FC: Literature 2011/2012
1: By: Li-Anne Koh
2: BEOWULF | Beowulf, An English heroic epic that dates back to around the 8th century while the only surviving manuscript dates back to around 1000. | Other than the obvious nature of the movie being about 5 times more exciting than reading the text, mostly due to the utter childishness going on in the class due to Beowulf fighting Grendel naked. The cleverly placed sword, the hanging bowl and the deceptive angle of the camera left the class in utter chaos and Wen-Ling in a fit of giggles. However, there are significant differences other than the humorous action going on screen. Foreshadowing is much more prominent in the film, the romance is emphasized and the character Beowulf seems so much more real. Beowulf depicted in the book seems to have superhuman strength through his tales while when we see Beowulf defeat Grendel in the movie, it seems more believable as his strengths are limited as a human. The movie explained more of the back story than the interpretation and inferences we made from the text. | "He slipped through the door and there in the silence Snatched up thirty men, smashed them Unknowingly in their beds and ran out with their bodies" Line 58-60. Beowulf's first visit to Herot. | "That mighty protector of men meant to hold the monster till its life Leaped out, knowing the fiend was no use to anyone in Denmark" Line 443-445 Beowulf fights Grendel .
3: Kennings: Used in Old English or Old Norse poetry, a metaphorical name for a noun. | Examples of Kennings: Line 1477: Gold-Friend (good friend) Line 10 : Whale-Road = Ocean LIne 258: Word-hoard = Brain Line 786: Hell-serf = A demon, evil spirit Line 1402: Shield- Bearers = Fighters, Warriors. Line 1443: War-gear = Armor | The man whose name was known for courage, the Geat leader, resolute in his helmet, answered in return: "We are retainers from Hygelac's band. Beowulf is my name." (340-343)
4: The Canterbury Tales | The Canterbury tales by Geoffrey Chaucer tells of the stories of a unique blend of people all who seek spiritual reassurance and therefore travel on a pilgrimage to seek spiritual guidance. | Characters : -The Knight -The Wife of Bath -The Pardoner -The Wife of Bath -The Miller -The Prioress The Monk -The Friar -The Manciple -The Physician -The Shipmen -The Summoner -The Host -The Man of Law -The Cook -The Yeoman -The Guildsmen -The Plowman -The Reeve -The Parson -The Squire -The Clerk | The knight is by far my favorite character, not because he embodies everything I aspire to be, manly and tough with the air of a gentlemen but he has true strength from within as well. Described as truthful, honorable, generous and courteous; the knight combines the outwards distinguished and celebrated soldier with a modest, gentle and kind heart.
5: The lady of Bath inspires me. Not with her superficial ways or mastery of love but of her independence and skill. Although she has experience with many a man, she does not shy away from society and lives proudly and extravagantly. Though she has had men to provide for her, she also has a respectable trade in which no one can compare to her skill, therefore being able to be independent as well. She very well may have been the first mention of an independent strong will feminist in this book. Compared to the passive stay-at-home housewife, she travels and lives to her heart's desire. | The man of law reminds me of everything I never could have done and all the things I would have not been able to finish. He is the studious non-procrastinator that would have probably finished this scrapbook project a year ago. He buries his head in book and doesn't believe in religion. My anti-thesis. The Man of Law.
6: THE PARDONER'S TALE | A tale told by the pardoner in "The Canterbury Tales" of greedy men who meant to sought death to slay it but instead was taken by it. | Thus these two murderers received their dues, So did the treacherous young prisoner too. (237-238)
7: Analysis of "The Pardoner's Tale" | Through their greed and treachery the 3 "brothers" fell dead, ironically by their own friend's hand. Although they were determined to slay the one who caused death, instead they found the cause within themselves. They let evil and their own selfish desires control them and essentially leaving them with nothing but lying lifeless in the forest beside their acclaimed "prize" . | Ironically the pardoner was the most greedy out of all the pilgrims for money yet he told a story against the evils of money.
8: Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind, But as for me, helas! I may no more. The vain travail hath worried me so sore, I am of them that furthest come behind. Yet may I by no means, my worried mind Draw from the deer; but as she fleeth afore Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore, Since in a net I seek to hold the wind. Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, As well as I, may spend his time in vain; And graven in diamonds in letters plain There is written, her fair neck round about, "Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am, And wild to hold, though I seem tame." | Whoso List to Hunt | The diamonds indicating that the deer is the prize of a very wealthy powerful man.
