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Mexico - Page Text Content

S: Latin American Revolutions Journal

FC: Nuestra Revolución Nuestra guerra. Nuestra indepencia. Nuestras experiencias. | Original journal depicting individual experiences throughout Mexico's War of Independence

1: Contenidos | Male Rebel 2-7 Disenfranchised Person (Male) Female Rebel Revolutionary Leader Government Official

2: Dear diary, T | Dear diary, 1821, June 6th Today I left my house. I had no choice to run away. The rebeling of the town was so nescarry for me..I had no choice but to join in and fight for what I believe in. But doing that meant leaving my family and house. I thew a tomatoe at one of the soldiers that was trying to make us pay more taxes..he started running after me. I escaped him but I know that if he ever sees me he will make sure to hurt me and my family. And so I have no choice but to leave my wonderful town. I will have to find another place in Mexico to go to. The Mexican Revolution is out of conrtol and I am fighting for what I believe in. My husband doesn’t think I’m doing the right thing, but he does not understand how much I am suffering...and in order for me to stay true to myself I had to fight for what I believe in. I’m leaving my house tomorrow night with some other female rebels..we will find our way. I will come children need me and I need them.

4: Dear diary, 1821 June 13 I left my house. It was one of the hardest things I have ever had to do in all my life. It hurt so much to do this to my children and husband...but I am fighting for them. And going to the central of Mexico is where I belong right now, to fight for what I believe in and make a stand. My husbad was very mad at me and didn’t even say good bye. He is embrassed to have a wife like this..I hope one day I will make him proud. I am with two other women and we are travling. We are trying to get to the centar of Mexico and fight in our Revolution. I will not stay quiet anymore and I will fight for my family and my people. As soon as we reach the safest town we will meet with a clan of other women and plan our revolt. Even though I miss my family with such and ache...I cannot help but be prud of myself. I am finally doing something with my life and trying to do the right thing. I cannot wait until morning. I will fight until I die.

6: Dear diary, 1821, July 5 Its been 3 weeks since I last wrote in here. A lot has happened. One of the women that I was travling with has been captured, and probably will be hung since she s fighing against the govenment. My prayers go out to her. I cannot help but be a little nervous that I will be found. I could never forgive myself for leaving my children alone. I wrote them a letter but I have no recieved one back. I miss them. I have a 2 daughters and a son, and I hope they will learn by me. I have also heard news that my husband is planning to leave me. He believes I will die so he needs another wife. I could not believe what I heard. I hurt so much, because I know I have disappointed him, and I am sure that he tells the children bad things about me, and I know that the children are sad. And all they want is me. But I have to fight, I will not go back home until I have done all that I need to do. I have met and planned with other women. We have come up with plans on how to rebel. We plan on taking down our Mexican government, we will fight. I pray for myself, hoping I will be able to survive this as best I can. It will be diffucult but I have heart.

8: Epilouge Mexico has a free market economy in the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has nearly tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2007, during its first year in office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass pension and fiscal reforms. The administration passed an energy reform measure in 2008, and another fiscal reform in 2009. Mexico's GDP plunged 6.5% in 2009 as world demand for exports dropped and asset prices tumbled, but GDP is expected to post positive growth late in 2010. The administration continues to face many economic challenges, including improving the public education system, upgrading infrastructure, modernizing labor laws, and fostering private investment in the energy sector. CALDERON has stated that his top economic priorities remain reducing poverty and creating jobs.

10: The Overview The Mexican War of Independence was a quelled conflict between the people of the Spanish colony New Spain (Mexico) and their colonial authorities. There is no certain date that the start can be attributed to, but many believe that the official start was on 16 September 1810. The Mexican Revolt of 1810 was the first stage in a three-part war of independence from Spain that ended in 1821. The first phase involved a rebellion of those categorized as being of mixed blood or American Indian by the Spanish authorities. This first movement is the beginning of a series of rebellions that became known as the Mexican War of Independence which was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought independence from Spain and its colonial leaders. This rebellion started as peasant rebellions against their colonial leaders and the viceroyalty, but ultimately ended as an alliance between the Mexican wealth and Mexican guerrillas in an attempt to restore order to the hindered nation. This struggle for Mexican independence originates back to the decades of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. Martín Cortés led a revolt against the Spanish colonial government in order to eliminate privileges for the conquistadors and establish Spanish power in the ‘new world’.

