S: Nuclear Power
FC: By Kushan Gandhi
1: Nuclear power is energy that is gained from the process of nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. The word 'nuclear' comes from the Latin word nucleus meaning center. There is a wide debate over who invented nuclear power but the first person to achieve nuclear fission (a form of nuclear power) was Enrico Fermi, an Italian physicist. | WHAT IS NUCLEAR POWER?
2: What Is Nuclear Fission? | Nuclear fission is the nuclear reaction used to create over 90% of the worlds nuclear power. It is the most common Nuclear Reaction and it is also the easiest to achieve. Nuclear Fission is the process where a blind neutron( N-1) collides with a uranium isotope (U-235) and makes the atom of the uranium isotope unstable and as a result the atom splits and becomes 2 smaller Nuclei and 3 blind neutrons (N-1). In this process masses of Nuclear energy is released and this is absorbed by the nuclear reactors. Nuclear fission is also used to make atomic bombs, the 1945 hiroshima atomic bomb attacks involved the process of fission to make the bomb explode. | Diagram of the Nuclear fission process
3: What is Nuclear fusion? | Nuclear fusion is the second type of nuclear reaction. Nuclear fusion is when 2 smaller nuclei are bombarded together (with extreme heat) and create a heavier atom. Nuclear Fusion is the process when atoms are fused together. The materials used for nuclear fusion are 2 hydrogen atoms called deuterium (2H) and tritium (3H). These two isotopes are heated in a tokamak with temperatures over 30,000,000 degrees Celsius! The reason why the fissile materials need this much heat is so the have enough kinetic energy for them to fuse together and create a helium atom (he-4) and one blind neutron (n-1). In this process loads of energy is released, much more than the energy released in nuclear fission! The reason why nuclear fusion is not very common is because it is to hard to achieve because of the extreme heat needed. Nuclear fusion also occurs naturally on the sun and it was first achieved by Philo Farnsworth. | Diagram of the fusion process
4: How does a nuclear plant work? | A nuclear power plant consists of different areas which are controlled by power plant employees. There are different parts of a nuclear power plant but one of the most important part is the nuclear reactor. A nuclear reactor has 4 main parts: Fuel Rods- Fuel rods are usually composed of fissionable isotopes such as 235U, 233U and 239Pu. Any isotope present in critical mass will do. In the U.S. enriched tri-uranium oct-oxide, U3O 8, pellets are placed in a Zirconium alloyed tube where they are lowered into its core. Control rods - Control rods, normally composed of 10B or Cd, absorb neutrons. Neutrons are absorbed so as to prevent the reaction from going at an unsafe rate (i.e. meltdown).
5: Moderators - It is job the of the moderator to slow down neutrons without absorbing them. Moderators must slow down neutrons without absorbing or reacting with them. D2O (deuterium oxide--heavy water), H2O, and graphite are common moderators. If neutrons were permitted to continue uninhibited a chain-reaction would occur causing a meltdown of the facility. Shielding/Containment - This part shields and ensures that the radiation does not be exposed and escapes. Coolant - The job of the coolant is to carry the heat from the reactor to a steam turbine system where it is converted to electricity, as well as keeping the reactor cool enough to prevent a meltdown.
6: Is nuclear power sustainable? | Although nuclear power is inexpensive and an effective power source and an alternative for gas power, it is not sustainable. The reason why it is not sustainable is because through the process of controlled nuclear fission (the process that turns nuclear energy into electric energy) the coolants release water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and other green-house gases. As you know all these gases cause decay in the Earth's ozone layer and trap heat causing rising water levels globally (global warming).
7: What are the pros and cons of nuclear power? | Cons: - Environmental hazard. - Contributes to global warming and rising ocean levels. - Can potentially cause war. - Exposure to humans can be very dangerous and can have deathly outcomes. Pros: - Very cheap resource. - alternative for hydroelectric power, wind power and gas consumption. - Creates jobs/ employment benefit. - Energy source that does not rely solely on the Earths Climate.
8: Is nuclear power the fuel for the future? | Nuclear power is not aloud in New Zealand but could it be an alternative fuel source for the future? The reason why nuclear power or any other type of nuclear source is not aloud in NEw Zealand is because of a law proposed in 1989 by the prime minister which I will explain about later in my book. Nuclear power has changed over the past century and it is constantly evolving but maybe in a few years nuclear technology might require fewer of Earth's resources. A similar example of evolution in Nuclear technology happened in 1989.
9: two chemists in 1989 were studying electrolysis with two hydrogen isotopes- Deuterium and tritium (the two isotopes used in nuclear fusion) then they used a voltmeter to test the voltage and ampere of the electrolytic material and it turned out being a helium atom (he-4). They thought that this was a case of 'cold fission' but there was a world wide controversial debate on this theory. We now know that it is impossible for cold fusion to happen because at room temperature (20 degrees Celsius) the atomic particles (neutrons, protons and electrons) are way do slow to 'fuse'. | What is cold fusion?
10: PERSONAL PROFILE-DAVID LANGE | Born: 4 August 1942 Otahuhu, New Zealand Died: 13 August 2005 (aged 63) Auckland, New Zealand Political party: Labour Spouse(s): Naomi Joy Crampton (three children); Margaret Pope (one child) Religion: Methodist
11: What he did: | Lange made his name on the international stage with a long-running campaign against nuclear weapons. His government refused to allow nuclear-armed ships into New Zealand waters, a policy that New Zealand continues to this day. The policy, developing in 1985, had the effect of prohibiting United States Navy ships from visiting New Zealand. This displeased the United States and Australia: they regarded the policy as a breach of treaty obligations under ANZUS and as an abrogation of responsibility in the context of the Cold War against the Soviet bloc. After consultations with Australia and after negotiations with New Zealand broke down, the United States announced that it would suspend its treaty obligations to New Zealand until the re-admission of United States Navy ships to New Zealand ports, characterising New Zealand as "a friend, but not an ally". The perceived "crisis" made front-page headlines for weeks in many American newspapers, and media quoted many United States Cabinet members as expressing a deep sense of "betrayal". Erroneous claims sometimes suggest that David Lange withdrew New Zealand from ANZUS. His government's policy may have prompted the US's decision to suspend its ANZUS Treaty obligations to New Zealand, but that decision rested with the U.S. government, not with the New Zealand government.
12: Action: | (i)Spontaneous, uncontrolled nuclear reactions: (ii)Coolants in the nuclear reactors: (iii)Nuclear waste being thrown away: Nuclear (iv)weapons/explosives: | Central Idea/ Focusing points: | Causation/Reaction: (i)Causes radiation to be emitted, releases nuclear energy (ii)Creates nitrogen-monoxide, carbon-dioxide and other harmful gases. (iii)Causes catastrophic damage to the environment and humans. (iv) Causes mutation and birth defects to humans, kills people or injures, causes leukemia
14: Internet Sources Used (alphabetical order): 1. http://www.cooltext.com/ 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactor_core 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_station 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapon 8. http://www.google.co.nz/images 9. http://www.google.co.nz 10. http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm 11. www.mixbook.com Blog Used (alphabetical order): 1. http://www.blogtoplist.com/rss/nuclear-power.html Blog Created by: The Huffington Post
15: Books Used (alphabetical order): 1. Title: Nuclear Power: Both Sides Author: by Michio Kaku, Jennifer Trainer Published: January 1st 1989 Publishing company: W. W. Norton & Company Textbooks Used: 1. Title: NCEA Level 1 Physics (Year 11) Author: John Boereboom Published: 2010 Publishing company: ESA publications People Sources Used: 1. Olivia and Iris ( I copied them with the idea of a mixbook =P)