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BC: The End

2: JFK's Early Life By Josh Szurley Did you ever consider what the early life of our former President, John F. Kennedy, was like? Well, we’ve got the inside scoop. On May 29, 1917, the future 35th President of the United States was born. Named John Fitzgerald Kennedy, after his grandfather, Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts to the parents of Joseph and Rose Kennedy. John F. Kennedy was the second of nine children born to the Kennedy family. While he was young, the family moved from Massachusetts to New York. In the year 1935 at the age of 18, Kennedy graduated from Choate School in Connecticut. Choate was a boarding school for boys. He was especially interested in the subjects of History and English, two subjects which he would need later in his life to be effective in the political field. In addition, Kennedy enjoyed playing tennis, basketball, football, golf, and reading the New York Times.In order to further his education, Kennedy applied to Princeton University in 1935. He was accepted and the eager Kennedy attended the school in the fall. Unfortunately, during his freshmen year, Kennedy became ill

3: and had to drop out of Princeton. During 1936, the next year, Kennedy applied to Harvard and was accepted. His brother Joe also attended the University. Being a very active person, Kennedy participated in clubs such as St. Paul’s Catholic Club and Spee Club while playing sports like golf, swimming, hockey, and football during his time at Harvard. He took an interest in the subjects of History and Government, and planned to pursue a career in law. In 1937, JFK and his friend Lern Billings went to tour Europe. They went to France, Italy, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands as well as England. The next year, Kennedy’s father, Joseph Kennedy, was named the Ambassador to Great Britain by President Franklin Roosevelt. During the second semester of his junior year of Harvard in 1939, Kennedy spent his time in Europe working at an American Embassy in Paris, France. While in Europe, Kennedy visited Poland, Moscow, Russia, and Berlin, Germany. However, at the breakout of World War II, the British passenger ship Athenia was sunk. Joseph Kennedy, the British Ambassador, sent his son, John, to help aid the American survivors. In the year 1940, Kennedy graduated from Harvard University with a Bachelor of Science degree and published his book titled Why England

4: Slept. The book explains why Kennedy believed that Great Britain was ill-equipped to wage war with Germany. Surprisingly, the book became a bestseller. This obviously proves that Kennedy was well educated in politics and history, a major pro for him in his later years. During October of 1941, John F. Kennedy served his country by enlisting in the U.S. Navy. He became a Lieutenant in 1943 and served as commander of the PT109, a patrol torpedo boat, in the South Pacific. Kennedy and his crew’s duty was to prevent Japanese vessels from transporting supplies and troops. During one particular battle, Kennedy’s ship was struck and he had to rescue some of his crew members from drowning when they were thrown overboard by the blast. For his bravery during his service and for being wounded during a battle with the Japanese destroyer, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, and the Purple Heart in 1944. The story of Kennedy being a war hero undoubtedly fueled public support for the young veteran, and added to Kennedy’s list of qualifications for President. Unfortunately, tragedy struck the Kennedy family on August 12, 1944 when Kennedy’s brotherJoseph P. Kennedy was killed. He had been flying over the English Channel on a

5: mission when his plane was shot down. Two years later on November 5, 1946, Kennedy was elected to the House of Representatives, from the Eleventh District of Massachusetts. Coincidentally, John F. Kennedy represented the same district that his grandfather, John F. Fitzgerald, had represented. Kennedy would go on to serve three terms in the House. Sadly, Kennedy’s sister Kathleen died in an airplane crash over France on May 13, 1948. Although John F. Kennedy suffered an illness during his schooling and the death of two of his siblings early in his life, he was a determined man who was very experienced in the political field and was poised for the presidency.

6: Late Years of JFK By Erica Romanko John F. Kennedy was married in Newport, Rhode Island to Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12, 1953. Then about a year later he undergoes major back surgery and very nearly dies. Not four months later and he underwent another principal back surgery. During his recovery he had some time to write Profiles in Courage, which told stories of how senators put their careers on the line by standing by their values and beliefs. This book was published in 1956 and at once became an instant best seller. Profiles in Courage would later win the Pulitzer Prize, awarded by the Columbia University of New York, which was thought of as a high national honor in literary achievements. Afterward in 1956, John F. Kennedy, at the Democratic National Convention, put forward Adlai Stevenson for President. He then tries to get a seat as the Vice President, but loses coming in second to Senator Estes Kefauver. However, in the following year John F. Kennedy's first child, his daughter Caroline is born, and even though he lost his bid as vice president he was re-elected for U.S. senate, winning 73.6% of the votes, making that the largest popular vote received by a

7: candidate in Massachusetts running for senator. Then in 1960, he reveals that he is a candidate for president to the Caucus Room of the United States Senate. Afterward in July, Kennedy is nominated for president at the Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles California. Following his nomination John F. Kennedy chose Lyndon B. Johnson, a majority leader in the senate from Texas, as his running mate. John F. Kennedy's platform was the call for better science and educational programs in the country and less focus on the arms race. He also wanted to help the farming economy and decrease the poverty level in the United States. His goals for the future became known as the New Frontier, and asked the American people to do something for the future and challenge themselves in trying to make it better. However, his bid for president becomes impaired as people start to question his religion and if he will be influenced by important religious figures, such as the Pope. Though to this, he responds that he is not a Catholic candidate but a Democratic candidate that is Catholic as well. In September of that year, the debate begins with Republican candidate and former Vice President Richard Nixon. Kennedy participates in the first debates that are aired on television, which was said to give Kennedy his edge over Nixon in the race for President.