11: The War of Independence led by the Mexican-born Spaniards became a reality in response to the overwhelming political reforms instituted by the Bourbons. In these circumstances, the middle class benefited the most in comparison to the majority of the population. New Spain’s economy was at the height of its development and the movement for independence was far from gaining unanimous support among Mexicans. This then lead to divisions between autonomists, royalists, and nationalists. Each group wanted to better Mexico, but by forming different groups, they lowered their chance of success. The second part of the revolution involved a disorganized but very well accepted guerrilla war against the colonial authorities. This lead to a weakening amongst the colony’s central power and served as a great way of rallying the support of the fellow rebels. The revolution ended with the final and ultimately successful phase of the revolt pitted the conservative creoles (full-blooded Spaniards born in America) against a temporarily liberal Spanish government which would force a divide and ultimate fall of the majority of Spanish creoles in Mexico.

13: Septermber 16, 1810 - Hidalgo declares independence from the Spanish crown, and declares a war against the government in his speech to the rebels called, the Grito de Dolores. The revolutionary army of rebels decides to protest for independence and they march to Guanajuato, a major mining center owned by Spaniards and criollos. There, the rebels barricaded themselves in the center, and the army captured the granary and killed most of the Spaniards and Criollos. October 30, 1810 - Miguel Hidalgo's army encountered Spanish resistance at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces, fought them and achieved victory, but the liberal army was defeated by the large Spanish army in Mexico City. Rebel survivors fled and sought refuge in nearby towns and villages. January, 1811 - Spanish forces fought the Battle of the Bridge of Calderón and defeated the insurgent army, which forced the rebels to flee towards the United States/Mexican border, where they tried to escape, but they were met and captured by the Spanish army. Hidalgo and his remaining loyal soldiers were captured.

14: July 30, 1811 - Hidalgo had his court trial of the Inquisition. He was killed and his head was displayed in Guanajuato as a warning to Mexican rebels. December 22, 1815 - Moreles, the leader who had taken over for Hidalgo, was also tried and executed for treason. November 6, 1818 - Congress of Chilpancingo met and signed the first official document of independence, known as the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America". February 24, 1821 - Iturbide, a great army general who led the rebels, promised the people three things, for Mexican independence from Spain, known as the Plan of Iguala; Mexico would be an independent monarchy governed by a distant King Ferdinand, another Bourbon prince, or some other conservative European prince, Criollos and Peninsulares, the highest people of society, would therefore enjoy equal rights and privileges, and the Roman Catholic Church would retain its privileges and religious monopoly.

15: August 24, 1821 - When it became clear that the rebel’s were victorious, the viceroy resigned. Iturbide and representatives of the Spanish crown signed the Treaty of Córdoba, that gave Mexico its independance, accepting the terms of the Plan of Iguala. September 28, 1821 - Iturbide officially announced the independence of the Mexican Empire, as New Spain was to be called. The Treaty of Córdoba was not officially approved by the Spanish. Iturbide included a special clause in the treaty that made it possible for a criolle monarch to be appointed by a Mexican congress if there was no suitable member of the European royalty. May 18, 1822 - A huge demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, marched through the streets and demanded that their commander-in-chief accept the throne, becuase they were all so grateful and faithful in Iturbide, and the things he’d accomplished for them. May 19, 1822 - The very next day, Iturbide officially became Mexico’s new ruler.

16: Dear Diary, I’m not quite sure how to describe how I am feeling right now. Afraid? Angry? Relieved? Stressed? I can't describe it I guess I would have to go with exhilarated that we are starting the Revolt for our Independence, something that has needed to happen for a long time now. It’s September 29, 1810. But soon to be the day in which Mexico began to fight for independence from the grasp of Spain. Not just me, the Mestizos, Amerindians, ex royalists and the Mexican guerrilla insurgents. Sometimes I look back and have to thank those who have the hardest jobs of all, peasants. If it weren't for their courage to rebel against their master, no one would have stepped up to this war with such energy. We gained support from independents to royalists all willing to fight for the life we deserve, a country of our own. A man I truly look up at is Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo, a normal priest who truly lives on the fine line of Life and death. Gambling, Fornicating and promoting the fact of growing vines and olives illegally brought up his notoriety. The streets are crowded with people promoting the war, almost to pump rile us up and get us pumped for a battle to come. Don't get me wrong, I think that this is a good idea to do this, but sometimes we need to think about the woman and children. What if this battle does not work? What if Spain pushes us back and if so what restrictions will overcome us? Much could go wrong with this plan, but sometimes we need to rely on hope. Luckily, Just a day ago, Hidalgo was able to seize control of the Militia in which he announced the independence from the Spanish crown. We then Marched with an army to revolt against their government and took over the granary, setting up barricades and massacring everyone in our path. It may be violent, but at this point in time, it is necessary. Rico Ramirez (Male Rebel)- Nick Campbell

17: In Mexico, here is the battle of Monte De Las Cruces (in red) on October 30th. Many rebels had died this day which leads to a temporary retreat. This was the first main battle of many to come.

