S: Mammals: Austin Floyd and Aria Ghamati
FC: Mammals | By Austin Floyd & Aria Ghamati
1: Classification of Mammals | Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammals Order Monotremes, Marsupials, Placental | Placental Mammal Young develops inside of mother, have a placenta between baby and mother during pregnancy. | Marsupials Young are born alive, but at early stage of development, usually continue developing in mother's pouch | Monotremes The only mammals that can lay eggs
2: Origins of Mammals Mammals have been on earth for over 270 million years . Long before the dinosaurs first appeared that were sort of a mix between mammals | and reptiles. The mammal-like reptiles became extinct approximately 160 million years ago, but are considered the ancestors of mammals. The earliest true mammals were mouse-like, and lived when dinosaurs were dominant. It wasn't until the dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago that larger mammals appeared.
3: Characteristics of Mammals | - Mammals are endothermic vertebrates - Four chambered heart - Have skin covered with fur or hair -The young of most are born alive - Are fed with milk produced in its mother's body -They have teeth adapted to their diets
4: More Stuff on Animals... | -Mammals first appeared during the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era - There are more than 6,000 species of mammals! - Mammals live in pretty much every biome.
5: Food Web
6: Teeth | Mammals use teeth to chew their food, physical digestion that make chemical digestion easier. Mammals have different kinds of teeth. Incisors | are flat edged teeth that are used to cut and bite off parts of food. Canines are sharp teeth that tear and stab food. Finally, molars and premolars grind and shred food into tiny bits. The shape, size, and hardness of a mammal's teeth reflect its diet. Carnivores tend to have larger canines that herbivores, with their broad and flat molars.
7: Fur and Hair | All mammals have fur or hair at some point in their lives. Thick fur provides a lightweight insulation that prevents body heat from escaping. The amount of hair that covers a mammal's skin varies. Each strand of hair or fur is made of dead cells that come from the living cells that grow hair located underneath the skin. Generally, animals that live in colder regions, such as a wolf, have thicker coats of fur than animals that live in warmer regions such as a hippopotamus.
8: Reproduction and caring for their young | All mammals reproduce sexually. Mammals have internal fertilization. Most of all mammals develop in the mothers' body. Some mammals lay a shelled egg. All mammal young are fed milk made in the mammary glands. Many mammals are born very vulnerable; most are born blind for many week. So most mammals stay with the mother, and some stay with both of the parents for a period of time. The parents usually will teach the basics of survival. Like what to eat and what not to eat.
9: Getting Oxygen | Mammals need oxygen to release energy. Therefore, it needs an efficient way to get oxygen into the body and to the cells that need it. All mammals breathe with lungs. Lungs are basically bags of air that contract and relax as | the animal breathes in and out. The diaphragm muscle allows the lungs to do this. Mammals also have a four chambered heart with a two loop circulatory system. The first loop sends oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs and back, while | the second loop pumps the now oxygen-rich blood around the body, and back to the heart to complete the cycle.
10: Nervous System and Senses | Other animals like bats use their hearing adaptations to travel and hunt. Also animals use their highly developed sense of smell. | The mammals brain lets them remember, behave and learn in complex ways. Senses of animals are very developed for each species. For example Primates see in color which is helpful because primates are awake and more active in daylight rather than night.
11: Movement | The nervous system of a mammal has many functions, and one of them is to coordinate complex movement, and their bilateral symmetry allows them to move quickly and smoothly. Mammals have four limbs, which allow them to move in so many ways; like flying squirrels will glide down from high heights, whales and other marine mammals have front limbs, and no hind limbs, that are flippers for swimming in water.
12: Behaviors of Mammals | Many primates have opposable thumbs- thumbs that can touch the other four fingers- making grasping and throwing possible | Opossums can "play dead" if a predator attacks it- its body becomes limp, its mouth gapes open, and its tongue rolls out of its mouth! | Platypuses (or Platypi) construct a maze of winding tunnels in muddy banks
13: Zebras | Zebras live in grasslands, and feed on, you guessed it, grass. They also eat shrubs, herbs, twigs, leaves, and bark. Zebras are prey to many organisms, including lions. With excellent | eyesight, the mammals are hoofed, with an odd number of toes! Now, to figure out whether they are black with white stripes, or white with black stripes!