9: Thomas Wyatt | This poem is thought to have been based on Wyatt's feelings for Anne Boleyn who was being courted by King Henry the VIII. | A rich | The parallelism's in the poem such as hunting the deer to Wyatt's desire to successfully woo Anne Boleyn, but yet in the end will never attain her just as he never captures the deer. The necklace around the deer's neck shows the deer has been claimed as a prize for another. The other being none other than King Henry the VIII. Therefore Wyatt's pursuit is futile and in vain as he says in the poem the deer misleads her hunters to be tame though the deers is wild and hard to capture.
10: The Canterbury tales | The Passionate Shepard to His Love | The Shepard weaves the superficial cotton candied dreams of the romantic, promising of happy days and dreams with him. Forever being with him, to forever love and provide for her as she enjoys the finest he can provide her. Wearing gowns made from the softest wool and eating meats from silver dishes while they bask in nature's beauty which is theirs and enjoy their eternal love. | COME live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys, dale and field, And all the craggy mountains yield. There will we sit upon the rocks 5 And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals. There will I make thee beds of roses And a thousand fragrant posies, 10 A cap of flowers, and a kirtle Embroider'd all with leaves of myrtle. A gown made of the finest wool Which from our pretty lambs we pull, Fair lind slippers for the cold, 15 With buckles of the purest gold. A belt of straw and ivy buds With coral clasps and amber studs: And if these pleasures may thee move, Come live with me and be my Love. 20 Thy silver dishes for thy meat As precious as the gods do eat, Shall on an ivory table be Prepared each day for thee and me. The shepherd swains shall dance and sing 25 For thy delight each May-morning: If these delights thy mind may move, Then live with me and be my Love.
11: The Nymph's reply to the Shepard | The nymph provides a more realistic picture of how his promises can't last forever. They age and fade, wane and disappear. All the things that he promises don't last through time. However she leaves him with some final parting words of hope, saying that if these things were to last, she would marry him. What a flirt. | F all the world and love were young, And truth in every shepherd's tongue, These pretty pleasures might me move To live with thee and be thy love. Time drives the flocks from field to fold, When rivers rage and rocks grow cold; And Philomel becometh dumb; The rest complains of cares to come. The flowers do fade, and wanton fields To wayward winter reckoning yields: A honey tongue, a heart of gall, Is fancy's spring, but sorrow's fall. The gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses, Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten,— In folly ripe, in reason rotten. Thy belt of straw and ivy buds, Thy coral clasps and amber studs, All these in me no means can move To come to thee and be thy love. But could youth last and love still breed, Had joys no date nor age no need, Then these delights my mind might move To live with thee and be thy love.
12: Shakespeare's Sonnets | Sonnet 130 | My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. | This style of poem known as the Shakespearean sonnet, in which the ending couplet surprises us by reversing the tone and mood of the piece. | This poem has the rhyme scheme ABAB-CDCD-EFEF.
13: This poem initially doesn't give you a good impression of the speaker's lover. His lover's eyes, lips, hair and cheeks are all compared to the loveliest of things and yet not one of her features can match up. He describes her actions as ordinary and music to be far more pleasant than her voice. However in the end he declares his love for her despite her unlikeness to these beautiful objects. This shows the realistic sense of the speaker and also conveys a message of love that even if she is human, he will love her. This is meant to prove to her the uniqueness of his love and the love that looks past her flaws.
14: To the Virgins to Make Much of Time | Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, Old time is still a-flying : And this same flower that smiles to-day To-morrow will be dying. The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, The higher he's a-getting, The sooner will his race be run, And nearer he's to setting. That age is best which is the first, When youth and blood are warmer ; But being spent, the worse, and worst Times still succeed the former. Then be not coy, but use your time, And while ye may go marry : For having lost but once your prime You may for ever tarry. | Make most of life while you can. | The doors that were once opened, may be closed tomorrow. | You only live once, make the most of your time and love.
15: THEMES | In this poem Herrick conveys the importance of Carpe Diem which means to seize the day. Telling virgins to get married before their prime has passed. To make the most out of our life. | Carpe Dreams Follow your dreams; while they last Though corny it may be You can’t afford to let them past Over time, you will clearly see That when you’re old and filled with regret You will believe me That dreams are not things; easy to forget So don’t be a dummy Don’t run it as a race Nowhere near as fast Keep a steady good pace And your dreams will be vast Don’t fret, fiddle, worry or wait Work for your happiness Don’t leave it to fate Without your dreams, you’re aimless.