18: Dear Diary, It is now mid December 1820 and things are not getting any easier, We have had a good run to this point, but now we begin to get unstable. It seems like wave after wave of stiff Spanish resistance. We’ve lost many men on the way, but at this point we’ve came so far there is no use in turning back. What really seemed to kill us was the battle of Monte de lad Cruces in Mexico City. Just when we think we have won the battle the heavily armed Spanish infantry comes into play which brings our men down a significant amount. We dispersed and took out some neighboring villages, and set up a defensive spot on the Calderon Bridge where we were forced to retreat back to the U.S border. What about Hidalgo? Oh yes, Hidalgo! He or at least his head is up for display as a warning in Guanajuato. Yet, that does not stop us, in his footsteps; his son (Jose Maria Morelos) takes over to lead us into a monstrous battle Siege of Cuautla which moved to 1815 until Morelos is captured by Spanish colonial authorities. With two of the main leaders down and out of the fight, most of the warfare is done by the isolated guerilla bands seeking independence, True men who will live free of die trying even when facing all odds. At this point in time with the men on a shortage, the remaining bits of Hidalgo’s army waited out a bit of time until a less bloody path was opened up for them. At this point, we couldn’t take the risk of throwing our men away. Until something opens up for us, it looks like things are going to die down for a bit. Rico Ramirez (Male Rebel)- Nick Campbell

19: This is where the men who rebelled retreated to. The Calderon Bridge. This was done after losing to many men including Hidalgo himself. It gave the man a chance to regroup for battle once more.

20: Dear Diary, It is now January of 1821, and things are doing well. When Viceroy Juan Luis sent that army into defeat Guerreros army in Oaxaca things have either been improving or staying on a steady increase. When the word that the liberal character made it to Mexico, Iturbide saw in it both a threat to the status quo and an opportunity for the criollos to gain control of Mexico. But finally, after all this time of bowing to the big man, we haveIndependence! It was a long and hard Journey for all of us, sometimes I felt like I couldn’t do It anymore. The pain, sometimes I couldn’t take it. But now that I am able to see what came out of this 10 year adventure, you may ask ‘Was It really worth it?’ Yes, until you have experienced not being able to live life the way you want, and always having someone telling you what to do you will never know why we did it. But, it wasn’t just us; thankfully we were able to achieve this from the conservative forces from the colonies. They took on the odds and stood up against a liberal regime in the mother country. When we were camped out in the town Iguala we received 3 guarantees for the independence from Spain- Our own government Monarchy with a transplanted King Ferdinand, we all had equal rights and privileges and the Roman Catholic church regains what it had lost a long time ago, its privileges and religious monopoly. Iturbide was able to use guerreros troops to join forces in the forces in support of the new conservative manifestation of the independence. It was brought in and supported by all factions, from patriots to loyalists this is what we were finally looking for- Independence, Freedom and privileges. The emotion is built up in me I can even write anymore, it looks like we finally did it. Mexico gained independence from Spain. Rico Ramirez (Male Rebel)- Nick Campbell

21: Here in the lower Part of Mexico was the time when Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent a force by a royalist officer to take out Guerreros army in Oaxana Mexico . Later coincided in Spain against the monarchy Ferdinand VII. Later after convincing Guerrero to join independence was achieved.

22: Dear Journal, Seeing that this is my first entry I figure that I should start with some background information about my family and me. My name is Hernán López Covas and I am currently a disenfranchised young adult living in the New Spain colony in the ever-so-popular Mexico City. I was born on 9 November, 1794 here in New Spain, just like my parents. Today is Friday, 14 October 1810, I am almost seventeen. You see, my grandparents immigrated here in the early 1700s because they felt that they would be helping their country by creating more revenue in New Spain. Although it may not seem like anything special, I am named after Ferdinand VII, which my family bent around into Hernando before they ultimately decided on Hernán. I think my name was given to me for political reasons but I am not positiveI mean, I know my family totally supports the Spanish Government because of the new political reforms that the Bourbons have instituted while Ferdinand was out of office. These reforms produced new degrees of economic recovery across the colony and they have allowed for a newfound prosperity across New Spain . My father reminds me that the reforms were only possible because of José de Galvez, the visitor general that has been here for quite some time (he’s been here since 1765, I believe), he was supported by Marques de Croix, the viceroy of Mexico who works directly with the motherland. But, unfortunately that’s all that I know associated directly with my name.

23: Now...About my family. I come from a fairly wealthy Spanish family, and as a matter of fact, my grandparents were amongst the first immigrants from Spain to make the transition over here. My family is predominantly made up of lawyers and accountants so we are technically considered part of the middle class. My mother stays home while my younger brother attends a local catholic school (everybody is catholic in my neighborhood), while my father and I head to his office in the center of the busy Mexico City. | Although being disenfranchised really takes a toll on my past allegiance with the Spanish Government, I believe that the government has always acted in the interest of the colony as a whole. For example, because of the reforms, the lower class is constantly complaining because they fail to benefit anybody besides my class. My family knows and deals with this on a regular basis because we often have to represent them in court because of constant attempts to break away from government. I view these reforms as a great step in the right direction, New Spain’s traffic and commerce industries have prospered as a result of them. The current economic statuses of the motherland and the colony have never been higher, which allows middle class families like mine to prosper.

