FC: U.S History | Sandra A. Emily R. P.3 | By:
1: Working and Living Conditions of Slaves | Most masters viewed their slaves as they did their land – things to be “worn out, not improved.” they provided only what was need to keep their slaves healthy enough to work. Slaves lived crowded together in rough cabins.Slaves seldom went hungry “not tot give a slave enough to eat” reported Fredrick Douglas, “is regarded asmeanness even among slaves holders.” slaves wore clothing made of course homespun linen or rough “Negro cloth” | About three quarters of rural slaves were field hands who toiled from dawn to dark tending crops. Slaves workday was not finished. After dark there was still water to carry, would to split pigs to feed corn to shuck, cotton to clean and other chores to be done. Not all slaves worked in the fields some were skilled seamstresses, carpenters or blacksmiths. Others worked in the masters houses as cooks or servants. No matter how hard they worked slaves could not look forward to an easier life.
2: Dred Scott Case & Decision | In 1857, the slave controversy shifted from the bloodied floor of congress to the supreme court. Years earlier, Scott had traveled with his owner to Wisconsin, where slavery was banned by the Missouri Compromise. When he return to Missouri, Scott went to court to win his freedom. He argued that his stay in Wisconsin had made him free. First, as a slave was Dred Scott a citizen who had a right to bring a case before a federal court? Second, did his time in Wisconsin made him a free man. By a vote five to four, the court had decided that Scott could not sue for his freedom in a federal court because he was not a citizen. The court had rejected the Scott's argument that his stay in Wisconsin had made him a free man. The reason was so simple; the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
3: Strengths & Weakness of the Union and Confederate | The north was both richer and technologically advanced than the south. About 90% of the nations manufacturing, and most of its banks were in the north. The north had geographic advantages. It had more farms than the south to provide food for the troops. Its land contained most of the countries iron, coil, copper, and gold. The north greatest weaknesses was its military leadership. | The south great strength was the military leadership. The south's main weakness was an economy that could not support a long war. It had few factories to produced gun, and other military supplies. Southern could trade cotton for war material from Europe, but the union ships could sharply reduce this trade with blockades of the Southern ports
4: Reconstruction | The reconstruction was to rebuild the south and bringing the southern states back into the union, would not be easy. For a while the nation was reunited again, Americans deeply became divided. In May 1865, president Johnson announced his reconstruction plan. A former confederate state could rejoin the union once it had written a new state constitution, elected a new state government, repealed its act of secession, canceled it war debts, and ratified the thirteenth amendment. After the war there was other laws done to get slaves from receiving their freedom. There was blackcodes which served three purposes. The first was to limit the rights of freedom. The second purpose was to help planters find works to replace their slaves. The third purpose was to keep freedmen on the bottom of the social order in the south
5: Inventions | In 1872, a Scottish immigrant named Andrew Carnegie went to England to study a less expensive method of making steel, invented by Henry Bessmer. Carngie owned a company that made iron bridges for railroads. But he knew that his bridges would be better with steel. Carnegie was so impressed by the Bessmer process that he brought that he brought it back into the United States. “the age of iron has passed,” he announced. “ Steel is king.” In 1876, Thomas Edison opened an “Invention factory” in New Jersey. Edison succeeded brilliantly. The telephone was invented by a Scottish immigrant named Alexander Hamilton. In 1876, as he was getting ready to test his “talking machine” Bell spilled acid on himself he asked his friend to come over, and through a telephone they heard themselves. It worked so well that by 1915, Americans were communicating with one another over nine million telephones.
6: End of Reconstruction | Slaves were no longer slaves nor property Slaves were now full citizens Southern states abolished the 13th amendment and the states were now reunited making it one nation once more
7: Migration | The great migration refers to the widespread migration of African Americans in the 20th century from rural communities in large cities in the north and west | The great migration refers to the widespread migration of African Americans in the 20th century from rural communities in large cities in the north and west
8: The growth of cities | To the growth of cities there was urban tenements, housing in which apartments were not as much costs. People had little rooms in which there was no windows at all. In a room there could be up to ten people | Urban life expanded With the little or so expansion they had left was used to build houses upward. The rooms we very small that families lived crowded together There was no widows so they had to buy candles to see
9: Working conditions on factories | Working conditions in most industries were appalling. Gone were the days when the owners cared about the workers. Millions of children worked in mines,mills, and factories. They would go to work at seven o’clock in the morning and end until dark to see any longer. Mills and factories were hot during summer and cold during winter. To keep costs low owners crowded the workers together. Some had hunched backs because of the years of working on the same thing. Of all working dangers fires claimed most lives