S: Lithium Goes to the Doctor
BC: Glossary of Terms Atomic radii- One half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together. Boiling point- The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. Electron configuration- The of electrons around the nucleus of an atom in its ground state. Electronegativity- A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons. Ionic radii- The radius of an ion. Ionization energy- The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. Lewis structure- Notation used to show valence electron count. Melting point- The temperature at which a substance changes from solid to a liquid. Reactivity- An element’s responsiveness to a simulation. State- Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties. Valence electrons- Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom.
FC: Lithium Goes to the Doctor | By Kristen S, Christina B, Sarah G
1: Project Information | Topics Covered: Electronegativity Valence Electrons Electron Configuration Reactivity Structure Periodic Trends Ionization energy Atomic and Ionic Radii Lewis Structure State at Room Temperature Boiling and Melting Points Bonding
2: In the quaint little town of Mendeleeville, Massachussetts there lived a small family. This family, the Alkali’s, lived on 1st Street, next to the Alkali Earth family who lived on 2nd Street. Mendeleeville has eighteen streets, with one family living on each street. There are six members of the Alkali family: the youngest boy, Lithium, the older sister, Sodium, the mother, Potassium, and the father Rubidium. Lastly, there are the grandparents of the Alkali family, Grandma Cesium and Grandpa Francium who live in the house next to the other members. While the family was similar in many ways, each element has different properties and behaviors. For example, Lithium, the youngest member of the family, had a big temper. His boiling point was 1317 degrees Celsius. This meant that if Lithium got too much heat, he would turn into a gas when his temperature hit 1317 degrees Celsius. Lithium’s older sister, Sodium, also had a big temper, but it wasn’t as big as Lithium’s. Her boiling point was 883 degrees Celcius. As the members of the family grew up, and had a higher age, or atomic number, they all got less of a temper. The mother of the family, Potassium, had a boiling point of 774. The dad of the family had a boiling point of 688, the Grandmother’s was 678.4, and the Grandfather’s was 677. This is just one of the many properties that changed from member too member.
3: Lithium also got sad very easily. He had a melting point of 180.5 degrees Celcuis. Sister Sodium had a melting point of 97.72 degrees Celcuis, Mother Potassium had a melting point of 63.65 degrees Celcuis, and Father Rubidium has a melting point of 38.89 degrees Celcuis. Caesium’s melting point was 28.5, and Francium’s was 27. As the elements got older, they have a lower melting point. This means that the family members don’t get sad as easily, and it took less heat for them to turn into a liquid state. All of the family members in the Alkali family were solid at room temperature, unlike some of the other families in Mendeleeville who where either liquid or gas. For example, there is one family that lives on 18th street called the Nobles, this family rarely associates with other families and every member is a gas. Their particles are really all over the place! Unlike the Nobles, the Alkali family is made of all metals. Other families in Mendeleeville where either metals, non-metals or metalloids. In most families, all the members are one kind. Except for the families that live on 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th street. They were all over the place.
4: One day, Lithium got a letter in the mail that said he needed to go to the doctor for a checkup. This made Lithium very nervous. He had never been to a check up before. Here, he will learn a little more about himself and his properties. When Lithium got to the doctor, Dr. Lewis explains to Lithium that he is very special, but also a lot like his family. Lithium already knew that he had higher boiling and melting points than any of his family members, but didn’t know much else. The doctor filled out Lithium’s profile telling him that his skin color was silver. And he had an atomic number of 3, making him 3 years old in Mendeleeville. When Lithium got on the scale, Dr. Lewis told him that was 6.941 amu. This made him the smallest element in his family, as his Grandfather Francium weighed 223 amu. But, this didn’t answer all of Lithium’s questions. “Doctor, if I didn’t step on the scale, how could you calculate my atomic mass?”, Lithium asked. talk about calculating average AMU Learning all of these new things about himself fascinates Lithium and he can’t wait lto tell the rest of his family.
5: Next, Dr. Lewis got a little bit more specific with Lithium. He told Lithium that he had some cool particles inside of him, each with a different charge. He had the same number of protons as his age, and because he was in his stable state, he would have the same number of electrons. Lithium was overjoyed to hear that he was a good ion, with a charge of zero. | “Well, you’re almost done”, said Dr. Lewis. “There are two more things that I need to measure about you, Lithium, and those are your atomic and ionic radii”. Lithium looked at Dr.Lewis with a highly puzzled expression. Dr. Lewis elaborated, “Your atomic radius is the distance between your nuclei and someone similar to you’s nuclei divided by two”. So, Lithium and another boy named Lithson stood next to each other and the doctor measured the radii. “Well, it looks like your atomic radius is 152 pm”, said the Doctor. “That’s perfect, because as the members in your family have higher atomic radii. As you get older your, atomic radii gets bigger”. The last thing that the doctor measured about Lithium was his Ionic radius. This also gets larger from family member to family member as they get older. The ionic radius, Lithium learned, is the radius of an atom’s ion.
6: Meanwhile while Lithium is at the doctor, Sodium is learning about her properties too in health class. Sodium already knew her atomic mass, radii, and the other things Lithium learned. Sodium’s teacher went into detail about Valence Electrons. He told them that depending on the element's location in the Periodic Table, elements would have a different number of Valence Electrons. Because, the Alkali family is in Group 1, they each have one valence electron. Next, her teacher explained that everyone in her family has one valence electron, which is an electron on the outermost energy level. He also told another boy in the class, Nitrogen, that he had 5 valence electrons.