24: I figure that I should back-up though and tell you how I became disenfranchised. My family is currently ‘classified’ as being disenfranchised because the government has reasons to believe that my father’s job is going to influence his alliance with the viceroyalty. See, the thing is that my father represents so many underprivileged, lower class people in the area. They are often going hungry and cannot find ways to catch a break in the tough society of the time. Many are day laborers that work on the tobacco plantations for small sums of money because currently, tobacco is the main export from New Spain. These people come to my father for help because they are always being prosecuted by the state because they often rally up against government officials, so he is forced to represent them in court | Mi Padre

25: ...This is how I have become disenfranchised.

26: Dear Journal, Today was 16 September, 1810, it was a very brisk fall day and was by far one of the craziest days that I have yet to experience in my life. A few kilometers south of here in Morelos, some crazy parish leader by the name of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla went on some crazy rant in the middle of the small town in order to stir the Mexican colonists. My father describes it as the initial call for independence among the lower class of Mexico. He does not seem too worried because he knows that they don’t stand a chance against the government officials, or so he reassures me. But, internally I have some inner fear that there is a possibility that we could be overpowered. Just thinking about it, I have noticed that in these few months my father has been extremely busy with a lot more cases. Same basic thing, but more peopleDoes this mean that more and more people are trying to protest something? Are they trying to make a statement against the government? I am starting to worry that because my family has not vowed to a side, that we will be soon divided. I only say this because if I really think about it, we are considered the greatest threat to the political leaders because he are the only group of people that have the money and support of the lower class (because of our growing reputation), so we could quite possibly scare the officials.

27: One thing is beginning to become quite clear to my father and I now. Pretty soon, we are going to have to take a stand in this war. This ‘movement’ is appearing to be on the verge of success; I have just learned that the disorganized troops suffered defeat at the hands of smaller but more disciplined armies of creoles and Spaniards. This is beginning to scare meComing from a very conservative family, I do not want anything to change, I just want to continue in going about my ways. I love going to the law firm with my dad, and then coming home to my mother and brother after my long day at work. If this revolution unfolds at the same rate that it has started to, I know that I need to prepare for some major changes. What Father Hidalgo states denies all that I live my life by, I take is as a personal offense that he detests our King Ferdinand VII, whom I was named after. Anybody that is an enemy of the king is an enemy of my family, and therefore my enemy. But should he gain enough power to overthrow my family, I know that either we will have to conform or flee.

28: What I fear the most though is that I will no longer be able to attend my job with my father because of his desire to protect me from the danger that could be waiting. Hasta luego.

32: Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the gachupines!” (El Grito De Dolores, Hidalgo, 1810), and afterwards, I could barely hear myself think! The power, and passion behind all the cheering sounded so promising. | September 16th, 1810 Dear Diary, Today, a great man named Hidalgo made quite an inspirational speech that I’m sure will go down in the rest of history, that is the official beginning of a revolution. All my friends and fellow rebels were there right in the heart of Dolores, Mexico. Hidalgo represented, for the most part, Mestizos and European blood, basically anyone not of Spanish descent. I was truly inspired by his words, “My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves?... Will you recover the lands stolen by three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act at once Will you defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? | Hidalgo, Making his Grito De Dolores Speech to the people | ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.

33: For a moment, I forgot about the heavy taxes coming from Spain, that prevent me from feeding my poor children. I forgot about the practically non-existent crops that are supposed to be feeding my family, but haven’t existed since Spain took part in the Napoleonic Wars. Those wars hurt us more than it hurt Spain, because Spain thinks they can just tax us heavier whenever they’re running low. But I will not have it. No one will. There are too many headstrong mestizos for there not to have something happen. This new revolutionary army I like to call myself a part of decided to strike for independence. My husband (women aren’t allowed to go) will march on September 28th to Guanajuato, a major colonial mining centre governed by Spaniards and Criolles, and from there, we will barricade ourselves in the granary and will exile any Spaniards or Criollos. Some fellow rebels believe they should kill any and every Spaniard of Crioll they see, but I believe they should be allowed to live, as long as we force them to join our side of the revolution for Independence. For now, we just must stay dedicated and loyal to the planning of this revolution. I am trying to stay positive, for the sake of my children and I will hope for the best, but I know the best won’t come unless we all put every last effort we have into this revolt. I will keep you updated on what is to happen on September 28th, and in the meantime, I am praying for my husband’s safety.