8: JFK: Home Sweet Home By Michele Sneddon Five days following his inauguration as the thirty-fifth President of the United States, John F. Kennedy holds a press conference. As well as being the first President born in the twentieth century, this press conference was also the first to be televised live. As a part of his domestic policy, which he penned the “New Frontier,” Kennedy created the Peace Corps on March 1, 1961. His vision of the Peace Corps was to promote “cultural understanding” by also giving aid to new and developing countries. During his time in office, John F. Kennedy also made progress with the space program. On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard, one of seven men chosen as astronauts for another project, Mercury, made the first manned American space flight. Another space goal John set was to orbit a spacecraft around Earth, with man and spacecraft safely returning to Earth. An even bigger national goal was to land a man on the moon before the year 1970. Meeting John’s previous objectives of an American orbiting the Earth, John Glenn is launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida, on February 20th of 1962. Following his third loop

9: around the Earth, Glenn lands in the Atlantic Ocean, close to Bermuda. During his unfortunately, short presidency, Kennedy set out to pass a numerous amount of acts that would target bettering the lives of different groups of people. On July 19th of 1961, John F. Kennedy made a statement regarding youths everywhere saying there is an “urgent call to strengthen all programs that contribute to the physical fitness of our youth.” A year later, he banned gender discrimination. Many companies had discriminated against women while choosing individuals to hire and promote; John F. Kennedy had now made this illegal. Just as he had earlier that year, Kennedy made another ban of discrimination; this time it was racial. This executive order was released to prevent “the sale or lease of housing facilities owned or operated by the federal government or housing built or purchased with federal aid” to be decided, based on racial background. A major stepping stone in the advancement of African Americans was made in the school year of 1962 at the

10: University of Mississippi. James Meredith had registered to be the first African American student at the University of Mississippi. As riots protesting the admission began, Kennedy sent Federal troops to take care of business. Next passing a milestone in Alabama, two African American students enrolled at the University of Alabama. To prevent violence, JFK calls on the AL National Guard to take control of the situation. In another effort to improve the civil rights of his citizens, he requests to Congress for a legislation enhancing the current voting rights acts. In a televised address to his nation, JFK names the civil rights problem a “moral crisis in our nation,” believing that he must do something about it. Taking a widespread approach to yet an additional civil rights bill, in June of 1963, John asks that “all facilities that are open to the public” give equal access to all walks of people. A great supporter of Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr. consequently gave his “I have a dream speech” for racial justice, in the March on Washington. Making another big headline, while trying to strengthen

11: the economy, John F. Kennedy proposes an enormous income tax cut in January of 1963. He fought that the existing arrangement was inefficient, and it didn’t allow room for growth. JFK as well, requests that steel companies not increase their prices, dubbing the term non-inflationary. Contrary to John F. Kennedy’s request, some steel companies issued an increase of 3.5%. Following, Kennedy stresses to the owners that this is only for the public good and to not do so is a rebellious and foolish decision, until the prices fall back down.

12: Kennedy’s Foreign Issues By Robert Cole Alu and Zachary Taylor Agate During President Kennedy’s time in office beginning in 1960, he faced many foreign policy issues, and had to deal with each of them. His earliest issue was on March 13, 1961, which was when he proposed the Alliance for Progress. This organization was founded in order to help relations with Latin America. It was to encourage economic development and promote democracy. Although Kennedy had the right idea, this organization proved to do little to help Latin America or our relations with it. On April 17-20, 1961, there was the Bay of Pigs Invasion, which was a failed attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro’s government in Cuba. The United States sponsored this invasion by training 1500 Cuban exiles to try and overthrow the government. This was bad publicity for the Kennedy Administration, and many U.S. citizens began to doubt his ability to deal with foreign issues.

13: On June 3, 1961 President Kennedy met with Soviet leader Khrushchev in a U.S. embassy in Vienna, Austria. America and the Soviet Union were the two superpowers during this time. This was the first time these leaders met. Khrushchev threatened to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany, which would effectively cut off Allied access to West Berlin. When the Berlin Wall began construction on August 13, 1961, President Kennedy had to decide how America would react to this wall which would divide East and West Germany. Kennedy decided not to challenge the wall directly, as he did not want war with the Soviets. Instead he would fight communism “indirectly”. On September 25, 1961, President Kennedy endorsed disarmament in an address to the United Nations General Assembly. He supported complete disarmament and challenged the Soviets to a “Peace Race”. President Kennedy sent military advisors to Vietnam on November 22, 1961. He approved an action plan to send

14: military advisors to South Vietnam to aid their struggling government and to guide them in their war against North Vietnam and the Viet Cong guerrillas. On October 16-28, 1962, America was at its closest to nuclear war with the Soviets when the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred. U.S. spy planes detected the construction of Soviet nuclear missile sites in Cuba. The U.S. then set up a naval blockade to cut off the Soviet Union from Cuba. Nuclear war was avoided when the Soviets agreed to dismantle their missile sites in exchange for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba and to remove missile sites from Turkey. On June 10, 1963, President Kennedy announces a peace strategy. It was his strategy to end the Cold War. He called on the Soviet Union to work with the U.S. to form a Nuclear Test Ban treaty. The U.S. would not conduct nuclear experiments above ground as long as other countries do the same. This was a step towards peace between these two superpowers. President Kennedy visited West Berlin on June 26, 1963

15: to address West Berliners. He spoke to a huge crowd of people from a platform on the steps of Schoenenberger Rathaus in the Rudolph Wilde Platz saying that, “All free men, wherever they live, are citizens of Berlin; and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words, ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’”.

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