16: ON HIS BLINDNESS BY JOHN MILTON | John Milton, a writer who spent most of his days in darkness ; studying and reading. Eventually losing his sight, he wrote this poem on being blind. | Milton initially questions the Lord asking him why he is rendered blind and the Lord answers that with patience, he will be rewarded. Milton reveals his religion and faith through this poem and leaves the reader with a patient forgiving image of God, who although has caused him to become blind has allowed him to reap rewards with his patience and efforts.
17: When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hide Lodg'd with me useless, though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, lest he returning chide, "Doth God exact day-labour, light denied?" I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies: "God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts: who best Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state Is kingly; thousands at his bidding speed And post o'er land and ocean without rest: They also serve who only stand and wait." | The rhyme scheme in this poem is A- BB-CC then written in free verse.
18: PARADISE LOST | The angels, led by Satan try to rebel against God. After losing, they are cast out from Heaven and end up in Hell. | There, Satan agonizes over what could have gone wrong and is convinced that God won purely due to strength in numbers. | Satan is obviously delusional at this point, he still believes he can defeat God through mere force, he has not learned his lesson and believes God does not have enough power to remove from them their wings.
19: The angels try to find a place to gather | Satan proposes a new plan against God and asks the fallen angles to continue their battle against god by poisoning the world that God has created. | They all gather at Pandemonium to hear Satan speak and to heal the injured. | Adam and Eve are cast out of the Garden Of Eden after being tempted by Satan and eating fruit from the tree of knowledge | Satan is then punished by God into becoming a snake and Satan vows to continue ruining God's creations
20: A Modest Proposal | Jonathan Swift, an Irishmen wrote this phamplet in order to address the Irish poverty and bring the English to face what they had done to Ireland as well as use clever satire to joke of means to come by food and financial stability. | "I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child, well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food.."
21: the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule or means of denouncing the other. | Satire | "Infants' flesh will be in season throughout the year.." | “For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of papists, with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation as well as our dangerous enemies ...” | ALthough this piece is meant to poke fun at the underlying cause of the Irish financial problem, i can't help but think that this piece had tremendous humor and thought into it. Although it seems morbid and beastly to imagine eating children, it does seem so well planned that it may even be possible to think of that as a solution.
22: THE LAMB By: William Blake | Little Lamb, I'll tell thee, Little Lamb, I'll tell thee: He is called by thy name, For he calls himself a Lamb. He is meek, and he is mild; He became a little child. I a child, and thou a lamb. We are called by his name. Little Lamb, God bless thee! Little Lamb, God bless thee! | Little Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Gave thee life, and bid thee feed By the stream and o'er the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing, woolly, bright; Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice? Little Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee?
23: The speaker in this poem asks the Lamb about it's creation, it's existence and it's survival. How was the lamb made? How did it grow? How did it survive? Through this the speaker reveals the simple innocence of the Lamb, not questioning what or how, just living happily without wondering how he was created or placed on this earth. | In this context the lamb may seem very ignorant but yet did not the saying go ; Ignorance is Bliss? The lamb had led a very innocent pure life, with the softest wool and sweetest sound of voice. With everything provided for him, he never questioned what or who, however the poet clarifies that there is someone
24: My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold | My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So was it when my life began, So is it now I am a man, So be it when I shall grow old Or let me die! The child is father of the man: And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. | He speaks of the circle of life, starting at one end of the rainbow and ending at the next. He wishes his life to be full of joy and color such as a rainbow. His stages of boy, man and grandfather all join together to create his life, such as the rainbow connects all the different colors and creates a beautiful picture,
25: The World Is Too Much With Us | The world is too much with us; late and soon, Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers: Little we see in Nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon! The Sea that bares her bosom to the moon; The winds that will be howling at all hours, And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers; For this, for everything, we are out of tune; It moves us not.--Great God! I'd rather be A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn; So might I, standing on this pleasant lea, Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn; Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea; Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn. | Themes: Wordsworth emphasizes society;'s increasing superficiality and materialism.. Our lessening appreciation for nature and fastening pace of time and need for the modern. | Imagery
26: Pygmalion | Eliza Doolittle. Ordinary flower girl meant to be passed off by Higgins as a duchess | Teaches Eliza how to change her speech to therefore be able to join the higher ranks of society, however sees her as an object and an experimental subject
27: I'm impressed with Eliza, her growth of independence, courage and sense of self throughout the book allowed her to leave Higgins and PIckering; her sole benefactors and teachers. Leaving her free to live life her own way and to love her own way. Initially, though trying to demonstrate class and dignity Eliza is forced by her circumstances to accept and allow most of Higgin's orders and abuse, though in the end she realizes she never deserved to be treated like a flower girl even from the start.Her compliance was demonstrated through Higgin's popping a chocolate in her mouth and tempting her with taxi's and fine clothing. Near the end of the book however, she threatens to advertise that she is but a common flower girl and shall teach others to speak just as well therefore learning a trade as well as gaining the voice and courage to speak against him. | Eliza's independence
28: THE TEMPEST | Prospero | Miranda | Caliban | Ferdinand | Alsono
29: The last play that Shakespeare ever wrote, | Through Prospero's monologue, Shakespeare speaks instead, asking the audience to clap for him one last time, to free Prospero from the island also foreshadowing the end of his play writing career | The Tempest, although not one of the best of Shakespeare's plays was one of his last in which he conveyed his final message to his beloved audience which allows some significance for this play.