34: November 15, 1810 Dear Diary, Thank goodness my husband made it through the rough and violent rebellion at the Guanajuato. He is home safe, but had some stories to tell. He told me that many nobles, creoles, and peninsulares were killed. Since, then, my husband has left and returned from many other events have also taken place. Hidalgo’s army encountered Spanish resistance at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces. The battle was between Hidalgo’s liberal army and the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. You will never believe it, but we won the battle! We really did! With the strength and will power of all the men, we did it. Of course, we can’t forget the help of the women (like me) who helped care for the wounded rebels and kept the | men’s spirits strong. By far, this is the biggest accomplishment of the liberals in this whole revolution. Hopefully this battle will reflect what the rest of the revolution will turn out like, but there’s no telling where it will go from here. | The Battle of Monte de las Cruces

35: I have taken the job as a full time nurse for the troops. The horrific and gruesome sights I see are a constant reminder of the passion these fellow mestizos possess. It is a shame that my children have to come along with me, but what can I do? I have no other choice but to bring them on this scarring journey with me and the army. It’s good for them to see hands on what is going on in the world around them, but I fear that this is too much for them. They are only 9 and 12 for God’s sake! I have been able to now travel along with the army, helping them along the way. Our next stop is Mexico City. I fear that the past battle crippled the royalist army but did not completely destroy it. I know that it still exists, and they had always been stronger than us in the first place, but I also know that our army is much stronger in will power as well as internal strength. Spain has seen the physical strength of Hidalgo’s army, but they haven’t seen the internal strength that I have seen, which is sometimes just as important. As I do my best to heal the injured men, there is something about them that is so inspirational, and I can truly say that it helps me help them. | Coerver, Don M. "Mexico, 1821–1854: Mexican-American War." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

36: Dear Diary, January 22, 1811 Tragedy has struck this once-strong army. As we returned back to Mexico City, we faced the Spanish army once again, except this time, their physical strength and number of arms seemed to overpower the internal strength of us rebels. You should have seen the size of the army (the survivors tell me it was unreal). The Spanish Army stretched as far as you could see, and our rebel army looked pathetic compared to them. It turns out that our first victory just made Spain even stronger than they were originally. At the moment, my children and I are seeking refuge in a nearby village. The only men that remain of the army have begun to return from their most recent battle, one that they were defeated in. Just a short while back, they were planning a defensive strategy at a bridge on the Calderón River, againts the Spanish army. Those poor men planned and planned, but all the planning in the world wasn’t enough to defeat the Spanish armies . I knew the Spanish were expected to win, judging by the last battle, but I thought that maybe, just maybe this time the rebels would win. The souls and passion

37: behind the liberal army just aren’t as strong as they used to be. Our army is truly losing its drive. A stealthy messenger (one of the lucky few left) tells me that Hidalgo and his remaining soldiers were captured in Acatita de Baján, Coahuila. He also tells me that Hidalgo is scheduled to be executed on July 30, 1811. Who knows what they will do to my beloved husband, and his fellow soldiers. | This was the battle plan that the Liberal Army came up with, but didn't succeed in the battle | "The Border | 1821 Mexican Independence from Spain." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. . Ruggiero, Adriane. Mexico. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2004. Print.

38: BIBLIOGRAPHY Female Rebel Bibliography: First Photo: second photo: third photo:

40: October 30, 1810 Dear Diary, Where to begin, I started as a mestizo, and worked my way up the social ladder into priesthood. Under the holy cloth everything began, arguments between holy people of weather Spain’s rule over us, people months away, is just or unjust. Some of my fellow priests felt fine in where they were and how things were going. Though from my upbringing I was taught never to let people ever push me around, and that’s the attitude I believe I bring to the table. On September 15, word had gone out on our what they called a conspiracy, this was the same day we were called to arms. Hildago was launching an armed revolt and our goal was to march to the capitial and stopped whoever or whatever stood in our way of getting there. They marched forward and on the 28th the first big battle of the campaign happened in the city Guanajuato. Some of these things I heard about the great/bloodthirsty Hildago were some of the most inspiring things I’ve ever heard. Most people counter arguments to the campaign were that it was truly unholy for these men of the cloth to be running this bloody war for independence, though I view it as they being selfless fighting for what they believe in and most of all putting their lives on the line for the freedoms of people in the country. Though the main reason I am writing today is that as of today the whole revolutionary army was excommunicated from the church. That is why I am writing this as they have just claimed my hometown of Valladilod peaceful and the other day Hildago approached me inside of my parish asking if i will join him in his fight for freedom. This is where I am at a stand still, they are fighting for what I believe in, but at what cost is this war which is not proven to work going to cost me, i will be excommunicated and I have to deal with the sins and blood on my hands which I will commit if I join him. Till next time journal...