7: Next, Mr. Bohr explained the Lewis Dot Diagram to them. Fortunately, all the Alkali family had to do to draw their Lewis Dot diagram was simply draw one dot above their symbol noting that they have one valence electron. Other students had to draw more dots to show their higher number of valence electrons. | The last thing that Mr. Bohr explained for the day was their electron configurations. But, Mr. Bohr was very lazy and used the abbreviated configurations. “All you need to do, is write the period the block is in, the letter of the block, and the number of elements you pass to get to the element”, said Mr. Bohr. “Don’t forget that the names of the blocks you need to know are D, S, and P. Lithium, your configuration is 1s2,2s1”. Sodium wrote for homework, all the configurations for her family.
8: When the Alkali family is home and gathered around, Lithium and Sodium both share the news about their properties. They get into an argument about who is the better element. Their mother, Potassium, suggested that Lithium and Sodium forget their differences and settle on their common properties. “Just look at you both”, Potassium said. “You are both very reactive. Lithium, you are even more reactive, but that is just because you aren't as low in the group as we are. I would not want to see either of you react with oxygen”.
9: Once you got Mother Potassium talking, there was no stopping her. She went into the family’s electronegativities, which were their individual tendencies to attract electrons. Lithium and Sodium were fascinated. “Lithium, you have the highest electronegativity in our family. As we get older and bigger, our electronegativites decrease. Your father jokes around saying that electronegativity is like dating: the older you get, the less electrons want you”, said Potassium. Then, the family walked outside. They saw that Mrs. Bromine Halogen and Mr. Iodine Halogen were taking a walk with their dog. When Potassium and Rubidium said “Hello”, they immediately struck up a conversation. Mr. Iodine had been having some ionization issues. And he explained to little Lithium and Sodium that as you get older and have a higher atomic number, your ionization energy gets lower and it becomes even harder for you to remove 1 mole of electrons from yourself.
10: Calculating Average AMU
11: Bonding of the Elements | Lithium: 2 lithium can bond with 1 oxygen. This creates a compound. This is 'happy' because it has 8 electrons, 6 from oxy and 1 from each lithium, which is the perfect number. | Sodium: bonds well with Chlorine (NaCl) also known as table salt. has 8 electrons on outer shell, sodium gives up one and chlorine had 7 | Potassium: bonds well with KH Rubidium- ionic bonding: with gold, cesium, sodium, potassium.
12: Atomic Structures | Lithium Protons: 3 Electrons: 3 Neutrons: 4 Potassium Protons: 19 Electrons: 19 Neutrons: 20 Cesium Protons: 55 Electrons: 55 Neutrons: 78 Francium Protons: 87 Electrons: 87 Neutrons: 136 | Sodium Protons: 11 Electrons: 11 Neutrons: 1 Rubidium Protons: 37 Electrons: 37 Neutrons: 48
13: Bibliography | Bibliography "Visual Elements: Group 1 - The Alkali Metals." Royal Society of Chemistry |Advancing the Chemical Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. < HYPERLINK "http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/data/intro_groupi_data.html" http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/data/intro_groupi_data.html>. "Chem4Kids.com: Elements & Periodic Table: Alkali Metals." Rader's CHEM4KIDS.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. < HYPERLINK "http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalimetal.html" http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalimetal.html>. "Chemistry Resources: The Elements: Alkali Metals." Chemistry Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. < HYPERLINK "http://www.chemtopics.com/elements/alkali/alkali.htm" http://www.chemtopics.com/elements/alkali/alkali.htm>. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, and Ph.D.. "Alkali Metals - Properties of Element Groups." Chemistry - Periodic Table, Chemistry Projects, and Chemistry Homework Help. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. < HYPERLINK "http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementgroups/a/alkalimetals.htm" http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementgroups/a/alkalimetals.htm>. Mukherjee, Bidisha. "Alkali Metals - Properties of Alkali Metals." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. < HYPERLINK "http://www.buzzle.com/articles/alkali-metals-properties-of-alkali-metals.html" http://www.buzzle.com/articles/alkali-metals-properties-of-alkali-metals.html>. MLA formatting by BibMe.org.
14: Lithium Atomic Radius: 152 Boiling Point: 1317 degrees C Melting Point: 180.5 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification: metal AMU: 6.941 | Sodium Atomic Radius: 186 Boiling Point: 883 degrees C Melting Point: 97.72 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification: metal AMU: 22.989 | Rubidium Atomic Radius: 248 Boiling Point: 688.0 degrees C Melting Point: 38.89 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification: metal AMU: 85.467 | Potassium Atomic Radius: 220 Boiling Point: 774 degrees C Melting Point: 63.65 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification: metal AMU: 39.098
15: Cesium Atomic Radius: 260 Boiling Point: 678.4 degrees C Melting Point: 28.5 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification- metal AMU: 132.905 | Francium Atomic Radius: none Boiling Point: 677 degrees C Melting Point: 27 degrees C At Room Temp: solid Classification: metal AMU: 223 | The Alkali Family