30: ULYESSES | In the poem, Ulysses the hero who has returned from Trojan Wars to his home island Ithaca, is now old and aging fast. He longs for adventure and wants to live life instead of waiting around to die. | Ulysses deserves to travel and explore again even if it means meeting his death at sea, but I can't help but question why he insists on continuing to do this to his wife and son? They need his support just as much as he
31: I did my work experience in an elementary school, through that I worked with kids, hung out with them and talked to them on an individual level. My initial thoughts on teaching were that kids were fun and rather youthful as I get older and realize that they look to me for guidance, it's refreshing to somewhat relive my elementary school days of cute crushes and crazy high-jinks. However, teaching your peers is an entirely different area of expertise. We aren't colleagues or professionals. We're friends, growing up and out of our kid shoes together and being thrust together constantly We're just teens and as we watch our friends in front of us, slightly uncomfortable and nervous. We find amusement in prodding them further. Therefore, please understand our extreme immaturity. | Formal apology
32: From Poems from the Portuguese By: Elizabeth Barrett Browning | Elizabeth Barrett Browning produced a number of poems for her husband-to-be Robert Browning during their courtship to celebrate their love. After their marriage, had them published under the title "Poems from the Portuguese" deliberately misleading readers to believed that these were translated poems from Portugal
33: How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. I love thee to the level of everyday's Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise. I love thee with a passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose With my lost saints, --- I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life! --- and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death. | Browning uses references to death, religion and politics to emphasize her love for Robert Browning.
34: Dover Beach | Arnold is believed to have written this to his wife as he asks at the end to his lover to forever keep their love true and pure. | Ah, love, let us be true To one another! for the world, which seems To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful, so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; And we are here as on a darkling plain Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night. | Although the world is changing and becoming more confusing and new to them, they still shall face it together as the world changes for the better or worse
35: Arnold feels saddened and disillusioned by the world's waning belief in religion and faith, as science and technology takes the forefront of the new age. "The Sea of Faith" in which many believed in has now receded just as many people's beliefs waver. | The Sea of Faith Was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furl'd. But now I only hear Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar, Retreating, to the breath
36: PRETTY BY: STEVIE SMITH | The poet presents the word pretty as an overused and cliqued term which has lost it's value and true meaning. The poet uses it repeatedly to emphasize both the "pretty" and the not so "pretty. Showing us that the lines between the "pretty and the "ugly aren't so thin anymore.
37: He stalks his prey, and this is pretty too, The prey escapes with an underwater flash. But not for long, the great has him now. The pike is a fish who always has his prey (six-ten) | Even the act of hunting and killing another animal has become "pretty". | Stevie Smith demonstrates that there is cruelty and evil in nature just as the hunter stalks it's prey. Nature can be cold and indifferent, but as such people tend to place it on such a common level of "pretty' that it's all "pretty"
38: DULCE ET DECORUM EST | Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime . . . Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. | In all my dreams before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, – My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori. | No honor or glory, he paints a horrible picture of his friend choking and dying. | This translates to; It is sweet and right to die for ones country. | Distant rest is a metaphor for death
39: Irony | This poem in it's last few lines, state that it is sweet and honorable to die for your country, however with how Owen wrote the poem was to show the horrible and undignified way in which his comrade died. In which they toss the body onto the truck without a second thought, farewell or care. | This poem written by Wilfred Owen depicted the scene of a battlefield and how terrible and shocking War is.