41: This picture is of Hildago and represents how he seemed blood thirsty so the pictures shows him partaking in what looks like black magic

42: August 3, 1811 Dear Diary, It’s been awhile since the last time i wrote an entry a lot has happened, but I’ll pick up where I left off. In my last entry I was contemplating weather to join the revoultionary army or to decide against accepting the offer. After deleberating the positives and negatives of joining, i joined. I felt like I owed it to my fellow man to truly make a difference in our currently failing society. After I joined they didn’t expect anything much from me. Though over time they became interested in my charismatic skills and was promoted to the ranking of a colonel. In December, I was assigned my first mission under my new ranking was to head south and build up forces to capture the city of Acapulco, in order to disrupt the commerce and trade between the islands of the Philippine. I was successful in less than a full month, completing my mission, making Spain lose even more trade in their already disrupt economy. When I returned victorious the leaders had realized my assets as a talented strategist. So I have been sent out on my first campaign to lead my own armies. Spanish reinforcements soon arrived in late January in Acapulco making me have to left our siege over the city. In the strategy of quick marches I was able to get much land on the pacific coast into the possession of the revolutionary army. By late May I had occupied Chilpancingo and Tixtla. I impressed everyone in the army and was ready to set out on my second campaign until the news I heard a day ago, Hildago had been captured and executed on July 30, and the new leader of the revolutionary army is most likely going to be me, I am ready for this challenge and Hildago’s work will not go in vain.

43: This is the campaign trail which was Morelos lead

44: December 20, 1815 Dear Diary, Long time no see diary... After taking full power as the leader of the revolutionary army I went on my second campaign being mostly sucessful, and after that tripumh launching a third campaign. One of my first plans when I became leader was to draft a document declaring Mexico’s independence from Spain, this was accomplished two years ago, in a document called “Sentimienitos de la Nacion,” by a congress I created from represenitatives elected from provinces the revolutionaries controlled. On September 13, 1813 this document was sent out to Spain and proclaimed our freedom to the kingdom, in retrospect this was the moment of my life. Of recent, Spainish authorites have captured me and my trials verdict I hear tomorrow, my fate of either life or death. All that I have is my prisoners cloak and journal. I have a feeling the verdict will not go in my favor so I will spend my last few hours in prayer. I hope to make a short confession to the Father, my death will go like this my prisoner's cloak removed, with my eyes being covered with a white handkerchie; with my arms bound behind my body with gun slings, and.... i don’t want to write this as my last entry... I want this to end on a more positive note. My last words I have already thought out being "Lord, thou knowest if I have done well; if ill, I implore thy infinite mercy." It has been glorious truly glorious. It is true I have done well, in the name of the Lord, for every man is created equal.

46: Epilouge | Mexican Change in Rulers

47: U.S. comparision

48: Dear Diary, The date is October 29, 1810 and I sit here on the eve of the battle of Monte de las Cruces pondering whether or not it is worth bloodshed for our freedom, and the answer I keep coming to is yes. If we don’t do something now, it may become too late for us to do anything. Though I am thankful for that faithful autumn day a little over a month ago when Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was brave enough to say how he felt. He was tired of the Spaniards and tired of the oppression that they are bestowing on the people of this country. Though this is only the beginning I am already looking forward to the rewards of gaining independence. It’s especially unfair in the government where there is a lot of bias. All of the high-ranking posts are given only to the Spaniards, while the Creoles and the Mestizos are not even considered fit for the posts at the top level. That can’t be fair! Just because someone is born somewhere makes them more or less fit for a position? That doesn’t make sense at all. Matters like this should be settled on ability. And the people here are quite able, able enough that we will one day snatch our independence from the grips of Spain! All we want is equality, yet that is too hard for Spain to supply. So they ask for war and for the death of

49: thousands. I’m sorry to say that tomorrow surely thousands will die but not for nothing. A victory tomorrow would be the perfect way to help kick start the revolution. So I find myself here on the footstep of history waiting to happen. As I write the insurgent troops led by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende are deep in the Toluca valley, ultimately on their way to Mexico City. But first they will have to take care of the royalist forces led by General Torcuato Trujillo. Strategically, it looks like the royalists have the upper hand but only tomorrow will tell. -Salazar Ramos (Government Official) | This is a picture of Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla.

