun, and the nation supplied with the most sophisticated nuclear weapons would win the war. Luckily, however, the Soviet ship turned around just before reaching the United States barrier and headed back to the Soviet Union. Because the Soviets agreed to remove all of the missile sites in Cuba, the United States in return agreed to not invade Cuba and also to dismantle U.S. missile sites in | Turkey. Thanks to President John F. Kennedy’s marvelous talents in compromising with, but not backing down from the Soviet Union’s demands, a terrible nuclear war was averted at the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On June 10, 1963, after the Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy introduced a compact called the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty that should be negotiated with the Soviet Union. JFK used the term “strategy of Turkey. Thanks to President John F. Kennedy’s marvelous talents in compromising with, but not backing down from the Soviet Union’s demands, a terrible nuclear war was averted at the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

11: On June 10, 1963, after the Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy introduced a compact called the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty that should be negotiated with the Soviet Union. JFK used the term “strategy of peace” to describe this treaty, hoping to use it to end the Cold War and discourage further research and production of nuclear arms. This treaty promised that the United States would not test nuclear weapons aboveground, in the atmosphere, if other countries also did not. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty also helped to protect the world from harmful nuclear waste released by each test of a nuclear weapon. President Kennedy signed this | treaty on October 7, 1963, which was the very first disarmament treaty in the nuclear weapons age. Over in Europe, the Cold War affected Berlin, Germany greatly with the construction of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961. The Berlin Wall prevented East Berliners from fleeing Communist rule and heading for the safety of West Berlin. As soon as the fortification was erected, all of the democratic nations of the world began to campaign for the dismantling of the “Iron Curtain” which spilt Europe in half. President John F. Kennedy demonstrated the United States’ support for West Berlin

12: and West Germany in a June 26, 1963 speech at the Schoenenberger Rathaus in the Rudolph Wilde Platz. He confirmed the free world’s support of West Berlin with the words, “All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin; and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words, ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’”. In Asia, the United States carefully monitored the situation building up in Vietnam. In 1954 after the French were defeated in the First Vietnam War, the Geneva Accords divided the former French colony of French Indochina into communist North Vietnam, | democratic South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Free elections were to be held in 1956 so the Vietnamese people could select the government they preferred in order to unite Vietnam under that chosen government. The elections were cancelled because Ngo Dinh Diem, president of South Vietnam knew that he would lose to Ho Chi Minh, leader of North Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under a Communist government. The United States feared this, so they supported the democratic South Vietnam by lending financial aid beginning in 1945 under President Truman. With President Eisenhower, the

13: United States continued to give money to South Vietnam. When the situation became more drastic in 1962, President John F. Kennedy continued to send U.S. military advisors to assist in the training of South Vietnamese troops after Ho Chi Minh informed South Vietnam that he was prepared to use guerilla warfare for as long as ten years on December 31, 1962. The situation in Vietnam became even more strained when South Vietnam’s military leaders overthrew Ngo Dinh Diem’s government and killed Diem in a two day fight starting on November 1, 1963. President Kennedy acknowledged this new government a few days after the incident occurred. Tragically, confronting the new issues happening in Vietnam was one of President John F. Kennedy’s last actions regarding his foreign policy. On November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, President Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. President John F. Kennedy was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Washington D.C., on November 25, 1963.

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