50: Dear Diary, Alas, this has been a grand breakthrough for the Mexican insurgents. The date is October 30, 1810 and we are currently fighting at the battle of Monte de las Cruces and there is a positive outlook for the rest of the battle. We have put out two offensive moves on the royalists but were rebuffed. I’m hoping now that the insurgents have surrounded the royalists, we will be able to execute a final blow to their forces, which would seal a victory. Though I am looking forward to the outcome, it has been a very sad day here. Due to the inexperience of the fighters on our side, there have been many casualties. Seeing my fellow people die in such a way makes me sick those royalist bastards. Though they do not die without reason, for they risk their lives and gave up their lives in order for us to win the war. Even though they won’t be there to see what I hope ends up being a Mexican victory to the war, they are as much a part of it as any. I trust within Ignacio that he will be able to direct our men through the rest of the way. We have sent emissaries to ask the royalists to surrender in order to avoid anymore killing. But if they don’t comply, what must be done must be done. I hate to make it

51: seem like its not a big deal but it going to have to be this way if I’m going to keep my sanity throughout this war. Speaking of sanity how about those royalists. They lose money fighting in Europe and they expect us to pay through taxes. We’d rather be paying for things for us, rather than paying for things that we did not partake in or that even affect us. It’s even more unfair to the natives to this country. The Spaniards just came to where they called home and exploited all of their resources including them. They were forced to become slaves and had to carry out laborious work. Though that is why we fight. And that is why by the time this day is over, we will show them we aren’t to be messed with! -Salazar Ramos (Government Official) | Picture of "La Batalla del Monte de las Cruces" as it was known to the Mexicans.

52: Dear Diary, The date is October 31, 1810. I write on a sad but joyous note. Though we were victorious in battle, we did have to pay a price. 2,000 Mexican insurgents died yesterday, but they died for a reason. They died for something they believed in, a cause, that is one of the noblest ways to die. It was the third offensive attack by the insurgents that was the final. The insurgents were motivated to finish the royalists off once word came through that the emissaries we sent were killed. Those filthy unruly bastards acts like this is a massacre not a war, but we showed them. The third time we came in and smashed the royalist defensive, clearing the way to Mexico City. Even though we lacked modern weapons and training we were still able to come out victorious. I give great credit to Ignacio Allende for using his military capabilities to help defeat the royalists. Though I am happy we won and are now moving on there’s still a great deal ahead of us. We still need to get out of this struggle to achieve freedom from the oppressive Spanish colonizers. The Spaniards came to Mexico for gold but ended up taking its freedom too. But now it us out time to take back what is rightfully ours; I refuse to die without this conflict resolute and I won’t until it is. - Salazar Ramos (Government Official)

53: This is a painting of Ignacio Allende, the General who led the Mexican insurgents in The Battle of Monte de las Cruces.

54: This graph displays the amount of rulers that led each respected country from 1821 when Mexico gained independence to present day.

56: Dear Diary, Today is September 16, 1810. A war has broken out between the Mestizos, Mexican born-Spaniards, Indians, and slaves against our mother country Spain. The aim of this seemingly pointless revolt is to try and gain independence from Spain. This war is clearly a suicide mission by the people involved. Spain is too powerful to beat, also this army is in somewhat disarray with a small number of available weapons. In all honesty I strongly feel that this will be a short revolution resulting in all rebel forces being brutally killed in a bloodbath. The rebels are being lead by Miguel Hidalgo a priest from a small town. He will be captured, tried in a court of law, executed, and his revolutionaries will fail with the absence of a proper leader.

58: Dear Diary, March 21, 1811. Miguel Hidalgo, leader of the rebel forces was captured today when he lead his army in a retreat toward the U.S. Mexico border. He and his men looked terrible, many were wounded. They faced a lack of food and proper medical attention in their time fighting off Spain's powerful army while trying to capture Mexico's capital. I fell that Miguel Hidalgo will be awarded with little pity when tried in a court of law. Hopefully MIguel will be executed in a more painful means, such as being hanged, or burned to death instead of the easy death by firing squad. The rebel forces will hopefully soon be captured, the way the go around killing everyone is a bad image for our country. Other nations don't want to trade with us leaving people without jobs and greatly hurting the economy. Many political leaders are too scared to leave their estates and gone into hiding in fear of assassination. I fear for my own life and hope this situation will end soon and without many casualties.

59: Dear Diary, December 1822. The rebel forces have actually succeeded and taken down the mighty forces of Spain that have plagued our country of Mexico for years. A Viceroy named Juan Ruiz De Apodaca sent Colonel Agustín De Iturbide a royalist Criollo officer to defeat Guerrero's army in Oaxaca. Ilturbide was successful in his fighting and has kicked the Spanish monarchy under Ferdinand VII out and has forced him to reinstate the Spanish Constitution of 1812. This is a huge victory for Mexico, one that we desperately needed. I feel that this will make overall life in Mexico better, but i think there will still be some disagreements and there may be struggles for power in the following months directly after this victory.

60: October 30, 1810 Dear Diary, Sitting, brainstorming strategies to take Mexico City with the one and only Hidalgo was a treat but I new it was strictly business. The battle of Monte de las Cruces was what I believed the first battle of the War of Mexican independence from Spain. Still a bad taste in my mouth is left from not being Captain of this army sitting behind Hidalgo because of his single handed effort in Delores. Even though I know my role in this war is just as great as his he needed me being the brains because I was the only one with experience in battle back when i fought for Spain. We discuss every aspect of the out come and battle and come to a conclusion that we are going to flank the Spanish. After our long talk I go to bed worrying all night if tomorrow would be my last day. The Next morning at 8 o’clock the battle is about to begin we had just entered the Toluca valley where the Spanish were set up. The Spanish army led by Trujillo had separated from Mexico city our forces 80,000 disorganized and undisciplined men ready to fight for freedom. Our first flank of 30,000 started the battle going up the west street but the battle lasted longer then I had expected it wasn’t till the third wave when we offered a treaty. Those scum bag Spanish killed our messenger who was one of my good friends and that is what really set me off, I quickly ordered my men to collapse on what was left of the Spanish army till each and every one of them was dead. The battle was over we lost about 2,000 men and many more were injured but we gained the road to Mexico city. After everyone had heard about our success on the battle Hidalgo was looked at as even more of a hero and I still lay in the shadows. As I lay down that night I think of what a day to remember it was and it created a big leap forward for the independence from Spain.

61: January 17, 1811 Dear Diary, Trying to take Mexico city was harder then I thought after our failed attempt on October 1810 my soldiers and I retreated toward Guanajuato but the only place we could take defense was at the bridge of Calderon. Waiting on the cold banks of the Calderon River I rest for the big fight that’s upon me. Knowing that the Spanish army is very skilled and small all pressures on me to make the right choice being the Lieutenant general for the Mexican rebellions. As I look at all of my soldiers, my friends, my neighbors, my brothers I see fear in all there eyes. My army 80,000 soldiers strong all willing to give there lives for each others freedom. As we all fight for our freedom across the bridge are a bit over 6,000 royalist soldiers fighting under the king. There army led by Felix Maria Calleja who was my old general back when I used to fight for the Viceregal army of new Spain. The Spanish were better trained and better prepared with artillery then our militia rebellions. As the battle begins we quickly start to fall to their artillery and our lack of experience in our soldiers. Right as I thought we started to dominate the battle with our high ratio of soldiers the Royalist artillery hit one of our ammunition wagons causing it to explode. The great explosion dispersed much of our force giving victory to the small but disciplined Spanish army. As I grab a hold on what had just happened I realize my soldiers started fleeing north so I run with them. As I turn around running away I see the Royalist army following close behind. As everyone slows down to a stop I regroup my troops and start to strategies what to do next. After the unexpected defeat to such a small force I start to blame myself so I settle down, lay off to the side of the road and rest. Relaxing my mind. The next morning I wake up to the sound of my soldiers continuing north toward Zacatecas. On the way I hear word that I am being promoted to captain general, the old captain Miguel Hidalgo had been taken from control after the lose of Calderon Bridge.

62: March 21, 1811 Dear Diary, Leading the army of independence from Spain had been easy for the most part but for some reason I can feel tension heating up in Mexico. I have just received an invitation from the New Leonese general Ignacio Elizondo to meet him at Wells of Bajan to buy guns and ammunistion in the United States. As I feel as if this offer is to good to be true I jump all over it bringing my sons Aldama, Jimenez, and Indalecio. As we make our way up to the border I begin thinking what if this is a bad idea and we walk right into a trap I say to myself “no way” with all of my trust in Elizondo. As we approach the Wells of Bajan something is not right as we try to turn around we are ambushed and surrounded by Spanish soldiers. I blame myself if I had just trusted my gut none of this would be happening right now but I was to worried about honoring my position as Captain general supplying my army with weapons. After being taken prisoner our second wave of men have come in behind their leader Abasolo. I felt terrible as I watched them be wrestled to the ground and taken prisoner also as I could do nothing to help them. But then last the man they had wanted most has arrived, the man that I took Captain general from Hidalgo. This made me feel worse watching all the soldiers jumping to their feet ripping him off his horse and smashing him to the ground. My facial expression sour as he glances over at me with a disappointed look on his face. I take responsibility for this happening I walked aimlessly right into a trap putting my sons and friends in jeopardy as well. This is where I lay now in a cold cell in Chihuahua with nothing but the ground and concrete walls, reflecting upon my life in this torn old journal that’s been with me since the beginning.

63: Epilogue After rotting in jail for 5 months my sons and I were shot on June 26, 1811 and Hidalgo was shot 4 days later on June 30. My good friend Abasolo was sentenced life in prison back in Cadiz, Spain where he stayed till he died in 1816. I started off just a soldier for the king then switching to the independence side became lieutenant general then Captain but becoming so high up only wrote my death certificate. After all that had happened in my life I realized that it was great going up but the seconded I hit the top there was only going down. -Prins

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